Number of co-authors:26
Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:Catriona Macaulay:Paula Forbes:Vicki L. Hanson:
David Sloan's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:Bonnie E. John:63Helen Petrie:39Shari Trewin:28
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Publications by David Sloan (bibliography)
Trewin, Shari, Richards, John T., Hanson, Vicki L., Sloan, David, John, Bonnie E., Swart, Cal and Thomas, John C. (2012): Understanding the role of age and fluid intelligence in information search. In: Fourteenth Annual ACM SIGACCESS Conference on Assistive Technologies 2012. pp. 119-126. Available online
In this study, we explore the role of age and fluid intelligence on the behavior of people looking for information in a real-world search space. Analyses of mouse moves, clicks, and eye movements provide a window into possible differences in both task strategy and performance, and allow us to begin to separate the influence of age from the correlated but isolable influence of cognitive ability. We found little evidence of differences in strategy between younger and older participants matched on fluid intelligence. Both performance and strategy differences were found between older participants having higher versus lower fluid intelligence, however, suggesting that cognitive factors, rather than age per se, exert the dominant influence. This underscores the importance of measuring and controlling for cognitive abilities in studies involving older adults.
© All rights reserved Trewin et al. and/or ACM Press
Cooper, Martyn, Sloan, David, Kelly, Brian and Lewthwaite, Sarah (2012): A challenge to web accessibility metrics and guidelines: putting people and processes first. In: Proceedings of the 2012 International Cross-Disciplinary Conference on Web Accessibility W4A 2012. p. 20. Available online
This paper argues that web accessibility is not an intrinsic characteristic of a digital resource but is determined by complex political, social and other contextual factors, as well as technical aspects which are the focus of WAI standardisation activities. It can therefore be inappropriate to develop legislation or focus on metrics only associated with properties of the resource. The authors describe the value of standards such as BS 8878 which focus on best practices for the process of developing web products and include a user focus. The paper concludes with a case study that illustrates how learning analytics could provide data to support the improvement of the inclusivity of learning resources, providing a broader perspective beyond the digital resource.
© All rights reserved Cooper et al. and/or ACM Press
Kelly, Brian, Lewthwaite, Sarah and Sloan, David (2010): Developing countries; developing experiences: approaches to accessibility for the real world. In: Proceedings of the 2010 International Cross-Disciplinary Conference on Web Accessibility W4A 2010. p. 3. Available online
The need for developing countries to consider appropriate strategies for enhancing access to networked resources by disabled people provides an opportunity to assess the merits and limitations of the approaches which have been taken in western countries. This paper reviews the limitations of dependence on a constrained technical definition of accessibility, and builds on previous work which developed a holistic approach to Web accessibility and a generic model to assist policy makers in understanding the complexities of addressing Web accessibility. We explore how such approaches can be deployed by practitioners and developers with responsibilities for the deployment of Web services within the context of limited resources, flawed technologies, conflicting priorities and debates within disability studies on the nature of disability. A pragmatic framework is presented which supports promotion of digital accessibility within a wider social inclusion context. It learns from past difficulties and aims to assist policy makers and practitioners across the world in decision-making when seeking to deploy accessible Web-based services within the context of limited resources, conflicting priorities and the limitations of technical accessibility guidelines.
© All rights reserved Kelly et al. and/or their publisher
Sloan, David, Atkinson, Matthew Tylee, Machin, Colin and Li, Yunqiu (2010): The potential of adaptive interfaces as an accessibility aid for older web users. In: Proceedings of the 2010 International Cross-Disciplinary Conference on Web Accessibility W4A 2010. p. 35. Available online
Supporting effective and enjoyable Web usage by people with sensory, motor and cognitive impairments requires more than just accessible Web content. There is an additional task of matching people with an accessibility solution that best accommodates their particular needs -- which, especially for older Web users, may fluctuate in severity, number and combination. Lack of awareness of one's own accessibility needs and the solutions that may exist to accommodate them may lead to a reduced quality Web browsing experience or even abandonment. This paper discusses the difficulties in matching people with less severe, but multiple, impairments with the most appropriate accessibility features at a given time, and explores the role of automated or semi-automated adaptations as a solution for this problem. We review related work, and report on the early stages of our own work conducted to prove the concept of adaptations for accessibility in the specific context of supporting Web users with age-related capability decline. We also consider the potential ethical issues of automated and semi-automated accessibility adaptations on the wellbeing of older Web users, and how these might best be managed in a suitably sensitive way.
© All rights reserved Sloan et al. and/or their publisher
Waller, Annalu, Hanson, Vicki L. and Sloan, David (2009): Including accessibility within and beyond undergraduate computing courses. In: Eleventh Annual ACM SIGACCESS Conference on Assistive Technologies 2009. pp. 155-162. Available online
This paper presents a unique approach to undergraduate teaching in which accessibility topics are completely integrated throughout the curriculum, treating accessibility not as a separate topic, but rather as an integral part of design and development. Means of accomplishing this integration throughout the entire four-year curriculum are presented. We also describe how our expertise in accessible design has extended beyond the education of computer science and engineering students to include Web content authors across campus.
© All rights reserved Waller et al. and/or their publisher
Sloan, David, Macaulay, Catriona, Forbes, Paula and Loynton, Scott (2009): User research in a scientific software development project. In: Proceedings of the HCI09 Conference on People and Computers XXIII 2009. pp. 423-429. Available online
The Usable Image project provides usability and user-centred design support to a scientific software development project. OMERO is a complex software application aimed at supporting the management, analysis and processing of microscopy images and associated data. In order to gather a richer understanding of the diversity and similarities of scientific practice and the role technology plays in supporting the work of scientists using images and image-related data, a range of user-research techniques have been applied, including design ethnography and surveys. This work has provided insights that have informed the development team, increasing knowledge and understanding of what is a complex usage environment, and helping in the process of creating a more usable and useful scientific tool. This paper discusses the insights gained from the ethnographic work and from user surveys, in terms of attitudes to and usage patterns of technology amongst life science researchers, and considers the implications of these insights on the user-centred design and development of OMERO.
© All rights reserved Sloan et al. and/or their publisher
Kelly, Brian, Sloan, David, Brown, Stephen, Seale, Jane, Petrie, Helen, Lauke, Patrick and Ball, Simon (2007): Accessibility 2.0: people, policies and processes. In: Proceedings of the 2007 International Cross-Disciplinary Conference on Web Accessibility (W4A) 2007. pp. 138-147. Available online
The work of the Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI) is described in a set of technical guidelines designed to maximise accessibility to digital resources. Further activities continue to focus on technical developments, with current discussions exploring the potential merits of use of Semantic Web and Web 2.0 approaches. In this paper we argue that the focus on technologies can be counter-productive. Rather than seeking to enhance accessibility through technical innovations, the authors argue that the priority should be for a user-focussed approach, which embeds best practices through the development of achievable policies and processes and which includes all stakeholders in the process of maximising accessibility. The paper reviews previous work in this area and summarises criticisms of WAI's approach. The paper further develops a tangram model which describes a pluralistic, as opposed to a universal, approach to Web accessibility, which encourages creativity and diversity in developing accessible services. Such diversity will need to reflect the context of usage, including the aims of a service (informational, educational, cultural, etc.), the users' and the services providers' environment. The paper describes a stakeholder approach to embedding best practices, which recognises that organisations will encounter difficulties in developing sustainable approaches by addressing only the needs of the end user and the Web developer. The paper describes work which has informed the ideas in this paper and plan for further work, including an approach to advocacy and education which coins the "Accessibility 2.0" term to describe a renewed approach to accessibility, which builds on previous work but prioritises the importance of the user. The paper concludes by describing the implications of the ideas described in this paper for WAI and for accessibility practitioner stakeholders.
© All rights reserved Kelly et al. and/or ACM Press
Sloan, David and Phipps, Lawrie (2003): Helping to avoid e-discrimination in UK tertiary education. In: Proceedings of the 2003 ACM Conference on Universal Usability 2003. pp. 150-151. Available online
The UK e-learning and disability agenda is discussed, and how it is affected by social inclusion and government initiatives and legislation. The important role of the TechDis service in this initiative is also described, and how it is helping the tertiary education community in the UK to use technology to improve inclusion for staff and students with disabilities. An outline of the approach TechDis has taken to achieve its goals is provided, along with current issues being addressed by the service.
© All rights reserved Sloan and Phipps and/or ACM Press
Sloan, David, Gregor, Peter, Booth, Paul and Gibson, Lorna (2002): Auditing accessibility of UK Higher Education web sites. In Interacting with Computers, 14 (4) pp. 313-325.
Given the increasingly important role the World Wide Web plays as an information source, and yet with the continuing problems that certain individuals, particularly those with disabilities and those using 'non-standard' Web browsing technology, it is vital that web resource providers be aware of design features which introduce barriers affecting the accessibility of on-line information. The role of the accessibility audit is seen as an important one in uncovering, describing, and explaining potential accessibility barriers present in a web site. It furthermore acts as an educational tool by raising awareness in accessible design amongst web designers and content providers in providing them with a recovery plan for improving the accessibility of the audited resource, and potentially other resources. In 1999, the authors were commissioned to carry out accessibility audits of 11 web sites in the UK Higher Education sector. This paper discusses the development of the methodology used to carry out the audits, the findings of the audits in terms of accessibility levels of the subject sites, and feedback as a result of the auditing process. It concludes by looking at ways in which the methodology adopted may be tailored to suit specific types of web resource evaluation.
© All rights reserved Sloan et al. and/or Elsevier Science
Rowan, Murray, Gregor, Peter, Sloan, David and Booth, Paul (2000): Evaluating Web Resources for Disability Access. In: Fourth Annual ACM Conference on Assistive Technologies 2000. pp. 80-84. Available online
A majority of Web based information, facilities and services is unnecessarily inaccessible to people with certain disabilities, largely due to a lack of awareness of accessibility issues on the part of developers. This paper argues that currently available accessibility evaluation methods are unsatisfactory in the scope and presentation of their results. Consequently, there is a need for a meta-method which utilises the strengths of current methods, but which also bridges their weaknesses. The paper discusses a comprehensive, yet usable methodology for evaluating web sites for accessibility. Using this methodology, a semi-automatic accessibility evaluation tool is proposed, which will guide evaluators through the auditing process and produce a set of tailored recommendations for making the subject site accessible.
© All rights reserved Rowan et al. and/or ACM Press
Sloan, David, Gregor, Peter, Rowan, Murray and Booth, Paul (2000): Accessible Accessibility. In: Proceedings of the 2000 ACM Conference on Universal Usability 2000. pp. 96-101. Available online
This paper discusses the need for an all-encompassing methodology for determining the level of accessibility of web resources, and the requirement that the results of such a procedure are as meaningful as possible to developers. It is argued that current accessibility evaluation methods are unsatisfactory in the scope and presentation of their results. An alternative meta-method of accessibility assessment is then described.
© All rights reserved Sloan et al. and/or ACM Press
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