Publication statistics

Pub. period:1995-2012
Pub. count:8
Number of co-authors:16


Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Michael A. Kowalski:
Nathan Dudley:
Bruce Gooch:



Productive colleagues

Cindy Grimm's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Karan Singh:23
Bruce Gooch:16
Elaine Cohen:12

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Cindy Grimm


Publications by Cindy Grimm (bibliography)

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Bailey, Reynold, McNamara, Ann, Costello, Aaron, Sridharan, Srinivas and Grimm, Cindy (2012): Impact of subtle gaze direction on short-term spatial information recall. In: Proceedings of the 2012 Symposium on Eye Tracking Research & Applications 2012. pp. 67-74. Available online

Contents of Visual Short-Term Memory depend highly on viewer attention. It is possible to influence where attention is allocated using a technique called Subtle Gaze Direction (SGD). SGD combines eye tracking with subtle image-space modulations to guide viewer gaze about a scene. Modulations are terminated before the viewer can scrutinize them with high acuity foveal vision. This approach is preferred to overt techniques that require permanent alterations to images to highlight areas of interest. In our study, participants were asked to recall the location of objects or regions in images. We investigated if using SGD to guide attention to these regions would improve recall. Results showed that the influence of SGD significantly improved accuracy of target count and spatial location recall. This has implications for a wide range of applications including spatial learning in virtual environments as well as image search applications, virtual training and perceptually based rendering.

© All rights reserved Bailey et al. and/or ACM Press

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Sridharan, Srinivas, McNamara, Ann and Grimm, Cindy (2012): Subtle gaze manipulation for improved mammography training. In: Proceedings of the 2012 Symposium on Eye Tracking Research & Applications 2012. pp. 75-82. Available online

We use the Subtle Gaze Direction technique (SGD) to guide novices as they try to find abnormalities in mammograms. SGD works by performing image-space modulations on specific regions of the peripheral vision to attract attention. Gaze is monitored and modulations are terminated before they are scrutinized with high-acuity foveal vision. This approach is preferred to overt techniques which permanently alter images to highlight areas of interest. SGD is used to guide novices along the scanpath of an expert radiologist. We hypothesized that this would increase the likelihood of novices correctly identifying irregularities. Results reveal that novices who were guided in this manner performed significantly better than the control group (no gaze manipulation). Furthermore, a short-term post-training lingering effect was observed among subjects guided using SGD. They continued to perform better than the control group once the training was complete and gaze manipulation was disabled.

© All rights reserved Sridharan et al. and/or ACM Press

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Lee, Sangwon, Feng, David, Grimm, Cindy and Gooch, Bruce (2008): A Sketch-Based User Interface for Reconstructing Architectural Drawings. In Comput. Graph. Forum, 27 (1) pp. 81-90. Available online

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Dudley, Nathan and Grimm, Cindy (2007): Non-photorealistic rendering of algorithmically generated trees. In: Braz, Jos, Vzquez, Pere-Pau and Pereira, Joo Madeiras (eds.) GRAPP 2007 - Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Computer Graphics Theory and Applications Volume GM-R March 8-11, 2007, Barcelona, Spain. pp. 197-203.

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Grimm, Cindy and Kowalski, Michael A. (2007): Painting lighting and viewing effects. In: Braz, Jos, Vzquez, Pere-Pau and Pereira, Joo Madeiras (eds.) GRAPP 2007 - Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Computer Graphics Theory and Applications Volume GM-R March 8-11, 2007, Barcelona, Spain. pp. 204-211.

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Singh, Karan, Grimm, Cindy and Sudarsanam, Nisha (2004): The IBar: a perspective-based camera widget. In: Proceedings of the 2004 ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology 2004. pp. 95-98. Available online

We present a new screen space widget, the IBar, for effective camera control in 3D graphics environments. The IBar provides a compelling interface for controlling scene perspective based on the artistic concept of vanishing points. Various handles on the widget manipulate multiple camera parameters simultaneously to create a single perceived projection change. For example, changing just the perspective distortion is accomplished by simultaneously decreasing the camera\'s distance to the scene while increasing focal length. We demonstrate that the IBar is easier to learn for novice users and improves their understanding of camera perspective.

© All rights reserved Singh et al. and/or ACM Press

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Grimm, Cindy and Ayers, Matthew (1998): A Framework for Synchronized Editing of Multiple Curve Representations. In Comput. Graph. Forum, 17 (3) pp. 31-40.

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Grimm, Cindy, Pugmire, David, Bloomenthal, Mark, Hughes, John and Cohen, Elaine (1995): Visual Interfaces for Solids Modeling. In: Robertson, George G. (ed.) Proceedings of the 8th annual ACM symposium on User interface and software technology November 15 - 17, 1995, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States. pp. 51-60. Available online

This paper explores the use of visual operators for solids modeling. We focus on designing interfaces for free-form operators such as blends, sweeps, and deformations, because these operators have a large number of interacting parameters whose effects are often determined by an underlying parameterization. In this type of interactive modeling good solutions to the design problem have aesthetic as well as engineering components. Traditionally, interaction with the parameters of these operators has been through text editors, curve editors, or trial-and-error with a slider bar. Parametric values have been estimated from data, but not interactively. These parameters are usually one- or two-dimensional, but the operators themselves are intrinsically three-dimensional in that they are used to model surfaces visualized in 3D. The traditional textual style of interaction is tedious and interposes a level of abstraction between the parameters and the resulting surface. A 3D visual interface has the potential to reduce or eliminate these problems by combining parameters and representing them with a higher-level visual tool. The visual tools we present not only speed up the process of determining good parameter values but also provide visual interactions that are either independent of the particular parameterizations or make explicit the effect of the parameterizations. Additionally, these tools can be manipulated in the same 3D space as the surfaces produced by the operators, supporting quick, interactive exploration of the large design space of these free-form operators. This paper discusses the difficulties in creating a coherent user interface for interactive modeling. To this end we present four principles for designing visual operators, using several free-form visual operators as concrete examples.

© All rights reserved Grimm et al. and/or ACM Press

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