Publication statistics

Pub. period:1992-2012
Pub. count:68
Number of co-authors:64


Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

David Ahlstrom:
Michael Moyle:
Lee Butts:



Productive colleagues

Andy Cockburn's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Saul Greenberg:140
Carl Gutwin:116
Ravin Balakrishnan:108

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Andy Cockburn

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Publications by Andy Cockburn (bibliography)

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Quinn, Philip, Cockburn, Andy, Casiez, Gry, Roussel, Nicolas and Gutwin, Carl (2012): Exposing and understanding scrolling transfer functions. In: Proceedings of the 2012 ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology 2012. pp. 341-350.

Scrolling is controlled through many forms of input devices, such as mouse wheels, trackpad gestures, arrow keys, and joysticks. Performance with these devices can be adjusted by introducing variable transfer functions to alter the range of expressible speed, precision, and sensitivity. However, existing transfer functions are typically "black boxes" bundled into proprietary operating systems and drivers. This presents three problems for researchers: (1) a lack of knowledge about the current state of the field; (2) a difficulty in replicating research that uses scrolling devices; and (3) a potential experimental confound when evaluating scrolling devices and techniques. These three problems are caused by gaps in researchers' knowledge about what device and movement factors are important for scrolling transfer functions, and about how existing devices and drivers use these factors. We fill these knowledge gaps with a framework of transfer function factors for scrolling, and a method for analysing proprietary transfer functions -- demonstrating how state of the art commercial devices accommodate some of the human control phenomena observed in prior studies.

© All rights reserved Quinn et al. and/or ACM Press

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Quinn, Philip, Cockburn, Andy, Rih, Kari-Jouko and Delamarche, Jrme (2011): On the costs of multiple trajectory pointing methods. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 859-862.

Several enhanced pointing techniques aim to reduce the Fitts' law targeting distance by providing multiple target trajectories in the hope that a shorter path is available. However, these techniques introduce a search or decision component to pointing users must examine the alternatives available and decide upon the trajectory to use. We analyse these difficulties, present a methodology for examining them as well as other behaviour issues, and report empirical results of performance with pointer wrapping and Ninja cursors. Results show that offering multiple trajectories incurs a significant search or decision cost, and that users are therefore poor at capitalising on the theoretical benefits of reduced target distance.

© All rights reserved Quinn et al. and/or their publisher

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Levesque, Vincent, Oram, Louise, MacLean, Karon, Cockburn, Andy, Marchuk, Nicholas D., Johnson, Dan, Colgate, J. Edward and Peshkin, Michael A. (2011): Enhancing physicality in touch interaction with programmable friction. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 2481-2490.

Touch interactions have refreshed some of the 'glowing enthusiasm' of thirty years ago for direct manipulation interfaces. However, today's touch technologies, whose interactions are supported by graphics, sounds or crude clicks, have a tactile sameness and gaps in usability. We use a Large Area Tactile Pattern Display (LATPaD) to examine design possibilities and outcomes when touch interactions are enhanced with variable surface friction. In a series of four studies, we first confirm that variable friction gives significant performance advantages in low-level targeting activities. We then explore the design space of variable friction interface controls and assess user reactions. Most importantly, we demonstrate that variable friction can have a positive impact on the enjoyment, engagement and sense of realism experienced by users of touch interfaces.

© All rights reserved Levesque et al. and/or their publisher

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Scarr, Joey, Cockburn, Andy, Gutwin, Carl and Quinn, Philip (2011): Dips and ceilings: understanding and supporting transitions to expertise in user interfaces. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 2741-2750.

Interface guidelines encourage designers to include shortcut mechanisms that enable high levels of expert performance, but prior research has demonstrated that few users switch to using them. To help understand how interfaces can better support a transition to expert performance we develop a framework of the interface and human factors influencing expertise development. We then present a system called Blur that addresses three main problems in promoting the transition: prompting an initial switch to expert techniques, minimising the performance dip arising from the switch, and enabling a high performance ceiling. Blur observes the user's interaction with unaltered desktop applications and uses calm notification to support learning and promote awareness of an alternative hot command interface. An empirical study validates Blur's design, showing that users make an early and sustained switch to hot commands, and that doing so improves their performance and satisfaction.

© All rights reserved Scarr et al. and/or their publisher

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Levesque, Vincent, Oram, Louise, MacLean, Karon, Cockburn, Andy, Marchuk, Nicholas, Johnson, Dan, Colgate, J. Edward and Peshkin, Michael (2011): Frictional widgets: enhancing touch interfaces with programmable friction. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 1153-1158.

Touch interactions occur through flat surfaces that lack the tactile richness of physical interfaces. We explore the design possibilities offered by augmenting touchscreens with programmable surface friction. Four exemplar applications -- an alarm clock, a file manager, a game, and a text editor -- demonstrate tactile effects that improve touch interactions by enhancing physicality, performance, and subjective satisfaction.

© All rights reserved Levesque et al. and/or their publisher

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Xiao, Robert, Nacenta, Miguel A., Mandryk, Regan L., Cockburn, Andy and Gutwin, Carl (2011): Ubiquitous cursor: a comparison of direct and indirect pointing feedback in multi-display environments. In: Proceedings of the 2011 Conference on Graphics Interface 2011. pp. 135-142.

Multi-display environments (MDEs) connect several displays into a single digital workspace. One of the main problems to be solved in an MDE's design is how to enable movement of objects from one display to another. When the real-world space between displays is modeled as part of the workspace (i.e., Mouse Ether), it becomes difficult for users to keep track of their cursors during a transition between displays. To address this problem, we developed the Ubiquitous Cursor system, which uses a projector and a hemispherical mirror to completely cover the interior of a room with usable low-resolution pixels. Ubiquitous Cursor allows us to provide direct feedback about the location of the cursor between displays. To assess the effectiveness of this direct-feedback approach, we carried out a study that compared Ubiquitous Cursor with two other standard approaches: Halos, which provide indirect feedback about the cursor's location; and Stitching, which warps the cursor between displays, similar to the way that current operating systems address multiple monitors. Our study tested simple cross-display pointing tasks in an MDE; the results showed that Ubiquitous Cursor was significantly faster than both other approaches. Our work shows the feasibility and the value of providing direct feedback for cross-display movement, and adds to our understanding of the principles underlying targeting performance in MDEs.

© All rights reserved Xiao et al. and/or their publisher

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Bateman, Scott, Doucette, Andre, Xiao, Robert, Gutwin, Carl, Mandryk, Regan L. and Cockburn, Andy (2011): Effects of view, input device, and track width on video game driving. In: Proceedings of the 2011 Conference on Graphics Interface 2011. pp. 207-214.

Steering and driving tasks -- where the user controls a vehicle or other object along a path -- are common in many simulations and games. Racing video games have provided users with different views of the visual environment -- e.g., overhead, first-person, and third-person views. Although research has been done in understanding how people perform using a first-person view in virtual reality and driving simulators, little empirical work has been done to understand the factors that affect performance in video games. To establish a foundation for thinking about view in the design of driving games and simulations, we carried out three studies that explored the effects of different view types on driving performance. We also considered how view interacts with difficulty and input device. We found that although there were significant effects of view on performance, these were not in line with conventional wisdom about view. Our explorations provide designers with new empirical knowledge about view and performance, but also raise a number of new research questions about the principles underlying view differences.

© All rights reserved Bateman et al. and/or their publisher

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Ens, Barrett, Ahlstrom, David, Cockburn, Andy and Irani, Pourang (2011): Characterizing user performance with assisted direct off-screen pointing. In: Proceedings of 13th Conference on Human-computer interaction with mobile devices and services 2011. pp. 485-494.

The limited viewport size of mobile devices requires that users continuously acquire information that lies beyond the edge of the screen. Recent hardware solutions are capable of continually tracking a user's finger around the device. This has created new opportunities for interactive solutions, such as direct off-screen pointing: the ability to directly point at objects that are outside the viewport. We empirically characterize user performance with direct off-screen pointing when assisted by target cues. We predict time and accuracy outcomes for direct off-screen pointing with existing and derived models. We validate the models with good results (R ≥ 0.9) and reveal that direct off-screen pointing takes up to four times longer than pointing at visible targets, depending on the desired accuracy tradeoff. Pointing accuracy degrades logarithmically with target distance. We discuss design implications in the context of several real-world applications.

© All rights reserved Ens et al. and/or ACM Press

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Ahlstrom, David, Cockburn, Andy, Gutwin, Carl and Irani, Pourang (2010): Why it's quick to be square: modelling new and existing hierarchical menu designs. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2010. pp. 1371-1380.

We consider different hierarchical menu and toolbar-like interface designs from a theoretical perspective and show how a model based on visual search time, pointing time, decision time and expertise development can assist in understanding and predicting interaction performance. Three hierarchical menus designs are modelled -- a traditional pull-down menu, a pie menu and a novel Square Menu with its items arranged in a grid -- and the predictions are validated in an empirical study. The model correctly predicts the relative performance of the designs -- both the eventual dominance of Square Menus compared to traditional and pie designs and a performance crossover as users gain experience. Our work shows the value of modelling in HCI design, provides new insights about performance with different hierarchical menu designs, and demonstrates a new high-performance menu type.

© All rights reserved Ahlstrom et al. and/or their publisher

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Tak, Susanne and Cockburn, Andy (2010): Improved window switching interfaces. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2010. pp. 2915-2918.

In this research, we explore ways of improving window switching interfaces. Empirical studies reveal how people currently organise and switch between windows. These characteristics inform our new design: Spatially Consistent Thumbnails Zones (SCOTZ).

© All rights reserved Tak and Cockburn and/or their publisher

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Cockburn, Andy and Gutwin, Carl (2010): A model of novice and expert navigation performance in constrained-input interfaces. In ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 17 (3) p. 13.

Many interactive systems require users to navigate through large sets of data and commands using constrained input devices -- such as scroll rings, rocker switches, or specialized keypads -- that provide less power and flexibility than traditional input devices like mice or touch screens. While performance with more traditional devices has been extensively studied in human-computer interaction, there has been relatively little investigation of human performance with constrained input. As a result, there is little understanding of what factors govern performance in these situations, and how interfaces should be designed to optimize interface actions such as navigation and selection. Since constrained input is now common in a wide variety of interactive systems (such as mobile phones, audio players, in-car navigation systems, and kiosk displays), it is important for designers to understand what factors affect performance. To aid in this understanding, we present the Constrained Input Navigation (CIN) model, a predictive model that allows accurate determination of human navigation and selection performance in constrained-input scenarios. CIN identifies three factors that underlie user efficiency: the performance of the interface type for single-level item selection (where interface type depends on the input and output devices, the interactive behavior, and the data organization), the hierarchical structure of the information space, and the user's experience with the items to be selected. We show through experiments that, after empirical calibration, the model's predictions fit empirical data well, and discuss why and how each of the factors affects performance. Models like CIN can provide valuable theoretical and practical benefits to designers of constrained-input systems, allowing them to explore and compare a much wider variety of alternate interface designs without the need for extensive user studies.

© All rights reserved Cockburn and Gutwin and/or ACM Press

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Cockburn, Andy (2010): Revisiting the human as an information processor. In: Proceedings of AUIC10, Australasian User Interface Conference 2010. p. 2.

In their seminal 1983 book 'The Psychology of Human-Computer Interaction', Card, Newell and Moran (ACM Fellows and Turing Award winners) introduced 'the model human information-processor'. This model equipped interface designers with strong theoretical tools to predict human interface performance without the demands of implementation and evaluation. In the quarter century since then, human-computer interaction research has been extremely successful in transitioning research ideas to commercial deployment, yet interface design remains something of an art that is dependent on time-consuming iterations of design, implement, and evaluate. Theoretical models of human performance are rarely used despite their potential. In this presentation I will describe several of our recent projects seeking to improve the efficiency of everyday activities in computer use, including scrolling, text messaging, window switching, and navigating through menu and file structures. The overriding theme, however, is on using theoretical human performance models to inform design, explain and predict performance, and to generalise results obtained. Ultimately, the objective is to give all computer science graduates the equivalent of a 'Big O' complexity theory for user interfaces that allows them to design with assurance.

© All rights reserved Cockburn and/or Australian Computer Society

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Fitchett, Stephen and Cockburn, Andy (2010): MultiScroll: using multitouch input to disambiguate relative and absolute mobile scroll modes. In: Proceedings of the HCI10 Conference on People and Computers XXIV 2010. pp. 393-402.

We propose MultiScroll, a general purpose hybrid scrolling technique that uses multitouch input to allow for a combination of rate based scrolling for navigating short and medium distances and zero-order scrolling for navigating large distances. The design challenges of supporting both scrolling modes on mobile devices are discussed, including the use of 'drift zones' and 'edge proximity warnings' to resolve potential problems of touch controlled mobile rate-based scrolling. Evaluations with participants both stationary and walking show the complimentary benefits of the techniques over flick scrolling across a variety of scrolling tasks.

© All rights reserved Fitchett and Cockburn and/or BCS

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Alexander, Jason, Cockburn, Andy, Fitchett, Stephen, Gutwin, Carl and Greenberg, Saul (2009): Revisiting read wear: analysis, design, and evaluation of a footprints scrollbar. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2009. pp. 1665-1674.

In this paper, we show that people frequently return to previously-visited regions within their documents, and that scrollbars can be enhanced to ease this task. We analysed 120 days of activity logs from Microsoft Word and Adobe Reader. Our analysis shows that region revisitation is a common activity that can be supported with relatively short recency lists. This establishes an empirical foundation for the design of an enhanced scrollbar containing scrollbar marks that helps people return to previously visited document regions. Two controlled experiments show that scrollbar marks decrease revisitation time, and that a large number of marks can be used effectively. We then design an enhanced Footprints scrollbar that supports revisitation with several features, including scrollbar marks and mark thumbnails. Two further experiments show that the Footprints scrollbar was frequently used and strongly preferred over traditional scrollbars.

© All rights reserved Alexander et al. and/or ACM Press

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Quinn, Philip and Cockburn, Andy (2009): Zoofing!: faster list selections with pressure-zoom-flick-scrolling. In: Proceedings of OZCHI09, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2009. pp. 185-192.

The task of list selection is fundamental to many user interfaces, and the traditional scrollbar is a control that does not utilise the rich input features of many mobile devices. We describe the design and evaluation of zoofing -- a list selection interface for touch/pen devices that combines pressure-based zooming and flick-based scrolling. While previous flick-based interfaces have performed similarly to traditional scrolling for short distances, and worse for long ones, zoofing outperforms (and is preferred to) traditional scrolling, flick-based scrolling, and OrthoZoom. We analyse experimental logs to understand how pressure was used and discuss directions for further work.

© All rights reserved Quinn and Cockburn and/or their publisher

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Fitchett, Stephen and Cockburn, Andy (2009): Evaluating reading and analysis tasks on mobile devices: a case study of tilt and flick scrolling. In: Proceedings of OZCHI09, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2009. pp. 225-232.

Flick scrolling is a natural scrolling method for mobile touch devices such as the iPhone. It is useful not only for its performance but perhaps even more so for its ease of use and user experience. Tilt scrolling instead uses the device's tilt to determine the rate of scrolling, which offers several potential interaction advantages over touch sensitive alternatives: scrolling can be achieved without occluding a large proportion of the screen with a hand, finger, or thumb; it frees drag input events for other important actions such as text selection and drag-and-drop; and it works regardless of the hand's state (e.g. moist or gloved). Although previously described, the performance of tilt scrolling has not been compared to flick scrolling, which is now the state of the art. Furthermore, it is unclear how such an empirical comparison should be conducted. To better understand interaction with mobile scrolling, we propose a new method of evaluating scrolling interfaces in the context of reading or analysis tasks. These activities typically involve slow subtle scroll movements rather than large movements typical investigated in most scrolling evaluations. We use this method to thoroughly compare flick scrolling and tilt scrolling. We show that tilt scrolling results in better performance for tasks performed while stationary while there is no significant difference while moving. However, we find that participants prefer flick scrolling and walk faster when completing moving tasks with flick scrolling than tilt scrolling.

© All rights reserved Fitchett and Cockburn and/or their publisher

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Tak, Susanne and Cockburn, Andy (2009): Window Watcher: a visualisation tool for understanding windowing activities. In: Proceedings of OZCHI09, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2009. pp. 241-248.

Almost all actions on a computer are mediated by windows, yet we know surprisingly little about how people coordinate their activities using these windows. Studies of window use are difficult for two reasons: gathering longitudinal data is problematic and it is unclear how to extract meaningful characterisations from the data. In this paper, we present a visualisation tool called Window Watcher that helps researchers understand and interpret low level event logs of window switching activities generated by our tool PyLogger. We describe its design objectives and demonstrate ways that it summarises and elucidates window use.

© All rights reserved Tak and Cockburn and/or their publisher

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Cockburn, Andy and Gutwin, Carl (2009): A Predictive Model of Human Performance With Scrolling and Hierarchical Lists. In Human-Computer Interaction, 24 (3) pp. 273-314.

Many interactive tasks in graphical user interfaces involve finding an item in a list but with the item not currently in sight. The two main ways of bringing the item into view are scrolling of one-dimensional lists and expansion of a level in a hierarchical list. Examples include selecting items in hierarchical menus and navigating through "tree" browsers to find files, folders, commands, or e-mail messages. System designers are often responsible for the structure and layout of these components, yet prior research provides conflicting results on how different structures and layouts affect user performance. For example, empirical research disagrees on whether the time to acquire targets in a scrolling list increases linearly or logarithmically with the length of the list; similarly, experiments have produced conflicting results for the comparative efficacy of "broad and shallow" versus "narrow and deep" hierarchical structures. In this article we continue in the human-computer interaction tradition of bringing theory to the debate, demonstrating that prior results regarding scrolling and hierarchical navigation are theoretically predictable and that the divergent results can be explained by the impact of the dataset's organization and the user's familiarity with the dataset. We argue and demonstrate that when users can anticipate the location of items in the list, the time to acquire them is best modeled by functions that are logarithmic with list length and that linear models arise when anticipation cannot be used. We then propose a formal model of item selection from hierarchical lists, which we validate by comparing its predictions with empirical data from prior studies and from our own. The model also accounts for the transition from novice to expert behavior with different datasets.

© All rights reserved Cockburn and Gutwin and/or Taylor and Francis

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Tanvir, Erum, Cullen, Jonathan, Irani, Pourang and Cockburn, Andy (2008): AAMU: adaptive activation area menus for improving selection in cascading pull-down menus. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2008 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 5-10, 2008. pp. 1381-1384.

Selecting items in cascading pull-down menus is a frequent task in most GUIs. These selections involve two major components: steering and selection, with the steering component being the most time-consuming and error-prone. We describe a new technique, called Adaptive Activation-Area Menu (AAMU) that eliminate corner steering. AAMUs contain an enlarged activation area which dynamically resizes itself providing a broader steering path for menu navigation. We also combined AAMUs with Force-field menus, to create Force-AAMUs. We empirically demonstrate that AAMUs and Force-AAMUs outperformed the current default menu. We also compared performances of various other menus including Enlarged activation area menus (EMUs) and Gesture based selection with mouse as an input device. Overall, users show higher satisfaction rates for AAMUs over other menu designs.

© All rights reserved Tanvir et al. and/or ACM Press

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Alexander, Jason and Cockburn, Andy (2008): An Empirical Characterisation of Electronic Document Navigation. In: Proceedings of the 2008 Conference on Graphics Interface May 28-30, 2008, Windsor, Ontario, Canada. pp. 123-130.

To establish an empirical foundation for analysis and redesign of document navigation tools, we implemented a system that logs all user actions within Microsoft Word and Adobe Reader. We then conducted a four month longitudinal study of fourteen users' document navigation activities. The study found that approximately half of all documents manipulated are reopenings of previously used documents and that recent document lists are rarely used to return to a document. The two most used navigation tools (by distance moved) are the mousewheel and scrollbar thumb, accounting for 44% and 29% of Word movement and 17% and 31% of Reader navigation. Participants were grouped into stereotypical navigator categories based on the tools they used the most. Majority of the navigation actions observed were short, both in distance (less than one page) and in time (less than one second). We identified three types of within document hunting, with the scrollbar identified as the greatest contributor.

© All rights reserved Alexander and Cockburn and/or their publisher

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Buchmann, Volkert, Billinghurst, Mark and Cockburn, Andy (2008): Directional interfaces for wearable augmented reality. In: CHINZ08 - the ACM SIGCHI New Zealand Chapters International Conference on Computer-Human Interaction 2008. pp. 47-54.

Wearable Augmented Reality can be used to overlay information onto the real world. Directional interfaces in wearable Augmented Reality aid users to orient themselves so that previously invisible targets are now inside their field of view. This is relevant when the user tries to find the next waypoint during a navigational task. We surveyed directional interfaces that have been used in Augmented Reality previously and compared their efficiency. We have found that a circular compass is the most efficient way to provide orientation cues.

© All rights reserved Buchmann et al. and/or ACM Press

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Casiez, Gry, Vogel, Daniel, Balakrishnan, Ravin and Cockburn, Andy (2008): The Impact of Control-Display Gain on User Performance in Pointing Tasks. In Human-Computer Interaction, 23 (3) pp. 215-250.

We theoretically and empirically examine the impact of control display (CD) gain on mouse pointing performance. Two techniques for modifying CD gain are considered: constant gain (CG) where CD gain is uniformly adjusted by a constant multiplier, and pointer acceleration (PA) where CD gain is adjusted using a nonuniform function depending on movement characteristics. Both CG and PA are evaluated at various levels of relationship between mouse and cursor movement: from low levels, which have a near one-to-one mapping, through to high levels that aggressively amplify mouse movement. We further derive a model predicting the modification in motor-space caused by pointer acceleration. Experiments are then conducted on a standard desktop display and on a very large high-resolution display, allowing us to measure performance in high index of difficulty tasks where the effect of clutching may be pronounced. The evaluation apparatus was designed to minimize device quantization effects and used accurate 3D motion tracking equipment to analyze users' limb movements. On both displays, and in both gain techniques, we found that low levels of CD gain had a marked negative effect on performance, largely because of increased clutching and maximum limb speeds. High gain levels had relatively little impact on performance, with only a slight increase in time when selecting very small targets at high levels of constant gain. On the standard desktop display, pointer acceleration resulted in 3.3% faster pointing than constant gain and up to 5.6% faster with small targets. This supported the theoretical prediction of motor-space modification but fell short of the theoretical potential, possibly because PA caused an increase in target overshooting. Both techniques were accurately modeled by Fitts' law in all gain settings except for when there was a significant amount of clutching. From our results, we derive a usable range of CD gain settings between thresholds of speed and accuracy given the capabilities of a pointing device, display, and the expected range of target widths and distances.

© All rights reserved Casiez et al. and/or Taylor and Francis

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Quinn, Philip, Cockburn, Andy and Gutwin, Carl (2008): An investigation of dynamic landmarking functions. In: Levialdi, Stefano (ed.) AVI 2008 - Proceedings of the working conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces May 28-30, 2008, Napoli, Italy. pp. 322-325.

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Ramos, Gonzalo, Cockburn, Andy, Balakrishnan, Ravin and Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel (2007): Pointing lenses: facilitating stylus input through visual-and motor-space magnification. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2007 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2007. pp. 757-766.

Using a stylus on a tablet computer to acquire small targets can be challenging. In this paper we present pointing lenses -- interaction techniques that help users acquire and select targets by presenting them with an enlarged visual and interaction area. We present and study three pointing lenses for pen-based systems and find that our proposed Pressure-Activated Lens is the top overall performer in terms of speed, accuracy and user preference. In addition, our experimental results not only show that participants find all pointing lenses beneficial for targets smaller than 5 pixels, but they also suggest that this benefit may extend to larger targets as well.

© All rights reserved Ramos et al. and/or ACM Press

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Hancock, Mark, Carpendale, Sheelagh and Cockburn, Andy (2007): Shallow-depth 3d interaction: design and evaluation of one-, two- and three-touch techniques. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2007 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2007. pp. 1147-1156.

On traditional tables, people frequently use the third dimension to pile, sort and store objects. However, while effective and informative for organization, this use of the third dimension does not usually extend far above the table. To enrich interaction with digital tables, we present the concept of shallow-depth 3D -- 3D interaction with limited depth. Within this shallow-depth 3D environment several common interaction methods need to be reconsidered. Starting from any of one, two and three touch points, we present interaction techniques that provide control of all types of 3D rotation coupled with translation (6DOF) on a direct-touch tabletop display. The different techniques exemplify a wide range of interaction possibilities: from the one-touch technique, which is designed to be simple and natural, but inherits a degree of imprecision from its simplicity; through to three-touch interaction, which allows precise bimanual simultaneous control of multiple degrees of freedom, but at the cost of simplicity. To understand how these techniques support interaction in shallow-depth 3D, we present a user study that examines the efficiency of, and preferences for, the techniques developed. Results show that users are fastest and most accurate when using the three-touch technique and that their preferences were also strongly in favour of the expressive power available from three-touch.

© All rights reserved Hancock et al. and/or ACM Press

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Cockburn, Andy, Kristensson, Per-Ola, Alexander, Jason and Zhai, Shumin (2007): Hard lessons: effort-inducing interfaces benefit spatial learning. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2007 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2007. pp. 1571-1580.

Interface designers normally strive for a design that minimises the user's effort. However, when the design's objective is to train users to interact with interfaces that are highly dependent on spatial properties (e.g. keypad layout or gesture shapes) we contend that designers should consider explicitly increasing the mental effort of interaction. To test the hypothesis that effort aids spatial memory, we designed a "frost-brushing" interface that forces the user to mentally retrieve spatial information, or to physically brush away the frost to obtain visual guidance. We report results from two experiments using virtual keypad interfaces -- the first concerns spatial location learning of buttons on the keypad, and the second concerns both location and trajectory learning of gesture shape. The results support our hypothesis, showing that the frost-brushing design improved spatial learning. The participants' subjective responses emphasised the connections between effort, engagement, boredom, frustration, and enjoyment, suggesting that effort requires careful parameterisation to maximise its effectiveness.

© All rights reserved Cockburn et al. and/or ACM Press

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Cockburn, Andy, Gutwin, Carl and Alexander, Jason (2006): Faster document navigation with space-filling thumbnails. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2006 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2006. pp. 1-10.

Scrolling is the standard way to navigate through many types of digital documents. However, moving more than a few pages can be slow because all scrolling techniques constrain visual search to only a small document region. To improve document navigation, we developed Space-Filling Thumbnails (SFT), an overview display that eliminates most scrolling. SFT provides two views: a standard page view for reading, and a thumbnail view that shows all pages. We tested SFT in three experiments that involved finding pages in documents. The first study (n=13) compared seven current scrolling techniques, and showed that SFT is significantly faster than the other methods. The second and third studies (n=32 and n=14) were detailed comparisons of SFT with thumbnail-enhanced scrollbars (TES), which performed well in the first experiment. SFT was faster than TES across all document types and lengths, particularly when tasks involved revisitation. In addition, SFT was strongly preferred by participants.

© All rights reserved Cockburn et al. and/or ACM Press

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Hauber, Jorg, Regenbrecht, Holger, Billinghurst, Mark and Cockburn, Andy (2006): Spatiality in videoconferencing: trade-offs between efficiency and social presence. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW06 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2006. pp. 413-422.

In this paper, we explore ways to combine the video of a remote person with a shared tabletop display to best emulate face-to-face collaboration. Using a simple photo application we compare a variety of social and performance measures of collaboration of a standard non-spatial 2D interface with two approaches for adding spatial cues to videoconferencing: one based on simulated immersive 3D, the other based on video streams in a physically fixed arrangement around an interactive table. A face-to-face condition is included as a 'gold-standard' control. As expected, social presence and task measures were superior in the face-to-face condition, but there were also important differences between the 2D and spatial interfaces. In particular, the spatial interfaces positively influenced social presence and copresence measures in comparison to 2D, but the task measures favored the two-dimensional interface.

© All rights reserved Hauber et al. and/or ACM Press

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Cockburn, Andy and Gin, Andrew (2006): Faster cascading menu selections with enlarged activation areas. In: Proceedings of the 2006 Conference on Graphics Interface 2006. pp. 65-71.

Cascading menus are used in almost all graphical user interfaces. Most current cascade widgets implement an explicit delay between the cursor entering/leaving a parent cascade menu item and posting/unposting the associated menu. The delay allows users to make small steering errors while dragging across items, and it allows optimal diagonal paths from parent to cascade items. However, the delay slows the pace of interaction for users who wait for the delay to expire, and it demands jerky discrete movements for experts who wish to pre-empt the delay by clicking. This paper describes Enlarged activation area MenUs (EMUs), which have two features: first, they increase the area of the parent menu associated with each cascade; second, they eliminate the posting and unposting delay. An evaluation shows that EMUs allow cascade items to be selected up to 29% faster than traditional menus, without harming top-level item selection times. They also have a positive smoothing effect on menu selections, allowing continuous sweeping selections in contrast to discrete movements that are punctuated with clicks.

© All rights reserved Cockburn and Gin and/or Canadian Information Processing Society

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Cockburn, Andy and Brock, Philip (2006): Human on-line response to visual and motor target expansion. In: Proceedings of the 2006 Conference on Graphics Interface 2006. pp. 81-87.

The components of graphical user interfaces can be made to dynamically expand as the cursor approaches, providing visually appealing effects. Expansion can be implemented in a variety of ways: in some cases the targets expand visually while maintaining a constant smaller motor-space for selection; and in others both the visual and motor-spaces of the objects are enlarged. Previous research by McGuffin&Balakrishnan [15], and confirmed by Zhai et al. [19], has shown that enlarged motor-space expansion improves acquisition performance. It remains unclear, however, what proportion of the performance improvement is due to the enlarged motor-space, and what to the confirmation of the over-target state provided by visual expansion. We report on two experiments which indicate that for small targets, visual expansion in unaltered motor-space results in similar performance gains to enlarged motor-spaces. These experiments are based on tasks where users are unable to anticipate the behaviour of the targets. Implications for commercial use of visual expansion in unaltered motor-space are discussed.

© All rights reserved Cockburn and Brock and/or Canadian Information Processing Society

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Jurgens, Volkert, Cockburn, Andy and Billinghurst, Mark (2006): Depth cues for augmented reality stakeout. In: Proceedings of CHINZ06, the ACM SIGCHI New Zealand Chapters International Conference on Computer-Human Interaction 2006. pp. 117-124.

We present the results of a study that compares a range of depth cues for an augmented reality (AR) stakeout application. AR stakeout is the process of placing a real pole on a virtual marker on the ground. Such an application is for example relevant for construction work or surveying. In AR stakeout, interaction takes place at a distance of about 2m from the eye; a distance that has been neglected by AR depth perception research. We compared the performance of six different AR depth cue conditions at two different accuracy requirements. Subjective preferences were strongly in favour of "cast circle", a depth cue introduced in this paper, while there was no significant difference in performance between the conditions. An analysis of the movement patterns indicated that the participants' targeting strategy relied on kinesthetic rather than visual feedback. These movement patterns provide a vantage point for future strategies of targeting support.

© All rights reserved Jurgens et al. and/or ACM Press

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Gutwin, Carl and Cockburn, Andy (2006): Improving list revisitation with ListMaps. In: Celentano, Augusto (ed.) AVI 2006 - Proceedings of the working conference on Advanced visual interfaces May 23-26, 2006, Venezia, Italy. pp. 396-403.

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Jones, Steve, Jones, Matt, Marsden, Gary, Patel, Dynal and Cockburn, Andy (2005): An evaluation of integrated zooming and scrolling on small screens. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 63 (3) pp. 271-303.

Speed-dependent automatic zooming (SDAZ) has been proposed for standard desktop displays as a means of overcoming problems associated with the navigation of large information spaces. SDAZ combines zooming and panning facilities into a single operation, with the magnitude of both factors dependent on simple user interaction. Previous research indicated dramatic user performance improvements when using the technique for document and map navigation tasks. In this paper, we propose algorithmic extensions to the technique for application on small-screen devices and present a comparative experimental evaluation of user performance with the system and a normative scroll-zoom-pan interface. Users responded positively to the system, particularly in relation to reduced physical navigational workload. However, the reduced screen space reduced the impact of SDAZ in comparison to that reported in previous studies. In fact, for one-dimensional navigation (vertical document navigation) the normative interface out-performed SDAZ. For navigation in two dimensions (map browsing) SDAZ supports more accurate target location, and also produces longer task completion times. Some SDAZ users became lost within the information space and were unable to recover navigational context. We discuss the reasons for these observations and suggest ways in which limitations of SDAZ in the small-screen context may be overcome.

© All rights reserved Jones et al. and/or Academic Press

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Cockburn, Andy, Savage, Joshua and Wallace, Andrew (2005): Tuning and testing scrolling interfaces that automatically zoom. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 71-80.

Speed dependent automatic zooming (SDAZ) is a promising refinement to scrolling in which documents are automatically zoomed-out as the scroll rate increases. By automatically zooming, the visual flow rate is reduced enabling rapid scrolling without motion blur. In order to aid SDAZ calibration we theoretically and empirically scrutinise human factors of the speed/zoom relationship. We then compare user performance with four alternative text-document scrolling systems, two of which employ automatic zooming. One of these systems, which we term 'DDAZ', is based on van Wijk and Nuij's recent and important theory that calculates optimal pan/zoom paths between known locations in 2D space. van Wijk and Nuij suggested that their theory could be applied to scrolling, but did not implement or test their formulaic suggestions. Participants in our evaluation (n=27) completed scrolling tasks most rapidly when using SDAZ, followed by DDAZ, normal scrollbars, and traditional rate-based scrolling. Workload assessments and preferences strongly favoured SDAZ. We finish by examining issues for consideration in commercial deployments.

© All rights reserved Cockburn et al. and/or ACM Press

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Billinghurst, Mark and Cockburn, Andy (eds.) AUIC 2005 - User Interfaces 2005 - Sixth Australasian User Interface Conference January-February, 2005, Newcastle, NSW, Australia.

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Rennie, L. and Cockburn, Andy (2005): Aiding Text Entry of Foreign Alphabets with Visual Keyboard Plus. In: Billinghurst, Mark and Cockburn, Andy (eds.) AUIC 2005 - User Interfaces 2005 - Sixth Australasian User Interface Conference January-February, 2005, Newcastle, NSW, Australia. pp. 119-125.

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Blinman, Scott and Cockburn, Andy (2005): Program Comprehension: Investigating the Effects of Naming Style and Documentation. In: Billinghurst, Mark and Cockburn, Andy (eds.) AUIC 2005 - User Interfaces 2005 - Sixth Australasian User Interface Conference January-February, 2005, Newcastle, NSW, Australia. pp. 73-78.

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Wright, Timothy N. and Cockburn, Andy (2005): Evaluation of Two Textual Programming Notations for Children. In: Billinghurst, Mark and Cockburn, Andy (eds.) AUIC 2005 - User Interfaces 2005 - Sixth Australasian User Interface Conference January-February, 2005, Newcastle, NSW, Australia. pp. 55-62.

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Cockburn, Andy (ed.) AUIC2004 - User Interfaces 2004 - Fifth Australasian User Interface Conference 18-22 January, 2004, Dunedin, New Zealand.

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Wallace, Andrew, Savage, Joshua and Cockburn, Andy (2004): Rapid Visual Flow: How Fast Is Too Fast?. In: Cockburn, Andy (ed.) AUIC2004 - User Interfaces 2004 - Fifth Australasian User Interface Conference 18-22 January, 2004, Dunedin, New Zealand. pp. 117-122.

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Cockburn, Andy (2004): Revisiting 2D vs 3D Implications on Spatial Memory. In: Cockburn, Andy (ed.) AUIC2004 - User Interfaces 2004 - Fifth Australasian User Interface Conference 18-22 January, 2004, Dunedin, New Zealand. pp. 25-31.

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Cockburn, Andy and Smith, Matthew (2003): Hidden messages: evaluating the efficiency of code elision in program navigation. In Interacting with Computers, 15 (3) pp. 387-407.

Text elision is a user interface technique that aims to improve the efficiency of navigating through information by allowing regions of text to be 'folded' into and out of the display. Several researchers have argued that elision interfaces are particularly suited to source code editing because they allow programmers to focus on relevant code regions while suppressing the display of irrelevant information. Elision features are now appearing in commercial systems for software development. There is, however, a lack of empirical evidence of the technique's efficiency. This paper presents an empirical evaluation of source code elision using a Java program editor. The evaluation compared a normal 'flat text' editor with two versions that diminished elided text to levels that were 'just legible' and 'illegible'. Performance was recorded in four tasks involving navigation through programs. Results show that programmers were able to complete their tasks more rapidly when using the elision interfaces, particularly in larger program files. Although several participants indicated a preference for the just legible elision interface, performance was best with illegible elision.

© All rights reserved Cockburn and Smith and/or Elsevier Science

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Wright, Timothy N. and Cockburn, Andy (2003): A language and task-based taxonomy of programming environments. In: HCC 2003 - IEEE Symposium on Human Centric Computing Languages and Environments 28-31 October, 2003, Auckland, New Zealand. pp. 192-194.

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Jasonsmith, Michael and Cockburn, Andy (2003): Get a Way Back: Evaluating Retrieval from History Lists. In: Biddle, Robert and Thomas, Bruce H. (eds.) AUIC2003 - User Interfaces 2003 - Fourth Australasian User Interface Conference February , 2003, Adelaide, South Australia. pp. 33-38.

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Moyle, Michael and Cockburn, Andy (2003): The Design and Evaluation of a Flick Gesture for 'Back' and 'Forward' in Web Browsers. In: Biddle, Robert and Thomas, Bruce H. (eds.) AUIC2003 - User Interfaces 2003 - Fourth Australasian User Interface Conference February , 2003, Adelaide, South Australia. pp. 39-46.

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Cockburn, Andy and McKenzie, Bruce (2002): Evaluating the effectiveness of spatial memory in 2D and 3D physical and virtual environments. In: Terveen, Loren (ed.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2002 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 20-25, 2002, Minneapolis, Minnesota. pp. 203-210.

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Cockburn, Andy, McKenzie, Bruce and Jasonsmith, Michael (2002): Pushing back: evaluating a new behaviour for the back and forward buttons in web browsers. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 57 (5) pp. 397-414.

The Back button on web browsers is one of the world's most heavily used user interface components, yet its behaviour is commonly misunderstood. This paper describes the evaluation of a "temporal" alternative to the normal "stack-based" behaviour of Back and Forward. The main difference of the temporal scheme is that it maintains a complete list of previously visited pages. The evaluation compares the efficiency of the stack and temporal schemes in an "out of the box" scenario in which participants were asked to use a "new" version of a commercial browser without any explanation of the presence or absence of new features. This scenario allows us to predict the likely usability impact if commercial browsers were released supporting the temporal scheme. The results showed that the relative efficiency of the two schemes differed across different types of navigational task. In particular, the temporal system poorly supported backtracking to parent pages, but performed better for more distant navigation tasks. The temporal scheme also caused extreme usage patterns, with the subjects either solving tasks very efficiently or very inefficiently, depending on whether they used the Back menu. This observation indicates that adaptations of the temporal system that improve the effectiveness of the Back menu may enhance web navigation.

© All rights reserved Cockburn et al. and/or Academic Press

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Wright, Timothy N. and Cockburn, Andy (2002): Mulspren: a MUltiple Language Simulation PRogramming ENvironment. In: HCC 2002 - IEEE CS International Symposium on Human-Centric Computing Languages and Environments 3-6 September, 2002, Arlington, VA, USA. pp. 101-103.

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Butts, Lee and Cockburn, Andy (2002): An Evaluation of Mobile Phone Text Input Methods. In: Grundy, John C. and Calder, Paul R. (eds.) AUIC2002 - User Interfaces 2002 - Third Australasian User Interface Conference January-February, 2002, Melbourne, Victoria. pp. 55-59.

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Cockburn, Andy and McKenzie, Bruce (2001): 3D or Not 3D?: Evaluating the Effect of the Third Dimension in a Document Management System. In: Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel and Jacob, Robert J. K. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2001 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference March 31 - April 5, 2001, Seattle, Washington, USA. pp. 434-441.

Several recent research systems have provided interactive three-dimensional (3D) visualisations for supporting everyday work such as file and document management. But what improvements do these 3D interfaces offer over their traditional 2D counterparts? This paper describes the comparative evaluation of two document management systems that differ only in the number of dimensions used for displaying and interacting with the data. The 3D system is heavily based on Robertson et al.'s Data Mountain, which supports users in storing, organising and retrieving 'thumbnail' representations of documents such as bookmarked Web-pages. Results show that our subjects were faster at storing and retrieving pages in the display when using the 2D interface, but not significantly so. As expected, retrieval times significantly increased as the number of thumbnails increased. Despite the lack of significant differences between the 2D and 3D interfaces, subjective assessments showed a significant preference for the 3D interface.

© All rights reserved Cockburn and McKenzie and/or ACM Press

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Cockburn, Andy and McKenzie, Bruce (2001): What do Web Users Do? An Empirical Analysis of Web Use. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 54 (6) pp. 903-922.

This paper provides an empirical characterization of user actions at the web browser. The study is based on an analysis of 4 months of logged client-side data that describes user actions with recent versions of Netscape Navigator. In particular, the logged data allow us to determine the title, URL and time of each page visit, how often they visited each page, how long they spent at each page, the growth and content of bookmark collections, as well as a variety of other aspects of user interaction with the web. The results update and extend prior empirical characterizations of web use. Among the results we show that web page revisitation is a much more prevalent activity than previously reported (approximately 81% of pages have been previously visited by the user), that most pages are visited for a surprisingly short period of time, that users maintain large (and possibly overwhelming) bookmark collections, and that there is a marked lack of commonality in the pages visited by different users. These results have implications for a wide range of web-based tools including the interface features provided by web browsers, the design of caching proxy servers, and the design of efficient web sites.

© All rights reserved Cockburn and McKenzie and/or Academic Press

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McKenzie, Bruce J. and Cockburn, Andy (2001): An Empirical Analysis of Web Page Revisitation. In: HICSS 2001 2001. .

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Cockburn, Andy and Weir, Philip (1999): An Investigation of Groupware Support for Collaborative Awareness Through Distortion-Oriented Views. In International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 11 (3) pp. 231-255.

This article reviews models and theoretical frameworks of collaborative awareness in the use of real-time groupware systems. The review is used to motivate and guide an investigation of distortion-oriented mechanisms for supporting collaborators' fluid and dynamic awareness requirements. We describe our development and evaluation of DOME, a distortion-oriented multiuser editor. Although we designed DOME to provide a realistic and useful platform for the investigation of awareness concepts, our evaluation revealed major flaws in its support for distortion-oriented awareness. We analyze the cause of these errors, some of which were not detected in prior work, and provide precise formulations that will overcome them.

© All rights reserved Cockburn and Weir and/or Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

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Cockburn, Andy and Greenberg, Saul (1998): The Design and Evolution of Turboturtle, a Collaborative Microworld for Exploring Newtonian Physics. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 48 (6) pp. 777-801.

TurboTurtle is a dynamic multi-user microworld for the exploration of Newtonian physics. With TurboTurtle, students can alter the attributes of the simulation environment, such as gravity, friction, and presence or absence of walls. Students explore the microworld by manipulating a variety of parameters, and learn concepts by studying the behaviours and interactions that occur. TurboTurtle has evolved into a "group-aware" system where several students, each on their own computer, can simultaneously control the microworld and gesture around the shared display. TurboTurtle's design rationale includes concepts such as equal opportunity controls, simulation timing, concrete vs. abstract controls, recoverability, and how strictly views should be shared between students. Teachers can also add structure to the group's activities by setting the simulation environment to an interesting state, which includes a set of problems and questions. Observations of pairs of young children using TurboTurtle highlight extremes in collaboration styles, from conflict to smooth interaction. Finally, the technical work in making TurboTurtle group-aware is slight, primarily because it was built with a groupware toolkit called GroupKit.

© All rights reserved Cockburn and Greenberg and/or Academic Press

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Weir, Philip and Cockburn, Andy (1998): Distortion-Oriented Workspace Awareness in DOME. In: Johnson, Hilary, Nigay, Laurence and Roast, C. R. (eds.) Proceedings of the Thirteenth Conference of the British Computer Society Human Computer Interaction Specialist Group - People and Computers XIII August 1-4, 1998, Sheffield, UK. pp. 239-252.

Distortion-oriented visualization techniques such as magnification-lenses, zooming functions and fish-eye views are useful in a wide range of single-user computing systems. They assist visualization of large information spaces by easing the transition between high-levels of detail in a local area of interest and the global context of the information space. In real-time groupware environments, distortion-oriented visualizations offer additional benefits. By providing one distorted region for each user of a groupware workspace, users can maintain an awareness of the location and activities of their colleagues while simultaneously having a focused area of detail for their own work. We describe the design and evaluation of DOME, a fully-functional distortion-oriented multi-user editor. Unexpected usability problems and potential solutions are discussed.

© All rights reserved Weir and Cockburn and/or Springer Verlag

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Cockburn, Andy and Bryant, Andrew (1998): Cleogo: Collaborative and Multi-Metaphor Programming for Kids. In: Third Asian Pacific Computer and Human Interaction July 15-17, 1998, Kangawa, Japan. pp. 189-195.

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Cockburn, Andy and Dale, Tony (1997): CEVA: A Tool for Collaborative Video Analysis. In: Payne, Stephen C. and Prinz, Wolfgang (eds.) Proceedings of the International ACM SIGGROUP Conference on Supporting Group Work 1997 November 11-19, 1997, Phoenix, Arizona, USA. pp. 47-55.

Video protocol analysis is a standard technique in many research disciplines including human-computer interaction and computer supported cooperative work. It is notoriously time consuming, and a variety of single-user computer based tools have been developed to ease the task. This paper examines collaborative video analysis. The motivation for groupware tools for video analysis is described, and the desirable features of such tools are identified. The design, implementation, and preliminary evaluation of a prototype synchronous groupware tool for video analysis, CEVA, are described.

© All rights reserved Cockburn and Dale and/or ACM Press

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Cockburn, Andy and Bryant, Andrew (1997): Leogo: An Equal Opportunity User Interface for Programming. In J. Vis. Lang. Comput., 8 (5) pp. 601-619.

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Jones, Steve and Cockburn, Andy (1996): A Study of Navigational Support Provided by Two World Wide Web Browsing Applications. In: Hypertext 96 - Proceedings of the Seventh ACM Conference on Hypertext March 16-20, 1996, Washington, DC. pp. 161-169.

This paper describes a usability study of the Hypertext navigation facilities provided by two popular World Wide Web client applications (also termed 'browsers'). We detail the navigation tools provided by the clients and describe their underlying page retrieval models. We introduce a notation that represents the system states resulting from the user's navigation actions in World Wide Web subspaces. The notation is used to analyse the client applications. We find that the client user interfaces present a model of navigation that conflicts with the underlying stack-based system model. A small usability study was carried out to investigate the effects of the clients' browser behaviour on users. The study reveals that users have incorrect models of their navigation support, and they have little confidence in the application of their models when using the clients. The paper concludes with a description of future work and a discussion of implications for WWW page and client designers.

© All rights reserved Jones and Cockburn and/or ACM Press

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Cockburn, Andy and Jones, Steve (1996): Which Way Now? Analysing and Easing Inadequacies in WWW Navigation. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 45 (1) pp. 105-129.

This paper examines the usability of the hypertext navigation facilities provided by World Wide Web client applications. A notation is defined to represent the user's navigational acts and the resultant system states. The notation is used to report potential, or "theoretical" problems in the models of navigation supported by three web client applications. A usability study confirms that these problems emerge in actual use, and demonstrates that incorrect user models of the clients' facilities are common. A usability analysis identifies inadequacies in the clients' interfaces. Motivated by the analysis of usability problems, we propose extensions to the design of WWW client applications. These proposals are demonstrated by our system WEBNET which uses dynamic graphical overview diagrams to extend the navigational facilities of conventional World Wide Web client applications. Related work on graphical overview diagrams for web navigation is reviewed.

© All rights reserved Cockburn and Jones and/or Academic Press

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Greenberg, Saul, Gutwin, Carl and Cockburn, Andy (1996): Using Distortion-Oriented Displays to Support Workspace Awareness. In: Sasse, Martina Angela, Cunningham, R. J. and Winder, R. L. (eds.) Proceedings of the Eleventh Conference of the British Computer Society Human Computer Interaction Specialist Group - People and Computers XI August, 1996, London, UK. pp. 299-314.

Desktop conferencing systems are now moving away from strict view-sharing and towards relaxed 'what you see is what I see' (relaxed-WYSIWIS) interfaces, where distributed participants in a real time session can view different parts of a shared visual workspace. As with strict view-sharing, people using relaxed-WYSIWIS require a sense of workspace awareness -- the up-to-the-minute knowledge about another person's interactions with the shared workspace. The problem is deciding how to provide a user with an appropriate level of awareness of what other participants are doing when they are working in different areas of the workspace. In this paper, we propose distortion-oriented displays as a novel way of providing this awareness. These displays, which employ magnification lenses and fisheye view techniques, show global context and local detail within a single window, providing both peripheral and detailed awareness of other participants' actions. Three prototypes are presented as examples of groupware distortion-oriented displays: the fisheye text viewer, the offset lens, and the head-up lens.

© All rights reserved Greenberg et al. and/or Springer Verlag

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Greenberg, Saul, Gutwin, Carl and Cockburn, Andy (1996): Awareness through fisheye views in relaxed-WYSIWIS groupware. In: Graphics Interface 96 May 22-24, 1996, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. pp. 28-38.

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Cockburn, Andy and Jones, Steve (1995): Four Principles of Groupware Design. In Interacting with Computers, 7 (2) pp. 195-210.

Groupware design is at a stage where identification, clarification and validation of best practice is critical if its potential is to be realised. The paper examines and records the major causes of groupware failure, and provides four groupware design principles that encapsulate the problems and guide design teams around them. The principles provide an extendable framework that is a synthesis of design lessons recorded in CSCW literature.

© All rights reserved Cockburn and Jones and/or Elsevier Science

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Cockburn, Andy and Jones, Steve (1994): Four Principles for Groupware Design. In: Proceedings of OZCHI94, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1994. pp. 21-26.

Participatory design amalgamates the expertise of interdisciplinary specialists with the task-specific expertise of end-users. Groupware design is widely recognised as benefiting from participative approaches. Recognition of this ideal, however, does not preclude the failure of groupware design due to poor communication and inadequate understanding. This paper provides a grounding in the problems affecting groupware's success, and introduces four design principles. These principles guide all those involved in design around the pitfalls that have been encountered, some repeatedly, by groupware.

© All rights reserved Cockburn and Jones and/or Ergonomics Society of Australia

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Cockburn, Andy (1994): Turbo-Turtle: Educating Children in an Alternative Reality Universe. In: Proceedings of OZCHI94, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1994. pp. 99-105.

This paper describes an educational programming language called turbo-turtle. Turbo-turtle is an extended dialect of Logo that allows Logo turtles to be assigned physical properties such as mass, velocity, friction, and acceleration. The users, primarily children, experiment with Newtonian Laws of motion in an abstracted, dynamic, and engaging environment. In turbo-turtle's "alternative reality universe" children play with physics. The human factors and interface issues that govern the success of turbo-turtle are examined both a the interface and through it.

© All rights reserved Cockburn and/or Ergonomics Society of Australia

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Cockburn, Andy and Thimbleby, Harold (1993): Reducing User Effort in Collaboration Support. In: Gray, Wayne D., Hefley, William and Murray, Dianne (eds.) International Workshop on Intelligent User Interfaces 1993 January 4-7, 1993, Orlando, Florida, USA. pp. 215-218.

The value of electronic mail as a medium for collaborative and coordinated work can be enhanced by relating messages to conversations. While some groupware systems have offered such facilities, their ability to assess conversational context is dependent on explicit user action and the use of specific systems by all collaborators. This paper describes Mona, a novel conversation based email platform. Mona provides a hypertext representation of conversational context without requiring any additional effort from the user or the use of specific email systems by other collaborators. Mona's lack of requirements and independence is made possible by inferring conversational context with heuristics using information inherently transferred in all email communications. Mona's heuristics are described, as are its mechanisms for personalising conversation views.

© All rights reserved Cockburn and Thimbleby and/or ACM Press

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Cockburn, Andy and Greenberg, Saul (1993): Making Contact: Getting the Group Communicating with Groupware. In: Kaplan, Simon M. (ed.) Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Organizational Computing Systems 1993 November 1-4, 1993, Milpitas, California, USA. pp. 31-41.

While groupware is readily available, people on wide area networks -- such as the Internet -- have considerable trouble contacting each other and setting up groupware connections. To pinpoint why this occurs, this paper identifies human factors critical to getting a group communicating through groupware. It addresses how people find suitable partners, and how people choose appropriate communication mediums. These factors are discussed in detail, and form a design foundation for systems that promote social presence and that integrate communication. Existing systems are critically reviewed and shown to be inadequate for general use over a wide area net, for they either do not meet some basic design criteria, or they require a very high technological entry level that is beyond the reach of most computer users. As an alternative, the paper presents the design considerations behind TELEFREEK, a flexible, extensible, and customizable platform for collaboration. Drawing on resources freely available to the Internet community, TELEFREEK assists people making contact with others, and integrates access to common communication facilities.

© All rights reserved Cockburn and Greenberg and/or ACM Press

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Cockburn, Andy and Thimbleby, Harold (1992): Automatic Conversational Context: Avoiding Dependency on User Effort in Groupware. In: Proceedings of OZCHI92, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1992. pp. 142-149.

Relating individual messages to their on-going conversations enhances the value of electronic mail as a medium for collaborative and coordinated work. Some groupware systems have offered these facilities, but their ability to determine conversational context is dependent on explicit user actions -- being told -- and the use of specific systems by all users involved. This paper describes Mona, an email system that provides an automatic hypertext representation of conversational context. Mona is novel in that conversation facilities are provided without requiring any user effort or the use of particular systems by other collaborators. This lack of requirements and independence is made possible by inferring conversational context with heuristics from information inherent in all email communications. Mona's heuristics are described, together with its central design motivation: that the cost/benefit disparity resulting from dependency on user actions is liable to cause system rejection.

© All rights reserved Cockburn and Thimbleby and/or ACM Press

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