Publication statistics

Pub. period:2005-2012
Pub. count:22
Number of co-authors:38


Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Justin T. Ho:
Frank Chun Yat Li:
Jeremy Scott:



Productive colleagues

David Dearman's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Benjamin B. Beders..:70
Kori Inkpen:70
Carolyn R. Watters:56

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David Dearman


Publications by David Dearman (bibliography)

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Sohn, Timothy, Lee, Lorikeet, Zhang, Stephanie, Dearman, David and Truong, Khai (2012): An examination of how households share and coordinate the completion of errands. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW12 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2012. pp. 729-738. Available online

People often complete tasks and to-dos not only for themselves but also for others in their household. In this work, we examine how household members share and accomplish errands both individually and together. We conducted a three-week diary study with eight households to understand the types of errands that family members and roommates share with each other. We explore their motivations for offering and requesting help to complete their errands and the variety of methods for doing so. Our findings reveal when participants sometimes face challenges completing their errands, and how household members request and receive help. We learned that the cooperative performance of errands is typically dependent on household members' location, availability, and capability. Using these findings, we discuss design opportunities for cooperative errands sharing systems that can assist households.

© All rights reserved Sohn et al. and/or ACM Press

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Dearman, David, Sohn, Timothy and Truong, Khai N. (2011): Opportunities exist: continuous discovery of places to perform activities. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 2429-2438. Available online

A rich cognitive map of a space can enhance the individual's experience within the space. However, cognitive maps develop gradually through repeated experience; and because of this, on-demand mobile search services (e.g., Google Maps, Yelp) are often used to compensate for missing knowledge. In this work, we developed and evaluated a context-aware place discovery application called Opportunities Exist to assist in the acquisition of spatial knowledge and meaning. The application differs from traditional search in that places are discovered using an activity (e.g., drink coffee, sit in the sun) and the discovery process runs continuously, maintaining a history of places the user can perform her activities as she goes about her day. We conducted a 4-week deployment in two North American cities. The results show that users were able to discover new places to perform their activities in familiar spaces and learned to associate new activities with familiar places. In addition, participants leveraged the application to perform activities opportunistically, and used continuous place discovery as an opportunistic reminder of routines they wanted to break out of or resume.

© All rights reserved Dearman et al. and/or their publisher

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Banovic, Nikola, Li, Frank Chun Yat, Dearman, David, Yatani, Koji and Truong, Khai N. (2011): Design of unimanual multi-finger pie menu interaction. In: Proceedings of the 2011 ACM International Conference on Interactive Tabletops and Surfaces 2011. pp. 120-129. Available online

Context menus, most commonly the right click menu, are a traditional method of interaction when using a keyboard and mouse. Context menus make a subset of commands in the application quickly available to the user. However, on tabletop touchscreen computers, context menus have all but disappeared. In this paper, we investigate how to design context menus for efficient unimanual multi-touch use. We investigate the limitations of the arm, wrist, and fingers and how it relates to human performance of multi-targets selection tasks on multi-touch surface. We show that selecting targets with multiple fingers simultaneously improves the performance of target selection compared to traditional single finger selection, but also increases errors. Informed by these results, we present our own context menu design for horizontal tabletop surfaces.

© All rights reserved Banovic et al. and/or ACM Press

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Ho, Justin T., Dearman, David and Truong, Khai N. (2010): Improving users' security choices on home wireless networks. In: Proceedings of the 2010 Symposium on Usable Privacy and Security 2010. p. 12. Available online

Home networks are common but notoriously difficult to setup and maintain. The difficulty users experience in setting up and maintaining their home network is problematic because of the numerous security threats that can exploit poorly configured and maintained network security. Because there is little empirical data to characterize the usability problems associated with the adoption of wireless network security, we surveyed primary caretakers and users of 20 home networks, examining their perceptions and usage of the security features available to them. We found that users did not understand the difference between access control lists and encryption, and that devices fail to properly notify users of weak security configuration choices. To address these issues, we designed and evaluated a novel wireless router configuration wizard that encouraged strong security choices by improving the network configuration steps. We found that security choices made by users of our wizard resulted in stronger security practices when compared to the wizard from a leading equipment manufacturer.

© All rights reserved Ho et al. and/or their publisher

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Dearman, David and Truong, Khai N. (2010): Identifying the activities supported by locations with community-authored content. In: Proceedings of the 2010 International Conference on Uniquitous Computing 2010. pp. 23-32. Available online

Community-authored content, such as location specific reviews, offers a wealth of information about virtually every imaginable location today. In this work, we process Yelp's community-authored reviews to identify a set of potential activities that are supported by the location reviewed. Using 14 test locations we show that the majority of the 40 most common results per location (determined by verb-noun pair frequency) are actual activities supported by

© All rights reserved Dearman and Truong and/or their publisher

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Dearman, David and Truong, Khai N. (2010): Why users of yahoo!: answers do not answer questions. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2010. pp. 329-332. Available online

Posing a question to an online question and answer community does not guarantee a response. Significant prior work has explored and identified members' motivations for contributing to communities of collective action (e.g., Yahoo! Answers); in contrast it is not well understood why members choose to not answer a question they have already read. To explore this issue, we surveyed 135 active members of Yahoo! Answers. We show that top and regular contributors experience the same reasons to not answer a question: subject nature and composition of the question; perception of how the questioner will receive, interpret and react to their response; and a belief that their response will lose its meaning and get lost in the crowd if too many responses have already been given. Informed by our results, we discuss opportunities to improve the efficacy of the question and answer process, and to encourage greater contributions through improved design.

© All rights reserved Dearman and Truong and/or their publisher

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Scott, Jeremy, Dearman, David, Yatani, Koji and Truong, Khai N. (2010): Sensing foot gestures from the pocket. In: Proceedings of the 2010 ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology 2010. pp. 199-208. Available online

Visually demanding interfaces on a mobile phone can diminish the user experience by monopolizing the user's attention when they are focusing on another task and impede accessibility for visually impaired users. Because mobile devices are often located in pockets when users are mobile, explicit foot movements can be defined as eyes-and-hands-free input gestures for interacting with the device. In this work, we study the human capability associated with performing foot-based interactions which involve lifting and rotation of the foot when pivoting on the toe and heel. Building upon these results, we then developed a system to learn and recognize foot gestures using a single commodity mobile phone placed in the user's pocket or in a holster on their hip. Our system uses acceleration data recorded by a built-in accelerometer on the mobile device and a machine learning approach to recognizing gestures. Through a lab study, we demonstrate that our system can classify ten different foot gestures at approximately 86% accuracy.

© All rights reserved Scott et al. and/or their publisher

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Li, Frank Chun Yat, Dearman, David and Truong, Khai N. (2010): Leveraging proprioception to make mobile phones more accessible to users with visual impairments. In: Twelfth Annual ACM SIGACCESS Conference on Assistive Technologies 2010. pp. 187-194. Available online

Accessing the advanced functions of a mobile phone is not a trivial task for users with visual impairments. They rely on screen readers and voice commands to discover and execute functions. In mobile situations, however, screen readers are not ideal because users may depend on their hearing for safety, and voice commands are difficult for a system to recognize in noisy environments. In this paper, we extend Virtual Shelves -- an interaction technique that leverages proprioception to access application shortcuts -- for visually impaired users. We measured the directional accuracy of visually impaired participants and found that they were less accurate than people with vision. We then built a functional prototype that uses an accelerometer and a gyroscope to sense its position and orientation. Finally, we evaluated the interaction and prototype by allowing participants to customize the placement of seven shortcuts within 15 regions. Participants were able to access shortcuts in their personal layout with 88.3% accuracy in an average of 1.74 seconds.

© All rights reserved Li et al. and/or their publisher

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Dearman, David, Karlson, Amy, Meyers, Brian and Bederson, Benjamin B. (2010): Multi-modal text entry and selection on a mobile device. In: Proceedings of the 2010 Conference on Graphics Interface 2010. pp. 19-26. Available online

Rich text tasks are increasingly common on mobile devices, requiring the user to interleave typing and selection to produce the text and formatting she desires. However, mobile devices are a rich input space where input does not need to be limited to a keyboard and touch. In this paper, we present two complementary studies evaluating four different input modalities to perform selection in support of text entry on a mobile device. The modalities are: screen touch (Touch), device tilt (Tilt), voice recognition (Speech), and foot tap (Foot). The results show that Tilt is the fastest method for making a selection, but that Touch allows for the highest overall text throughput. The Tilt and Foot methods -- although fast -- resulted in users performing and subsequently correcting a high number of text entry errors, whereas the number of errors for Touch is significantly lower. Users experienced significant difficulty when using Tilt and Foot in coordinating the format selections in parallel with the text entry. This difficulty resulted in more errors and therefore lower text throughput. Touching the screen to perform a selection is slower than tilting the device or tapping the foot, but the action of moving the fingers off the keyboard to make a selection ensured high precision when interleaving selection and text entry. Additionally, mobile devices offer a breadth of promising rich input methods that need to be careful studied in situ when deciding if each is appropriate to support a given task; it is not sufficient to study the modalities independent of a natural task.

© All rights reserved Dearman et al. and/or their publisher

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Li, Frank Chun Yat, Dearman, David and Truong, Khai N. (2009): Virtual shelves: interactions with orientation aware devices. In: Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology 2009. pp. 125-128. Available online

Triggering shortcuts or actions on a mobile device often requires a long sequence of key presses. Because the functions of buttons are highly dependent on the current application's context, users are required to look at the display during interaction, even in many mobile situations when eyes-free interactions may be preferable. We present Virtual Shelves, a technique to trigger programmable shortcuts that leverages the user's spatial awareness and kinesthetic memory. With Virtual Shelves, the user triggers shortcuts by orienting a spatially-aware mobile device within the circular hemisphere in front of her. This space is segmented into definable and selectable regions along the phi and theta planes. We show that users can accurately point to 7 regions on the theta and 4 regions on the phi plane using only their kinesthetic memory. Building upon these results, we then evaluate a proof-of-concept prototype of the Virtual Shelves using a Nokia N93. The results show that Virtual Shelves is faster than the N93's native interface for common mobile phone tasks.

© All rights reserved Li et al. and/or their publisher

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Dearman, David and Pierce, Jeffery S. (2008): It's on my other computer!: computing with multiple devices. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2008 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 5-10, 2008. pp. 767-776. Available online

The number of computing devices that people use is growing. To gain a better understanding of why and how people use multiple devices, we interviewed 27 people from academia and industry. From these interviews we distill four primary findings. First, associating a user's activities with a particular device is problematic for multiple device users because many activities span multiple devices. Second, device use varies by user and circumstance; users assign different roles to devices both by choice and by constraint. Third, users in industry want to separate work and personal activities across work and personal devices, but they have difficulty doing so in practice Finally, users employ a variety of techniques for accessing information across devices, but there is room for improvement: participants reported managing information across their devices as the most challenging aspect of using multiple devices. We suggest opportunities to improve the user experience by focusing on the user rather than the applications and devices; making devices aware of their roles; and providing lighter-weight methods for transferring information, including synchronization services that engender more trust from users.

© All rights reserved Dearman and Pierce and/or ACM Press

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Dearman, David, Kellar, Melanie and Truong, Khai N. (2008): An examination of daily information needs and sharing opportunities. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW08 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2008. pp. 679-688. Available online

A person often has highly context-sensitive information needs that require assistance from individuals in their social network. However, a person's social network is often not broad enough to include the right people in the right situations or circumstances who can satisfy the needs. The ability to satisfy context-sensitive information needs depends on a person's ability to seek the answers from appropriate individuals, who must then provide a response in a timely manner. To gain an understanding of how to better support the sharing of information, we conducted a four-week diary study examining 20 people's perceived daily information needs and sharing desires. We provide a structured framework for understanding the types of information people need and discuss when and how people are able to satisfy their needs. Using these findings, we discuss research and design opportunities for addressing the shortcomings of the existing information sources by connecting information altruists with an audience by leveraging weak ties through situation and circumstance, and providing a timely asynchronous connection to these sources.

© All rights reserved Dearman et al. and/or ACM Press

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Dearman, David, Inkpen, Kori and Truong, Khai N. (2007): Target selection on mobile devices using display segmentation. In: Cheok, Adrian David and Chittaro, Luca (eds.) Proceedings of the 9th Conference on Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services - Mobile HCI 2007 September 9-12, 2007, Singapore. pp. 371-374. Available online

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Dearman, David, Varshavsky, Alex, Lara, Eyal de and Truong, Khai N. (2007): An Exploration of Location Error Estimation. In: Krumm, John, Abowd, Gregory D., Seneviratne, Aruna and Strang, Thomas (eds.) UbiComp 2007 Ubiquitous Computing - 9th International Conference September 16-19, 2007, Innsbruck, Austria. pp. 181-198. Available online

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Inkpen, Kori, Dearman, David, Argue, Ritchie, Comeau, Marc, Fu, Ching-Lung, Kolli, Sekhar, Moses, Jeremy, Pilon, Nick and Wallace, James (2006): Left-Handed Scrolling for Pen-Based Devices. In International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 21 (1) pp. 91-108. Available online

The effectiveness of interaction with mobile devices can be impacted by handedness; however, support for handedness in the interface is rarely provided. The goal of this article is to demonstrate that handedness is a significant interface consideration that should not be overlooked. Four studies were conducted to explore left-handed user interaction with right- or left-aligned scrollbars on personal digital assistants. Analysis of the data shows that left-handed users are able to select targets significantly faster using a left-aligned scrollbar when compared to a right-aligned scrollbar. User feedback also indicated that a left-aligned scrollbar was preferred by left-handed users and provided more natural interaction.

© All rights reserved Inkpen et al. and/or Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

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Reilly, Derek F., Dearman, David, Ha, Vicki, Smith, Ian and Inkpen, Kori (2006): "Need to Know": Examining Information Need in Location Discourse. In: Fishkin, Kenneth P., Schiele, Bernt, Nixon, Paddy and Quigley, Aaron J. (eds.) PERVASIVE 2006 - Pervasive Computing 4th International Conference May 7-10, 2006, Dublin, Ireland. pp. 33-49. Available online

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Dearman, David, Hawkey, Kirstie and Inkpen, Kori (2005): Rendezvousing with location-aware devices: Enhancing social coordination. In Interacting with Computers, 17 (5) pp. 542-566. Available online

Emerging technologies such as location-awareness devices have the potential to significantly impact users' social coordination, particularly while rendezvousing. It is important that we explore how new technologies influence social behaviours and communication in order to realize their full potential. This paper presents a field study investigating the use of mobile location-aware devices for rendezvous activities. Participants took part in one of three mobile device conditions (a mobile phone, a location-aware handheld, or both a mobile phone and a location-aware handheld) and completed three rendezvousing scenarios. The results reveal key differences in communication patterns between the mediums, as well as the potential strengths and limitations of location-aware devices for social coordination. The paper concludes with a discussion of relevant design issues drawn from observations gathered during the field study.

© All rights reserved Dearman et al. and/or Elsevier Science

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Kellar, Melanie, Reilly, Derek, Hawkey, Kirstie, Rodgers, Malcolm, MacKay, Bonnie, Dearman, David, Ha, Vicki, MacInnes, W. Joseph, Nunes, Michael, Parker, Karen, Whalen, Tara and Inkpen, Kori (2005): It's a jungle out there: practical considerations for evaluation in the city. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 1533-1536. Available online

An essential aspect of mobile and ubiquitous computing research is evaluation within the expected usage context, including environment. When that environment is an urban center, it can be dynamic, expansive, and unpredictable. Methodologies that focus on genuine use in the environment can uncover valuable insights, although they may also limit measurement and control. In this paper, we present our experiences applying traditional experimental techniques for field research in two separate projects set in urban environments. We argue that although traditional methods may be difficult to apply in cities, the challenges are surmountable, and this kind of field research can be a crucial component of evaluation.

© All rights reserved Kellar et al. and/or ACM Press

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Dearman, David, Hawkey, Kirstie and Inkpen, Kori (2005): Effect of location-awareness on rendezvous behaviour. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 1929-1932. Available online

This paper presents an exploratory field study investigating the behavioral effects of mobile location-aware computing on rendezvousing. Participants took part in one of three mobile device conditions (a mobile phone, a location-aware handheld or both a mobile phone and a location-aware handheld) and completed different rendezvousing scenarios. We present one of the scenarios in depth and discuss the effect of location-awareness on rendezvous behaviour.

© All rights reserved Dearman et al. and/or ACM Press

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MacKay, Bonnie, Dearman, David, Inkpen, Kori and Watters, Carolyn R. (2005): Walk 'n scroll: a comparison of software-based navigation techniques for different levels of mobility. In: Proceedings of 7th conference on Human-computer interaction with mobile devices and services 2005. pp. 183-190. Available online

In this paper, we present a field study comparing software-based navigation techniques (scrollbars, tap-and-drag, and touch-n-go) on mobile devices. In particular, we were interested in exploring the efficiency and user preference of these navigation techniques for different levels of mobility (sitting, walking, and standing) in a naturalistic environment. Results show that while there was no significant difference in performance between tap-and-drag and touch-n-go, both techniques significantly outperformed scrollbars for simple, multi-directional navigation tasks. In addition, the users preferred the touch-n-go technique over the other two methods. The results also revealed that users' interactions and preferences differed between the levels of mobility.

© All rights reserved MacKay et al. and/or ACM Press

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MacKay, Bonnie, Dearman, David, Inkpen, Kori and Watters, Carolyn R. (2005): Walk 'n scroll: a comparison of software-based navigation techniques for different levels of mobility. In: Tscheligi, Manfred, Bernhaupt, Regina and Mihalic, Kristijan (eds.) Proceedings of the 7th Conference on Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services - Mobile HCI 2005 September 19-22, 2005, Salzburg, Austria. pp. 183-190. Available online

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Reilly, Derek F., Dearman, David, Welsman-Dinelle, Michael and Inkpen, Kori (2005): Evaluating early prototypes in context: trade-offs, challenges, and successes. In IEEE Pervasive Computing, 4 (4) pp. 42-50. Available online

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