Publication statistics

Pub. period:1991-2003
Pub. count:8
Number of co-authors:11


Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Lynda Hardman:
Peter H. Kahn:
Antonella De Angeli:



Productive colleagues

F. Garzotto's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Maria Francesca Co..:67
Lynda Hardman:36
Paolo Paolini:34

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F. Garzotto


Publications by F. Garzotto (bibliography)

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Angeli, Antonella De, Matera, M., Costabile, Maria Francesca, Garzotto, F. and Paolini, P. (2003): On the Advantages of a Systematic Inspection for Evaluating Hypermedia Usability. In International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 15 (3) pp. 315-335.

It is indubitable that usability inspection of complex hypermedia is still an "art," in the sense that a great deal is left to the skills, experience, and ability of the inspectors. Training inspectors is difficult and often quite expensive. The Systematic Usability Evaluation (SUE) inspection technique has been proposed to help usability inspectors share and transfer their evaluation know-how, to simplify the hypermedia inspection process for newcomers, and to achieve more effective and efficient evaluation results. SUE inspection is based on the use of evaluation patterns, called abstract tasks, which precisely describe the activities to be performed by evaluators during inspection. This article highlights the advantages of this inspection technique by presenting its empirical validation through a controlled experiment. Two groups of novice inspectors were asked to evaluate a commercial hypermedia CD-ROM by applying the SUE inspection or traditional heuristic evaluation. The comparison was based on three major dimensions: effectiveness, efficiency, and satisfaction. Results indicate a clear advantage of the SUE inspection over the traditional inspection on all dimensions, demonstrating that abstract tasks are efficient tools to drive the evaluator's performance.

© All rights reserved Angeli et al. and/or Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

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Garzotto, F., Matera, M. and Paolini, P. (1999): Abstract Tasks: A Tool for the Inspection of Web Sites and Off-Line Hypermedia. In: Hypertext 99 - Proceedings of the Tenth ACM Conference on Hypertext and Hypermedia February 21-25, 1999, Darmstadt, Germany. pp. 157-163.

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Garzotto, F., Mainetti, Luca and Paolini, Paolo (1997): Designing Modal Hypermedia Applications. In: Bernstein, Mark, Carr, Leslie and Osterbye, Kasper (eds.) Hypertext 97 - Proceedings of the Eighth ACM Conference on Hypertext April 06-11, 1997, Southampton, UK. pp. 38-47.

Different users of a hypermedia application may require different combinations of modes, i.e., different ways of perceiving the content or different ways of interaction. Multimodality -- intended as the coexistence of multiple combinations of modes in the same application -- can improve application richness and can accommodate the needs of different categories of users. On the other hand, multimodality increases complexity and may affect usability, since a variety of different interaction styles may be disorienting for the users. Designing an effective multimode hypermedia is a difficult problem. This paper discusses this issue, presenting a taxonomy of different kinds of modes in hypermedia applications and introducing the concept of modal hypermedia interaction. Modal interaction means that the semantics of normal application commands are dependent not only on the application state, as usual, but also on mode setting. We introduce a formal model for modal hypermedia interaction that helps us to analyse more precisely design alternatives and their impact on usability. We illustrate our approach by examples from a museum hypermedia called "Polyptych" that we actually built.

© All rights reserved Garzotto et al. and/or ACM Press

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Garzotto, F. and Matera, M. (1997): A systematic method for hypermedia usability evaluation. In New Review of Hypermedia and Multimedia, 3 pp. 39-65.

This paper will discuss a usability inspection method for hypermedia applications, that explicitly takes into account the particular features of this class of systems. The proposed technique is a specialisation for hypermedia of a general methodology for usability evaluation of interactive systems, named SUE - Systematic Usability Evaluation. Our approach aims to support a systematic evaluation process, making it well organised, fast and cheap, and is based on the use of a hypermedia model, a set of hypermedia-specific usability attributes, and a set of patterns of inspection activities, called abstract tasks. The model identifies the 'dimensions' along which hypermedia usability can be analysed, defines the application constituents that must be inspected, and allows a precise formulation of usability attributes and abstract tasks. Abstract tasks provide operational guidelines for systematically checking usability attributes throughout the application. To exemplify our approach, we will report some inspection results concerning nine commercially available hypermedia CD-ROMs.

© All rights reserved Garzotto and Matera and/or Taylor and Francis

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Garzotto, F., Mainetti, Luca and Paolini, Paolo (1996): Information Reuse in Hypermedia Applications. In: Hypertext 96 - Proceedings of the Seventh ACM Conference on Hypertext March 16-20, 1996, Washington, DC. pp. 93-104.

Reuse -- broadly defined as the use of existing information objects or software artifacts in different contexts and for different purposes -- is a technology for improving productivity, reducing the production effort and cost, and increasing the quality of end applications (promoting consistency and therefore improving usability). Reuse is a crucial issue in hypermedia applications. Reuse may be applied to items of different sizes and different complexity (from an elementary value to a large structured portion of the application). It may involve several aspects of the hypermedia application (content, organisation, presentation and connections). It can be implemented with different techniques, by creating a new copy of an item, or by sharing the same item in two (or more) different contexts. In this paper we analyse hypermedia reuse under these different viewpoints, discuss a classification of different types of reuse, and present a few examples from commercial and prototype hypermedia titles. From the analysis of these case studies we derive technical hints, recommendations and pitfalls-to-avoid, that would help hypermedia authors handle reuse in the most effective way possible. We also suggest reuse techniques that can be incorporated in future authoring systems.

© All rights reserved Garzotto et al. and/or ACM Press

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Garzotto, F., Mainetti, Luca and Paolini, Paolo (1994): Adding Multimedia Collections to the Dexter Model. In: Proceedings of ECHT 94 the ACM European Conference on Hypermedia Technology Sept 18-23, 1994, Edinburgh, UK. pp. 70-80.

The Dexter Model defines the notion of atomic components and composite components, but it does not prescribe, nor it suggests, any particular structure for composite components. This paper proposes a specific type of composite component, called "collection". A collection is a container holding several members. Collections can contain other collections (nested collections). Collections can be regarded as sets, but they can also have an inner structure. Collections can be created in several ways: manually, through queries, by operations on other collections, by exploiting links, etc. Collections introduce a navigational pattern, based on their structure, that is different from the standard node&link navigation. If active media are considered, collections allow the design and implementation of complex synchronisation strategies, difficult to obtain otherwise. The paper describes the motivations for using collections, their structure, their navigational capabilities and a number of possible authoring mechanisms. It also examines the interplay between standard navigation and collection navigation, possible synchronization strategies for collections, as well as the requirements for the definition of a runtime support (which could be used to extend the runtime layer of the Dexter Model).

© All rights reserved Garzotto et al. and/or ACM Press

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Polillo, Roberto, Bernstein, Mark, Garzotto, F., Hardman, Lynda and Kahn, Peter H. (1992): Hypermedia Readability. In: Lucarella, D., Nanard, Jocelyne, Nanard, Marc and Paolini, P. (eds.) Proceedings of ECHT 92 the Fourth ACM Conference on Hypertext November 30 - December 04, 1992, Milano, Italy. p. 286.

Since the appearance of the first hypertext applications, it is customary to blame the hypertext technology for "disorienting" readers and causing "cognitive overload". On the other hand, the user interface of many hypertext and hypermedia applications on the market is often very poorly designed. Many applications show a tendency to "over-linking" or "over-buttoning", and only a few show a clearly recognizable structure.

© All rights reserved Polillo et al. and/or ACM Press

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Garzotto, F., Paolini, Paolo and Schwabe, Daniel (1991): HDM -- A Model for the Design of Hypertext Applications. In: Walker, Jan (ed.) Proceedings of ACM Hypertext 91 Conference December 15-18, 1991, San Antonio, Texas. pp. 313-328.

We present the latest developments of HDM, a design model for Hypertext Applications. The basic features of HDM are the representation of applications through several design primitives: typed entities composed of hierarchies of components; different perspectives for each component; units corresponding to component-perspective pairs; bodies representing the actual content of the units; structural links, binding together components or sub-entities of the same entity; typed application links, interconnecting components belonging to different entities; and a specific browsing semantics based on anchors, as a way to activate many different link types from within a unit. The development of HDM is part of the HYTEA project, carried on by a European consortium, aiming at the development of a set of authoring tools for an "engineered" development of Hypertext-Hypermedia applications. A HYTEA application is made by an HDM schema and an HDM Hyperbase (i.e., a set of instances). The basic HDM has already been shown to be translatable, either manually or through a compiler, into a node-and-link model ("a la DEXTER model"; the translated application can be targeted on several implementation tools (i.e., standard Hypertext tools already available on the market). HDM has already been used to develop a (small number) of applications, and to describe preexisting applications. These experiments have shown the need for improvements that are discussed in the paper: aggregate entities; sharing of components; is-a relationships and inheritance between entity types; sharing of bodies; structured access and "guided tours"; use of active media (animations and video-clips).

© All rights reserved Garzotto et al. and/or ACM Press

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