Publication statistics

Pub. period:1999-2012
Pub. count:27
Number of co-authors:46


Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Jon Kolko:
Erik A. Stolterman:
Jeremy T. Barksdale:



Productive colleagues

D. Scott McCrickard's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

John M. Carroll:209
Alistair G. Sutcli..:147
Mary Beth Rosson:142

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D. Scott McCrickard

Has also published under the name of:
"D. S. McCrickard"

Personal Homepage:

Current place of employment:
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

My research vision is to lead the emergence of the notification systems research field to a position marked by cohesive community effort, scientific method, and focus on relevant, real-world problems--providing improved system interfaces and engineering processes. I'm actively working to promote research within the CHI community. In 2007, I will be the ACM SIGCHI Work-in-Progress co-chair with Catalina Danis. Together with JJ Cadiz, Mary Czerwinski, and John Stasko I co-organized a workshop at the 2003 ACM SIGCHI Conference on Providing Elegant Peripheral Awareness.

I'm also actively promoting greater inclusion of women and minorities into HCI and computer science. Visit my research group page at for more details.


Publications by D. Scott McCrickard (bibliography)

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McCrickard, D. Scott and Lewis, Clayton (2012): Designing for cognitive limitations. In: Proceedings of DIS12 Designing Interactive Systems 2012. pp. 805-806.

People with cognitive disabilities that affect their memory, attention, and comprehension can become overwhelmed when using technology -- just as cognitively-demanding situations like driving or multitasking can hinder technology use for most people. However, appropriately-designed technology can assist in overcoming cognitive disabilities and cognitive limitations. This workshop seeks to bring together researchers and practitioners with design experience in the many areas of cognitive disability and cognitive limitation to exchange, evolve, and develop strategies for design. Workshop participants will present key lessons from their own experiences, and workshop activities will employ claims-based design strategies toward identifying, comparing, and mapping approaches for addressing cognitive disabilities and limitations.

© All rights reserved McCrickard and Lewis and/or ACM Press

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Wahid, Shahtab, McCrickard, D. Scott, DeGol, Joseph, Elias, Nina and Harrison, Steve (2011): Don't drop it!: pick it up and storyboard. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 1571-1580.

Storyboards offer designers a way to illustrate a narrative. Their creation can be enabled by tools supporting sketching or widget collections. As designers often incorporate previous ideas, we contribute the notion of blending the reappropriation of artifacts and their design tradeoffs with storyboarding. We present PIC-UP, a storyboarding tool supporting reappropriation, and report on two studies -- a long-term investigation with novices and interviews with experts. We discuss how it may support design thinking, tailor to different expertise levels, facilitate reappropriation during storyboarding, and assist with communication.

© All rights reserved Wahid et al. and/or their publisher

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Wahid, Shahtab, Branham, Stacy M., McCrickard, D. Scott and Harrison, Steve (2010): Investigating the relationship between imagery and rationale in design. In: Proceedings of DIS10 Designing Interactive Systems 2010. pp. 75-84.

Artifacts can be used to inspire, guide, and create new designs. As approaches to design can range from focusing on inspiration to formalized reasoning, we seek to create and study artifacts that combine the use of images and rationale. In this paper, we contribute an understanding of the relationship between imagery and rationale through an investigation of an artifact made of both. Through a study of group design sessions, we find images can provide access to rationale, moments of inspiration can be balanced with rationale, and differences between images and rationale must be reconciled. We conclude with thoughts on how such artifacts might be leveraged by the design community.

© All rights reserved Wahid et al. and/or their publisher

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McCrickard, D. Scott, Atwood, Michael E., Curtis, Gayle, Harrison, Steve, Kolko, Jon, Stolterman, Erik A. and Wahid, Shahtab (2010): Artifacts in design: representation, ideation, and process. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2010. pp. 4445-4448.

Artifacts-representations that express properties or captured information-can serve to inspire, represent, and manage the decisions made throughout the design process. This workshop will explore how these artifacts are created, used, and reused during design projects, toward understanding the overall impact on the larger discipline of design. Through active engagement with novel design artifacts and methods, workshop participants will examine, categorize, and evaluate various design artifacts.

© All rights reserved McCrickard et al. and/or their publisher

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Barksdale, Jeremy T. and McCrickard, D. Scott (2010): Concept mapping in agile usability: a case study. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2010. pp. 4691-4694.

In this paper we report on the experience of using our concept mapping approach on an agile software project to assess its fitness. Participants used our novel concept mapping approach over a four week period during the development of a software tool for a local nonprofit agency. Results indicate that our concept mapping approach has value as a visual tool in agile usability environments.

© All rights reserved Barksdale and McCrickard and/or their publisher

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Montabert, Cyril, McCrickard, D. Scott, Winchester, Woodrow W. and Perez-Quinones, Manuel A. (2009): An integrative approach to requirements analysis: How task models support requirements reuse in a user-centric design framework. In Interacting with Computers, 21 (4) pp. 304-315.

Many software systems fail to address their intended purpose because of a lack of user involvement and requirements deficiencies. This paper discusses the elaboration of a requirements-analysis process that integrates a critical-parameter-based approach to task modeling within a user-centric design framework. On one hand, adapting task models to capture requirements bridges the gap between scenarios and critical parameters which benefits design from the standpoint of user involvement and accurate requirements. On the other hand, using task models as a reusable component leverages requirements reuse which benefits design by increasing quality while simultaneously reducing development costs and time-to-market. First, we present the establishment of both a user-centric and reuse-centric requirements process along with its implementation within an integrated design tool suite. Secondly, we report the design, procedures, and findings of two user studies aimed at assessing the feasibility for novice designers to conduct the process as well as evaluating the resulting benefits upon requirements-analysis deliverables, requirements quality, and requirements reuse.

© All rights reserved Montabert et al. and/or Elsevier Science

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Kelly, Scott, Hood, Ben, Lee, Jason Chong, Sampat, Miten, Lally, Leigh and McCrickard, D. Scott (2009): Enabling Opportunistic Navigation in Location-Based Notification Systems. In: Proceedings of the 2009 International Conference on Advances in Computer-Human Interactions 2009. pp. 32-37.

Device-assisted navigation is rapidly becoming a major topic in computer science. PDAs and other small devices are enabling the introduction of navigational assistants to many different spaces. These areas are generally filled with points of interest with which users may choose to interact with. The natural behavior of users in such a space is to explore, interacting with objects the user deems worthy of further interaction. We call this behavior 'opportunistic navigation.' In this paper we define the challenges associated with and put forward several criteria for enabling opportunistic navigation in Location-Based Notification Systems. Our criteria have been implemented in the form of a prototype navigational assistant, SeeVT-ART, and have undergone a preliminary field test.

© All rights reserved Kelly et al. and/or IEEE

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Humphries, Will, McCrickard, D. Scott and Neale, Dennis (2009): Knowledge Reuse through Categorical Breakdown Analysis: A Method for Collaborative Systems Evaluation. In: Proceedings of the 2009 International Conference on Advances in Computer-Human Interactions 2009. pp. 97-102.

Designing CSCW systems that support the widely varying needs of targeted users is difficult. There is no silver bullet technology that enables users to effectively collaborate with one another in different contexts. We propose a method of collaborative systems evaluation that enables novice evaluators to make insightful observations about the systems they evaluate at a level comparable to experts in certain situations. These observations come in the form of a categorical breakdown analysis of a laboratory study. The quantity and type of breakdowns can then be connected to recommended CSCW tools and features developed and described in the related literature. We conducted a study to explore the results generated when the method was applied by both experts and novices in the field of CSCW. We observed that experts found the method to be usable, and that novices capitalized on the knowledge embodied in the breakdown categories to make categorizations similar to those of experts.

© All rights reserved Humphries et al. and/or IEEE

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Uluca, Doguhan, Streefkerk, Jan Willem, Sciacchitano, Brian and McCrickard, D. Scott (2008): Designing automated handheld navigation support. In: Hofte, G. Henri ter, Mulder, Ingrid and Ruyter, Boris E. R. de (eds.) Proceedings of the 10th Conference on Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services - Mobile HCI 2008 September 2-5, 2008, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. pp. 481-482.

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Terrell, Goldie B. and McCrickard, D. Scott (2006): Enlightening a co-located community with a semi-public notification system. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW06 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2006. pp. 21-24.

This work seeks to strengthen interaction within a research community through a centrally-located physical device that presents online presence information in a semi-public space. The device uses a map metaphor to represent a set of connected labs. As people move within the lab, those who wish to interact with lab users can use the display to guide their interaction approaches, by supporting educated guesses as to arrivals, departures, and work patterns. The paper reports on the lessons learned about the device's characteristics, and provides anecdotes and observations on ways in which this type of device can improve communication and enhance community.

© All rights reserved Terrell and McCrickard and/or ACM Press

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Somervell, Jacob and McCrickard, D. Scott (2005): Better discount evaluation: illustrating how critical parameters support heuristic creation. In Interacting with Computers, 17 (5) pp. 592-612.

This paper describes a heuristic creation process based on the notion of critical parameters, and a comparison experiment that demonstrates the utility of heuristics created for a specific system class. We focus on two examples of using the newly created heuristics to illustrate the utility of the usability evaluation method, as well as to provide support for the creation process, and we report on successes and frustrations of two classes of users, novice evaluators and domain experts, who identified usability problems with the new heuristics. We argue that establishing critical parameters for other domains will support efforts in creating tailored evaluation tools.

© All rights reserved Somervell and McCrickard and/or Elsevier Science

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Chewar, Christa M. and McCrickard, D. Scott (2005): Links for a Human-Centered Science of Design: Integrated Design Knowledge Environments for a Software Development Process. In: HICSS 2005 - 38th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences 3-6 January, 2005, Big Island, HI, USA. .

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Chewar, C. M., McCrickard, D. Scott and Sutcliffe, Alistair G. (2004): Unpacking critical parameters for interface design: evaluating notification systems with the IRC framework. In: Proceedings of DIS04: Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, & Techniques 2004. pp. 279-288.

We elaborate a proposal for capturing, extending, and reusing design knowledge gleaned through usability testing. The proposal is specifically targeted to address interface design for notification systems, but its themes can be generalized to any constrained and well-defined genre of interactive system design. We reiterate arguments for and against using critical parameters to characterize user goals and usability artifacts. Responding to residual arguments, we suggest that clear advantages for research cohesion, design knowledge reuse, and HCI education are possible if several challenges are overcome. As a first step, we recommend a slight variation to the concept of a critical parameter, which would allow both abstract and concrete knowledge representation. With this concept, we demonstrate a feasible approach by introducing equations that elaborate and allow evolution of notification system critical parameters, which is made operational with a variety of usability evaluation instruments. A case study illustrates how one general instrument allowed system designs to be meaningfully compared and resulted in valuable inferences for interface reengineering. Broad implications and conclusions about this approach will be of interest to others concerned with using critical parameters in interface design, development of notification systems interfaces, or approaches to design rationale and knowledge reuse.

© All rights reserved Chewar et al. and/or ACM Press

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McCrickard, D. Scott and Chewar, Christa M. (2004): Proselytizing Pervasive Computing Education: A Strategy and Approach Influenced by Human-Computer Interaction. In: 2nd IEEE Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications Workshops PerCom 2004 Workshops 14-17 March, 2004, Orlando, FL, USA. pp. 257-262.

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Chewar, Christa M., McCrickard, D. Scott and Sutcliffe, Alistair G. (2004): Unpacking critical parameters for interface design: evaluating notification systems with the IRC framework. In: Benyon, David, Moody, Paul, Gruen, Dan and McAra-McWilliam, Irene (eds.) Proceedings of the Conference on Designing Interactive Systems Processes, Practices, Methods, and Techniques, Cambridge, MA, USA, August 1-4, 2004 2004. pp. 279-288.

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Ganoe, Craig, Somervell, Jacob P., Neale, Dennis C., Isenhour, Philip, Carroll, John M., Rosson, Mary Beth and McCrickard, D. Scott (2003): Classroom BRIDGE: using collaborative public and desktop timelines to support activity awareness. In: Proceedings of the 16th annural ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology November, 2-5, 2003, Vancouver, Canada. pp. 21-30.

Classroom BRIDGE supports activity awareness by facilitating planning and goal revision in collaborative, project-based middle school science. It integrates large-screen and desktop views of project times to support incidental creation of awareness information through routine document transactions, integrated presentation of awareness information as part of workspace views, and public access to subgroup activity. It demonstrates and develops an object replication approach to integrating synchronous and asynchronous distributed work for a platform incorporating both desktop and large-screen devices. This paper describes an implementation of these concepts with preliminary evaluation data, using timeline-based user interfaces.

© All rights reserved Ganoe et al. and/or ACM Press

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McCrickard, D. Scott, Czerwinski, Mary and Bartram, Lyn (2003): Introduction: design and evaluation of notification user interfaces. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 58 (5) pp. 509-514.

Notification systems attempt to deliver current, important information to the computer screen in an efficient and effective manner. All notification systems require that the user attends to them to at least some degree if they are to succeed. Examples of notification systems include instant messaging systems, system and user status updates, email alerts and news and stock tickers. The benefits of notification systems are numerous, including rapid availability of important information, access to nearly instantaneous communication and heightened awareness of the availability of personal contacts. While the popularity of these systems has skyrocketed in recent years, the effects of incoming notifications on ongoing computing tasks have been relatively unexplored. The investigation of the costs, benefits and the optimal display of instant messages and all notifications in the context of desktop or mobile computing tasks falls in the general arena of psychological research on alerting and disruptions, but also requires research contributions from design, computer science and information visualization. To date, much of the psychological research on interruption leverages theoretical task constructions. In this special issue, we focus on the nature of interruptions such as messaging while computing and how to optimize the user experience.

© All rights reserved McCrickard et al. and/or Academic Press

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McCrickard, D. Scott, Catrambone, Richard, Chewar, C. M. and Stasko, John T. (2003): Establishing tradeoffs that leverage attention for utility: empirically evaluating information display in notification systems. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 58 (5) pp. 547-582.

Designing and evaluating notification systems represents an emerging challenge in the study of human-computer interaction. Users rely on notification systems to present potentially interruptive information in an efficient and effective manner to enable appropriate reaction and comprehension. Little is known about the effects of these systems on ongoing computer tasks. As the research community strives to understand information design suitable for opposing usage goals, few existing efforts lend themselves to extensibility. However, three often conflicting design objectives are interruption to primary tasks, reaction to specific notifications, and comprehension of information over time. Based on these competing parameters, we propose a unifying research theme for the field that defines success in notification systems design as achieving the desirable balance between attention and utility. This paradigm distinguishes notification systems research from traditional HCI by centering on the limitations of the human attention system. In a series of experiments that demonstrate this research approach and investigate use of animated text in secondary displays, we describe two empirical investigations focused on the three critical parameters during a browsing task. The first experiment compares tickering, blasting, and fading text, finding that tickering text is best for supporting deeper comprehension, fading best facilitates reaction, and, compared to the control condition, none of the animated displays are interruptive to the browsing task. The second experiment investigates fading and tickering animation in greater detail with similar tasks -- at two different speeds and sizes. Here, we found smaller displays allowed better reaction but were more interruptive, while slower displays provides increased comprehension. Overall, the slow fade appears to be the best secondary display animation type tested. Focusing research and user studies within this field on critical parameters such as interruption, reaction, and comprehension will increase cohesion among design and evaluation efforts for notification systems.

© All rights reserved McCrickard et al. and/or Academic Press

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Carroll, John M., Neale, Dennis C., Isenhour, Philip, Rosson, Mary Beth and McCrickard, D. Scott (2003): Notification and awareness: synchronizing task-oriented collaborative activity. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 58 (5) pp. 605-632.

People working collaboratively must establish and maintain awareness of one another's intentions, actions and results. Notification systems typically support awareness of the presence, tasks and actions of collaborators, but they do not adequately support awareness of persistent and complex activities. We analysed awareness breakdowns in use of our Virtual School system -- stemming from problems related to the collaborative situation, group, task and tool support -- to motivate the concept of activity awareness. Activity awareness builds on prior conceptions of social and action awareness, but emphasizes the importance of activity context factors like planning and coordination. This work suggests design strategies for notification systems to better support collaborative activity.

© All rights reserved Carroll et al. and/or Academic Press

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McCrickard, D. Scott, Chewar, C. M., Somervell, Jacob P. and Ndiwalana, Ali (2003): A model for notification systems evaluation -- assessing user goals for multitasking activity. In ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 10 (4) pp. 312-338.

Addressing the need to tailor usability evaluation methods (UEMs) and promote effective reuse of HCI knowledge for computing activities undertaken in divided-attention situations, we present the foundations of a unifying model that can guide evaluation efforts for notification systems. Often implemented as ubiquitous systems or within a small portion of the traditional desktop, notification systems typically deliver information of interest in a parallel, multitasking approach, extraneous or supplemental to a user's attention priority. Such systems represent a difficult challenge to evaluate meaningfully. We introduce a design model of user goals based on blends of three critical parameters -- interruption, reaction, and comprehension. Categorization possibilities form a logical, descriptive design space for notification systems, rooted in human information processing theory. This model allows conceptualization of distinct action models for at least eight classes of notification systems, which we describe and analyze with a human information processing model. System classification regions immediately suggest useful empirical and analytical evaluation metrics from related literature. We present a case study that demonstrates how these techniques can assist an evaluator in adapting traditional UEMs for notification and other multitasking systems. We explain why using the design model categorization scheme enabled us to generate evaluation results that are more relevant for the system redesign than the results of the original exploration done by the system's designers.

© All rights reserved McCrickard et al. and/or ACM Press

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Somervell, Jacob, Wahid, Shahtab and McCrickard, D. Scott (2003): Usability Heuristics for Large Screen Information Exhibits. In: Proceedings of IFIP INTERACT03: Human-Computer Interaction 2003, Zurich, Switzerland. p. 904.

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McCrickard, D. Scott and Chewar, Christa M. (2003): Attuning notification design to user goals and attention costs. In Communications of the ACM, 46 (3) pp. 67-72.

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McCrickard, D. Scott, Wrighton, David and Bussert, Dillon (2002): Supporting the Construction of Real World Interfaces. In: HCC 2002 - IEEE CS International Symposium on Human-Centric Computing Languages and Environments 3-6 September, 2002, Arlington, VA, USA. pp. 54-56.

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McCrickard, D. Scott (2001): The Effect of Changes in Information Access Times on Hypertext Choices. In: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2001. pp. 1086-1090.

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McCrickard, D. Scott, Catrambone, Richard and Stasko, John T. (2001): Evaluating Animation in the Periphery as a Mechanism for Maintaining Awareness. In: Proceedings of IFIP INTERACT01: Human-Computer Interaction 2001, Tokyo, Japan. pp. 148-156.

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Schafer, W. A., Helms, J. W., Ramnani, S., Suresh, S. and McCrickard, D. Scott (2001): Supporting Peripheral Web Awareness Using Wallpaper. In: Proceedings of IFIP INTERACT01: Human-Computer Interaction 2001, Tokyo, Japan. pp. 765-766.

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McCrickard, D. Scott and Catrambone, Richard (1999): Beyond the Scrollbar: An Evolution and Evaluation of Alternative Navigation Techniques. In: VL 1999 1999. pp. 270-.

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