View full video library !

Social Computing video 1 - Introduction to Social Computing

by Rikke Friis Dam and Mads Soegaard. How to cite in your report.
 
In this video: Definition - Different kinds of social computing - Social computing versus social media - Main goals - Face-to-face interaction as inspiration - Methods and theory: Urban design and anthropology - How research in social computing started
Video 1: Social Computing video 1 - Introduction to Social Computing

Transcription

As a service to our hearing-impaired friends - as well as those of you who prefer written English over spoken English - we've both transcribed this video (see below) as well as included subtitles (aka. closed captions) inside the video. You can switch them on/off in the youtube video player.

Transcription: Social Computing video 1 - Introduction to Social Computing

In this interview we're going to meet Tom Erickson. Tom is an interaction designer and researcher and he works for IBM. He works in the social computing group at Watson Lab in New York and he's actually been working there since '97. And before that he worked 9 years for Apple, so he is an expert on social computing. And this is what we're going to talk about today. So Tom, what is social computing? Sure, so social computing are systems that support social behavior among people within the system and then make use of that behavior for various purposes. So it can range from systems that just make use of a few things. So like, take Amazon. You go to Amazon and they have people rate, you know, reviews of books. And then other people come along, and as they read them they say, I like this or I don't like this. And so there are 2 levels of social computing. One is simply, you can look at a book and you can see how many people liked it and how many people didn't and read the reviews. And then you can also judge something about the quality of your reviews by seeing, you know, how many people thought this was a good review or not. And Amazon actually has done something I think that's quite nice which is, one of the types of reviews they foreground is, the most liked critical review. That's a review where they didn't give it a top rating, but a lot of people still found it useful. And I always try to go right for that, that review. Are there different kind, different types of social computing? Yeah, so there are a couple of answers to that. One has to do with how social computing surfaces in the system. So when I just described Amazon. That gives us a few social computing mechanisms in it. Right. You could get rid of the reviews, you could get rid of the, you know, liking or disliking ratings. And Amazon would still be pretty much the same, it'd be a place to go and buy books or other things. But other types of systems are don't just use social computing mechanisms. But they're fundamentally social computing things so take something like you the economical example is Workipedia where, you know, it's all produced by the contributors so they produce the content. They, you know, edit it. They assess quality. So on and so forth. So, that's sort of almost pure social computing and that it's all coming through users and it's all shaped by social interaction among users. Another way to distinguish between types of social computing systems is, this is something I've been puzzling over. I mostly like examples, and I tend to avoid defining things formally. But one of the continuums that you can look at social computing systems along, has to do with the type of interactions that are happening . So, in Wikipedia for example, the content that is being produced, where the knowledge that is being produced or the wisdom of the crowd, if you like to think of it that way, is coming through conversational interaction. Right? Let's contrast that with another type of social computing computing system. One example i'm very fond of is that of an online auction. So, there you have something for sale, you have an audience of people who want it and the way in, what people do is they go in and they place a bid. And you know, I bid for something, and then you see that somebody has bid so much for it and you want it more, so you bid a bit more. And so the interaction is very simple, right? You're simply placing a bid of a certain value. And those repeated interactions auctions are, in a sense a way of socially computing a price for something, right? And auctions are very useful things. So, if you have a rare piece of art. You know, how do you figure out what that costs, right? And the answer is you let people socially figure it out. We often hear the term social media. And can you tell us, in your opinion, what is the difference between social media and social computing? That's a hard one. I see social computing as a very general term. I mean, the way I think about social computing is, I think of groups of people, who are actually collectively computing something, where I mean "computing" fairly broadly. It might be figuring out the price for something, like you do in the auction. It might be composing an encyclopedia article, as you do in Wikipedia. But in some sense, at a very general level, that's all a computation. Right? Or a market is another type of computation. We all collectively, you know, place bids for things and you know, that shapes the price of commodities or whatever it is you're buying and selling. So computing, I think, covers a large range of territory where, so in a market, we're anonymous to one another, right? And that's actually important because don't want people conspiring to fix the market. They don't want us conspiring to, you know, I'll bid, I think they call them shills in auction, where you insert people who are false bidders to sort of drive the price up. Yup. Right? So in social computing systems, you might have cases where people are interacting a lot. Very deeply getting to know one another like in Wikipedia, or you might have a very, almost an anonymous type of interaction where all I know about you is that you've just outbid me. And how am I going to react to that? So I think social media, the way I think of the term, has to do with people actually having a rich communication among them. Right? So, Wikipedia, it's not all social media but for example the talk pages. Yeah. Are purely social media. Whereas an in eBay auction, I wouldn't call that social media. Okay. So it's actually a scale and you can say it's more or less social. Yes, yes. You know, and you can imagine that you know, you could take an online auction system. I don't know to what extent eBay does this. I haven't looked at it in a while. But you can imagine creating some kind of online community of customers who are, say, interested in, you know, some type of art that they collect through eBay. And so you might have little place where there's, you know, very rich social interaction. That would be social media. But then you have other niches: the auction where people go in, and they're anonymous, and all you do is bid, right? So you can compose all these different things together depending on the type of interaction you want to support. Yeah. Can you pick out one main goal of social computing? Well for me the main goal is in face to face situations at least in the ones that work well. They're interesting. They have a life to them. They give a bit of energy. They have some spontaneity. To me, they're, you know, a good face to face situation, where you're with people and things are happening. It's just energizing and alive and it's, I think something that's very fundamentally human, right. At the base we are social creatures and we get something from that interaction and so, I guess, when I think of the sort of primary goal for social computing, it's to create online places or applications or even services, call them what you may, that have some of that life to them. That you know, is fundamental to being human. Can you give us some examples of some of the methods and theories you use to approach this goal? Let's start with the theory. I draw on a couple areas of theory. One is actually, for a couple of decades I've been very interested in urban design. And then also there's a body of anthropology that studies behavior in public places. So perhaps the best, most famous example of this is William White who wrote a couple of books. So, one called The Social Life of Small Urban Spaces and then a larger book that includes that actually, called City, Return to the Center. And White looked very closely at how people interacted in public spaces and he observed a lot of interesting things that I think have direct applicability to online systems. So, one thing he talked about, he called triangulation. And by triangulation, what he meant is, something would happen in a public space that would cause 2 people who didn't know one another, to start talking. Right? So it might be walking down the street and seeing a juggler, or somebody walking a new puppy down the street. That often get people to stop and, oh what a nice puppy, and there's a focus for the interaction and there's a reason for people to approach and begin talking. So that's one example of that type of work. In addition to, so there's, so urban designers think a lot about how to structure spaces so that they can support that kind of interaction. There is a Danish architect by the name of Jan Gehl who has a book called Life Between Buildings and he has some very interesting ways of thinking about public space. He designed things and he thinks about things in terms of interactive radiuses. So he talks about how far, he talks about a radius. He says if you're within this distance, let's say it's 50 meters, I don't remember what his numbers are, you'll be able to notice somebody that you weren't expecting to see, but you know. If you go into a place looking for somebody whom you expect to know, you can see them at a longer distance, maybe, you know, 150 meters. And so he looks at spaces in terms of the types of interactions they might support and how close you would have to be to get that interaction. So that's another interesting way of thinking about designing either face to face situations or online spaces which is, what do you have to provide to make a particular type of interaction possible. And in urban settings, what you want is, you want a space to afford many different types of interactions. Right? So a good public square for example has places where people can meet one another. Right? I'll meet you by the big clock. Or I'll meet you by the statue of so and so. Can you translate that to a social computing system? A very good question. Often you can't. But you might well want to. So, certainly there are 3D online environment like set up life, right? So now we can't say let's go into second life and here is, you know, the second life URL that we can meet at. Or, you know, if we build the environment, yes meet by the upside down purple pyramid. So that's one thing. To go further back in history, looking at things like IRC, right? So you could agree to meet somebody in a particular IRC channel at a particular time. So you can do that. Or an online community where you have, you know, general conferences and withing conferences you have topics. Right? Oh, let's go and talk in this topic. Okay. So if we take a step back, how did research into social computing start? Are you asking about the field in general or? Yeah, the field in general. Well, I would trace it back to I guess the study of online communities. I mean, you know, social computing is a relatively recent term. I don't know exactly when it started but certainly not as a name that people used commonly before the late '90s at the earliest. But, you know computing in the sense that you have systems that are trying to support social behavior among their users and to make that behavior either produce useful things or make it useful on it's own. That certainly goes way back to online communities. I think the earliest online community, back then they called it computer conferencing, was Murray Turoff's system used in the U.S. in the '70s. And that was a private system actually used to administer the U.S. wage and price control freeze of the Nixon era. So that probably was not social computing, that was just a bunch of policy people trying to sort of regulate things. But not long after that, you saw the emergence of more public online communities, I don't think I can pull the history out of my head, but there were some early chat communities. Turoff went on and built a system called Eyes of the New Jersey Institute of Technology. There was a system called Planet by Folks at the Institute for the Future in Palo Alto. There was something at Michigan. So back in late '70s, early '80s, there were a lot of online communities emerging and certainly that's where you can see the beginning of what I'd call social computing research. Because you have lots of people, they're interacting and you're trying to understand what on earth is going on? And you start to see the beginnings of people self organizing. Or people, orself-organizations fragmenting. So you have the emergence of flaming. Right? And, you know, various types of cyber vandalism where people are sort of working counter to online order. So I think it all goes back to that era. Thank you so much, Tom for sharing some of your knowledge and perspective on social computing. It's been very interesting. You're most welcome. It's a great pleasure. Thanks. If you want to know more about how to put these insights into use when you're actually designing interactive products, you should have a look at our second interview with Tom. You could also take a look at the chapter he has written at patronactiondesign.org, and you also could find other videos and other chapters written by other important leaders and inventors. Thanks for watching.
 
 

Join our community and advance:

Your
Skills

Your
Network

Your
Career

 
Join our community!
 
 
 

Page Information

Author(s): Rikke Friis Dam and Mads Soegaard
URL: http://www.interaction-design.org/tv/Social_Computing_Video_1_-_Introduction_to_Social_Computing.html

Licensed through a Creative Commons licence Open Access

We believe in Open Access and the democratization of knowledge. Unfortunately, world class educational materials are normally hidden behind payment systems or in expensive textbooks. If you want this to change, you should help us out! Kind thoughts are not enough - you need to act!
Copyright Terms
We do NOT use copyright as a restrictive instrument, but as an instrument to protect the author against misuse while encouraging redistribution and use of his/her work. As such, these copyright terms are designed for the author and the reader, not the publisher and the profit.

Except as otherwise noted, this work is copyright of Rikke Friis Dam and Mads Soegaard and The Interaction Design Foundation (Chr. Molbechs Vej 4, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark) and is licensed under the following terms:
  1. The Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivs Licence
  2. The Interaction Design Foundation Addendum to the Creative Commons licence

...with the exception of materials described in...:

  1. "Exceptions"

Furthermore, your use of Interaction-Design.org signifies your consent to:

  1. the "Site Terms and Conditions"
  2. the "Site Privacy Policy"
i. Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported
ii. The Interaction Design Foundation Addendum to the Creative Commons licence

The Interaction Design Foundation Addendum to the Creative Commmons licence is a placeholder for additions to the Creative Commons licence, which are deemed necessary to include in consideration of Danish law and the operation of this site and The Interaction Design Foundation.

1. Attribution

If this work is used under the licencing conditions set forth here, attribution must be clearly given, i.e. the author's name, the title and URL of this work/publication/web page must clearly appear. The attribution must be given in a manner appropriate to the medium in which it is given: For example, electronic copies must include a clickable URL, which does not use the nofollow attribute value.

2. Updates

Internet technology, publishing technology, and the applicable laws, rules, and regulations change frequently. Accordingly, The Interaction Design Foundation reserves the unilateral right to update, modify, change and alter its Site Terms and Conditions as well as Copyright Terms at any time. All such updates, modifications, changes and alterations are binding on all users and browsers of Interaction-Design.org, readers of electronic and non-eletronic versions of the publications produced by The Interaction Design Foundation. Such updates will be posted on Interaction-Design.org.

iii. Exceptions

Exceptions

Many materials published by The Interaction Design Foundation - both in print and electronically - may contain materials where the copyright is owned by a third party, e.g. another publisher. In this case, the copyright status depends on the third party, i.e. the copyright owner, and may for example be "all rights reserved - used with permission". When this is the case, we clearly label the content. For images, we both write the specific copyright label (including attribution) underneath the caption in both electronic and print copies as well as include the copyright label (including attribution) inside the image file (i.e. the full-resolution version) in metadata types like EXIF, IPTC, and XMP. We only include and label content with the following copyright terms:

  1. Pd:
        Public Domain (information that is common property and contains no original authorship)
        Legal Code (full licence text): http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Public_domain
  2. CompositeWorkWithMultipleCopyrightTerms:
        Work that is derived from or composed of multiple works with varying copyright terms and/or copyright holders
  3. FairUse:
        Copyrighted materials that meet the legal criteria for Fair Use when used by the Interaction Design FoundationThe most common cases of Fair Use are: 1) Cover art: Cover art from various items, for identification only in the context of critical commentary of that item (not for identification without critical commentary). 2) Team and corporate logos: For identification. 3) Other promotional material: Posters, programs, billboards, ads: For critical commentary. 4) Film and television screen shots: For critical commentary and discussion of the cinema and television. 5) Screenshots from software products: For critical commentary. 6) Paintings and other works of visual art: For critical commentary, including images illustrative of a particular technique or school. 7) Images with iconic status or historical importance: As subjects of commentary. 8) Images that are themselves subject of commentary.
        Legal Code (full licence text): http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fair_use
  4. AllRightsReservedUsedWithoutPermission:
        All Rights Reserved. Non-free, copyrighted materials used without permission. The materials are used without permission of the copyright holder because the materials meet the legal criteria for Fair Use and/or because The Interaction Design Foundation has not been able to contact the copyright holder. The most common cases of Fair Use are: 1) Cover art: Cover art from various items, for identification only in the context of critical commentary of that item (not for identification without critical commentary). 2) Team and corporate logos: For identification. 3) Other promotional material: Posters, programs, billboards, ads: For critical commentary. 4) Film and television screen shots: For critical commentary and discussion of the cinema and television. 5) Screenshots from software products: For critical commentary. 6) Paintings and other works of visual art: For critical commentary, including images illustrative of a particular technique or school. 7) Images with iconic status or historical importance: As subjects of commentary. 8) Images that are themselves subject of commentary.
  5. AllRightsReserved:
        All Rights Reserved. Materials used with permission. Permission to use has been granted exclusively to The Interaction Design Foundation and/or the author of the given work/chapter, in which the copyrighted material is used. This permission constitutes a non-transferable license and, as such, only applies to The Interaction Design Foundation. Therefore, no part of this material may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, recording or otherwise without prior written permission of the copyright holder.
  6. CC-Att-1:
        Creative Commons Attribution 1.0 Unported
        Legal Code (full licence text): http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/1.0/
  7. CC-Att-3:
        Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported
        Legal Code (full licence text): http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  8. CC-Att-2:
        Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Unported
        Legal Code (full licence text): http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/
  9. CC-Att:
        Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported
        Legal Code (full licence text): http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  10. CC-Att-ND-3:
        Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported
        Legal Code (full licence text): http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/3.0/
  11. CC-Att-ND-2:
        Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivs 2.0 Unported
        Legal Code (full licence text): http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/2.0/
  12. CC-Att-ND-1:
        Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivs 1.0 Unported
        Legal Code (full licence text): http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/1.0/
  13. CC-Att-ND:
        Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported
        Legal Code (full licence text): http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/3.0/
  14. CC-Att-SA-1:
        Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 1.0 Unported
        Legal Code (full licence text): http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0/
  15. CC-Att-NC-SA-3:
        Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported
        Legal Code (full licence text): http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/
  16. CC-Att-SA-3:
        Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0
        Legal Code (full licence text): http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/
  17. CC-Att-SA-2:
        Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 2.0 Unported
        Legal Code (full licence text): http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/
  18. CC-Att-SA:
        Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported
        Legal Code (full licence text): http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/
  19. Unknown:
        Copyright status unknown
  20. Trademarks and logos:
        All trademarks, logos, service marks, collective marks, design rights, personality rights or similar rights that are mentioned, used or cited by The Interaction Design Foundation and its authors are the property of their respective owners. The use of any trademark in our materials does not vest in the author or The Interaction Design Foundation any trademark ownership rights in such trademarks, nor does the use of such trademarks imply any affiliation with or endorsement of The Interaction Design Foundation and its authors by such owners. As such The Interaction Design Foundation can not grant any rights to use any otherwise protected materials. Your use of any such or similar incorporeal property is at your own risk. Words which we have reason to believe constitute trademarks may or may not have been labelled as such. However, neither the presence nor absence of such labels should be regarded as affecting the legal status of any trademarks.

While most material produced by The Interaction Design Foundation is free to use under its respective license as outlined above, some materials may be subject to additional legal restrictions when they are used in particular circumstances or in particular ways. These limitations may arise from laws related to trademarks, patents, personality rights, political censorship, or any of many other legal causes which are entirely independent from the copyright status of the work. For example, if you use a public domain image (i.e. uncopyrighted) of an apple to sell computers, you will violate the trademark rights of Apple Computer, Inc.

In addition, content linked from a page/chapter/book (in the online versions) is not covered by one of our licenses unless specifically noted. For example, pages may link to videos or slide decks that are not covered. The design of Interaction-Design.org (graphics, html, client-side scripts, etc.) is copyright of Mads Soegaard.

iv. The Site Terms and Conditions

These Site Terms and Conditions ("Terms") is a legally binding agreement made by and between The Interaction Design Foundation and you, personally and, if applicable, on behalf of the entity for whom you are using this web site or any of its services (collectively, "you"). These Terms govern your use of The Interaction Design Foundation's web site, www.interaction-design.org, and The Interaction Design Foundation's services so please read the following carefully.

By accessing or using any part of the web site, you agree that you have read, understand, and agree to be bound by this Terms. if you do not agree to be so bound, do not access or use the web site.

Internet technology and the applicable laws, rules, and regulations change frequently. Accordingly, The Interaction Design Foundation reserves the right to make changes to these Terms at any time. Your continued use of the web site constitutes assent to any new or modified provision of this Terms that may be posted on the web site.

These Terms addresses your legal rights and obligations and includes important disclaimers and choice of law and forum provisions.

1. Choice of Law and Forum Provisions (Governing Law)

Interaction-Design.org is run by The Interaction Design Foundation, a privately held corporation residing in Aarhus, Denmark. You agree that these Terms and your use of Interaction-Design.org and the materials produced by The Interaction Design Foundation are governed by the laws of Denmark. You hereby consent to the exclusive jurisdiction and venue of the courts, tribunals, agencies and other dispute resolution organizations in Denmark in all disputes

  1. arising out of, relating to, or concerning Interaction-Design.org, The Interaction Design Foundation, and/or these Terms
  2. in which Interaction-Design.org, The Interaction Design Foundation, and/or these Terms is an issue or a material fact
  3. or in which Interaction-Design.org, The Interaction Design Foundation, and/or these Terms is referenced in a paper filed in a court, tribunal, agency or other dispute resolution organization.

The Interaction Design Foundation has endeavoured to comply with all legal requirements known to it in creating and maintaining Interaction-Design.org and The Interaction Design Foundation, but makes no representation that materials on Interaction-Design.org or produced by The Interaction Design Foundation are appropriate or available for use in any particular jurisdiction. You are responsible for compliance with applicable laws. Any use in contravention of this provision or any provision of these Terms is at your own risk and, if any part of these Terms is invalid or unenforceable under applicable law, the invalid or unenforceable provision will be deemed superseded by a valid, enforceable provision that most closely matches the intent of the original provision and the remainder of these Terms shall govern such use.

2. Liability

Your use of and browsing Interaction-Design.org is at your own risk. The Interaction Design Foundation does not warrant that the software used for Interaction-Design.org, and the information, material, and content on it, or any other services and materials provided by means of Interaction-Design.org or by The Interaction Design Foundation are error-free, or that their use will be uninterrupted. The Interaction Design Foundation expressly disclaims all warranties related to the above-mentioned subject matter, including, without limitation, those of accuracy, condition, merchantability and fitness for particular purpose. Notwithstanding anything to the contrary on Interaction-Design.org, in no event shall The Interaction Design Foundation be liable for any loss of profits, revenues, indirect, special, incidental, consequential, or other similar damages arising out of or in connection with Interaction-Design.org or out of the use of any of the services proposed by means of Interaction-Design.org.

3. Updates

Internet technology, publishing technology, and the applicable laws, rules, and regulations change frequently. Accordingly, The Interaction Design Foundation reserves the unilateral right to update, modify, change and alter its Site Terms and Conditions as well as Copyright Terms at any time. All such updates, modifications, changes and alterations are binding on all users and browsers of Interaction-Design.org, readers of electronic and non-eletronic versions of the publications produced by The Interaction Design Foundation. Such updates will be posted on Interaction-Design.org.

4. Legal Disclaimer

The Interaction Design Foundation and its authors make no representations as to accuracy, completeness, currentness, suitability, or validity of any information, material, or content on Interaction-Design.org.

THE MATERIAL AND CONTENT POSTED ON INTERACTION-DESIGN.ORG AND ANY CONTENT PROUDCED BY - OR PUBLISHED THROUGH THE INTERACTION DESIGN FOUNDATION ARE PROVIDED "AS IS" WITHOUT ANY EXPRESS WARRANTY OR IMPLIED WARRANTY OF ANY KIND INCLUDING WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, NON-INFRINGEMENT OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY, OR FITNESS FOR ANY PARTICULAR PURPOSE. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE INTERACTION DESIGN FOUNDATION BE LIABLE FOR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER (INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, DAMAGES FOR LOSS OF PROFITS, BUSINESS INTERRUPTION, LOSS OF INFORMATION) ARISING OUT OF THE USE OF OR INABILITY TO USE THE MATERIALS, EVEN IF THE INTERACTION DESIGN FOUNDATION HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.

Because some jurisdictions prohibit the exclusion or limitation of liability for consequential and or incidental damages, the above limitation may not apply to you. Furthermore, The Interaction Design Foundation does not warrant the accuracy or completeness of information of links or other items contained within these materials that have been provided by third parties.

5. Provision regarding change in attribution of copyrighted materials

Please contact us at mads@interaction-design.org if you, or your organization, wish to correct or change attribution or presentation of any image/material used on Interaction-Design.org, which you, or your organization, are the rightful copyright holder of. We will request that you submit proof of your ownership of the copyright on this material but will act immediately on any reasonable request.

6. Notice and prodecure for claims of copyright infringement

Every effort has been made by the individual contributing authors as well as The Interaction Design Foundation to discover and contact copyright holders of artwork/illustrations/content used on Interaction-Design.org. To the extent that a copyright holder could not be found or an inadvertent permissions or copyright error was made, The Interaction Design Foundation stands ready to remove content upon notice and request by a copyright holder. In the case that you believe that any content or other material provided through Interaction-Design.org infringes your copyright, you should notify The Interaction Design Foundation of your infringement claim in accordance with the procedure set forth below.

We will process each notice of alleged infringement which The Interaction Design Foundation receives and take appropriate action in accordance with applicable intellectual property laws. A notification of claimed copyright infringement should be emailed to mads@interaction-design.org (subject: "Takedown Request"). You may also contact us by mail at:

The Interaction Design Foundation
Chr. Molbechs Vej 4
DK-8000 Aarhus C.
Denmark

To be effective, the notification must be in writing and contain the following information:

  1. an electronic or physical signature of the copyright owner or the person authorized to act on behalf of the owner of the copyright interest
  2. a description of the copyrighted work that you claim has been infringed
  3. a description of where the material that you claim is infringing is located on Interaction-Design.org that is reasonably sufficient to enable us to identify and locate the material;
  4. how The Interaction Design Foundation can contact you, such as your address, telephone number, and email address
  5. a written statement by you that you have a good faith belief that the disputed use is not authorized by the copyright owner, its agent, or the law
  6. if you represent a publisher, a written statement by you that you have a good faith belief that the material has not been placed in the public domain, or licenced under another licence, before you acquired the copyright as this would possibly invalidate your copyright
  7. and a statement by you, made under penalty of perjury, that the above information in your notice is accurate and that you are the copyright owner or authorized to act on the copyright owner's behalf.

7. Trademarks and other rights

All trademarks, logos, service marks, collective marks, design rights, personality rights or similar rights that are mentioned, used or cited by The Interaction Design Foundation and its authors are the property of their respective owners. The use of any trademark in our materials does not vest in the author or The Interaction Design Foundation any trademark ownership rights in such trademarks, nor does the use of such trademarks imply any affiliation with or endorsement of The Interaction Design Foundation and its authors by such owners. As such The Interaction Design Foundation can not grant any rights to use any otherwise protected materials. Your use of any such or similar incorporeal property is at your own risk. Words which we have reason to believe constitute trademarks may or may not have been labelled as such. However, neither the presence nor absence of such labels should be regarded as affecting the legal status of any trademarks.

8. Screenshots

Screenshots of copyrighted computer software, for which the copyright is held by the author(s) or the company that created the software, is believed to fall under the fair use doctrine in the US (and similar laws in other countries). It is believed that reproduction for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, or research is not copyright infringement. If you reuse screenshots, as well as any other information provided by The Interaction Design Foundation, you do so at your own risk and under the copyright laws of your country.

9. Copyright of Abstracts

Abstracts in the Wiki Bibliography (/references/) are submitted by their authors who use the wiki to make their research as accessible as possible. When a page on Interaction-Design.org cites/references/lists a work from the bibliography, its abstract is included. However, abstracts have varying copyrights depending which publisher the work is published through. You should assume that an abstract is copyright, all rights reserved, of its publisher and/or author and therefore always use/cite abstracts according to Fair Use. You may visit the publisher's website to learn about the specific copyright terms (e.g. ACM, IEEE, or Springer) or contact the author directly. Bottom line: Cite/use abstracts according to the principles of fair use as it may otherwise be construed as a copyright infringement and subject to legal action.

10. User Submissions / User Content

You understand and acknowledge that additions to the Wiki Bibliography (including article abstracts), additions the Conference Calendar (including conference descriptions), user-contributed notes on each page (including text, photographs, graphics), or other materials posted by users on Interaction-Design.org ("Content") are the sole responsibility of the person from whom such Content originated. This means that you, and not The Interaction Design Foundation, are entirely responsible for all Content that you upload, post or otherwise make available to other users of Interaction-Design.org.

When submitting content to Interaction-Design.org, you agree to not:

  1. impersonate any person or entity or falsely state or otherwise misrepresent your affiliation with a person or entity;
  2. upload, post or otherwise make available any Content that you do not have a right to make available under any law or under contractual or fiduciary relationships (such as inside information, proprietary and confidential information learned or disclosed as part of employment relationships or under nondisclosure agreements);
  3. upload, post or otherwise make available any Content that infringes any patent, trademark, trade secret, copyright or other proprietary rights ("Rights") of any party;
  4. upload, post or otherwise make available any Content that is unlawful, harmful, threatening, abusive, harassing, tortious, defamatory, vulgar, obscene, libelous, invasive of another's privacy, hateful, or racially, ethnically or otherwise objectionable;

You acknowledge that The Interaction Design Foundation shall have the right to remove any Content that violates these Site Terms and Conditions or is otherwise objectionable.

11. Third Party Websites

If we provide links or pointers to other websites, no inference or assumption should be made that The Interaction Design Foundation operates, controls, or is otherwise connected with these websites. When you click on a link within Interaction-Design.org, we will not warn you that you have left a Site and are subject to the terms and conditions (including privacy policies) of the destination website. In some cases it may be less obvious than others that you have left a Site and reached another website. Please be careful to read the terms of use and privacy policy of any website before you provide any confidential information or engage in any transactions. You should not rely on these Terms for another website. The Interaction Design Foundation is not responsible for the content or practices of any other website. By using Interaction-Design.org, you acknowledge and agree that The Interaction Design Foundation is not responsible or liable to you for any content or other materials hosted and served from any third party website.

12. Email communication: Confidential and proprietary information notice

Email messages sent from members of The Interaction Design Foundation, including emails generated from the use of the interaction-design.org website, are proprietary to The Interaction Design Foundation, and are intended solely for the use of the individual to whom they are addressed. Such messages may contain privileged or confidential information and should not be circulated or used for any purpose other than for what they are intended. If you receive a message from a member of The Interaction Design Foundation in error, please notify the sender immediately. If you are not the intended recipient, you are hereby notified that you are strictly prohibited from using, copying, altering, or disclosing the contents of the message. The Interaction Design Foundation accepts no responsibility for loss or damage arising from the use of the information transmitted by email message including damage from virus.

13. Usage conditions

Please make sure that you understand that the information provided by The Interaction Design Foundation is being provided freely, and that no kind of agreement or contract is created between you and the owners, partners, users, or authors of this site, the owners of the servers upon which it is housed, the individual contributors of the The Interaction Design Foundation, any project administrators, sysops or anyone else who is in any way connected with this project. If you choose to use or copy anything from from this site it does not create or imply any contractual or extracontractual liability on the part of The Interaction Design Foundation or any of its members, partners, sponsors, contributors or other users. Your use of any such or similar incorporeal property is at your own risk.

14. Termination

The Interaction Design Foundation will have the right to terminate your access to the Web Site if it reasonably believes you have breached any of the terms and conditions of these Terms. Following termination, you will not be permitted to use the Web Site. If your access to the Web Site is terminated, The Interaction Design Foundation reserves the right to exercise whatever means it deems necessary to prevent unauthorized access to the Web Site, including, but not limited to, technological barriers, IP mapping, and direct contact with your Internet Service Provider. These Terms will survive indefinitely unless and until The Interaction Design Foundation chooses to terminate them, regardless of whether any account you open is terminated by you or The Interaction Design Foundation or if you have the right to access or use the Web Site.

15. Force Majeure, website downtime, and service outages

The Interaction Design Foundation will not be liable for failing to perform under these Terms because of any event beyond its reasonable control, including, without limitation, a labor disturbance, an Internet outage or interruption of service, a communications outage, failure by a service provider to The Interaction Design Foundation to perform, fire, terrorism, natural disaster, or war.

16. Limitation of Actions

You acknowledge and agree that, regardless of any statute or law to the contrary, any claim or cause of action you may have arising out of, relating to, or connected with your use of the Web Site, must be filed within one calendar year after such claim or cause of action arises, or forever be barred.

17. Payments

Online payment is accepted by Paypal. The Interaction Design Foundation does not process credit card payments directly or ever see, retain, or use your credit card information.

18. Taxes and VAT

In the name of Simplicity for our members/clients and the online User Experience, our prices always include VAT when applicable. The Interaction Design Foundation is based in Denmark so we pay 25% VAT of payments - depending on which originating country the member or customer is from.

19. Ownership of Interaction-Design.org, The Interaction Design Foundation, and its services

Interaction-Design.org is owned and operated by The Interaction Design Foundation, an LLC incorporated under the laws of Denmark, with office in Aarhus, Denmark.

Address:
The Interaction Design Foundation
Chr. Molbechs Vej 4
DK-8000 Aarhus C.
Denmark

20. Changes to the Web Site

The Interaction Design Foundation may, in its sole discretion, change, modify, suspend, make improvements to, or discontinue any aspect of the Web Site, temporarily or permanently, at any time without notice to you, and The Interaction Design Foundation will not be liable for doing so.

21. Additional Terms

These Terms contain the entire understanding of you and The Interaction Design Foundation regarding the use of the Web Site and the services of The Interaction Design Foundation, and supersedes all prior and contemporaneous agreements and understandings between you and The Interaction Design Foundation relating thereto. These Terms will be binding upon each party hereto and its successors and permitted assigns. These Terms and all of your rights and obligations under them may not be assignable or transferable by you without the prior written consent of The Interaction Design Foundation. No failure or delay by a party in exercising any right, power, or privilege under these Terms will operate as a waiver thereof, nor will any single or partial exercise of any right, power or privilege preclude any other or further exercise thereof or the exercise of any other right, power, or privilege under these Terms. You and The Interaction Design Foundation are independent contractors, and no agency, partnership, joint venture, employee-employer relationship is intended or created by these Terms. The invalidity or unenforceability of any provision of these Terms will not affect the validity or enforceability of any other provision of these Terms, all of which will remain in full force and effect.

22. Legal Disputes

Any dispute arising from the use of Interaction-Design.org or the interpretation of the terms is governed by the laws of Denmark, and shall be settled by the courts of Denmark. All communications regarding legal matters must be made in writing to

The Interaction Design Foundation
Chr. Molbechs Vej 4
DK-8000 Aarhus C.
Denmark

iv. Site Privacy Policy

1. Summary

The Interaction Design Foundation collects no more data about you than most other websites.

Any membership information you provide to us will be used by us in order to maintain a register of members and supply you with any goods and services you have requested from our web site.

Edits, comments, commentaries and other contributions are published, and except in very limited circumstances, will be a permanent part of this site. If you decide contribute, you must keep this in mind. Your contributions will be subject to the Site Terms and Conditions and our Site IP/Copyright policy.

Under "The Act on Processing of Personal Data", incorporated under Danish law, you may request a copy of the information we hold on you (for which we may charge a fee to offset our administration costs) by writing to us .

This privacy policy will be reviewed, and may be revised, from time to time. You may wish to revisit it regularly.

2. No selling of information

We do not share or sell email addresses, obtained via communication with visitors, with anyone. Neither will any identifying data be disclosed or sold to any third party for any purpose. Data we collect through logging visits to our site (orginating IP, referral data, browser and platform type, traffic flows, geographical area of request, etc.) is only used in an aggregated form, which means we will not make any effort to identify users of Interaction-Design.org. The data is only used for server administration, fault finding, site improvement, etc. - as is done on most websites.

Aggregate (and thus completely non-identifying) statistics generated from these logs may be reported as part of research results or may be published on this site as a curiosity.

3. Cookies

Our sites may use cookies. This is often as a convenience for you to enable certain site features.

You may wish to clear these cookies and the browser cache if you wish to refrain from revealing any identifying information, especially if you are using a public or shared computer. You may also wish to disable your browser from accepting cookies.

4. Private logging

Any time you visit a page on the internet, you send quite a bit of information to the server. The webservers that host this site maintain access logs with the information that you send. This information is used to provide site statistics and to get an idea of popular pages and what sites link here. We do not intend to use these logs to identify legitimate users.

The data logged may be used by us to solve technical problems with the site and, in cases of abuse of this site, to investigate the abuse.

We also use web analytics services to get a general idea of the kinds of traffic our websites get in order to provide better services and to set benchmarks for how we are doing in meeting the OKFN's goals.

Again, if you are concerned about attempts to match your IP address to your identity, you may wish to use an anonymous browsing service or attempt some means to obfuscate your real IP address.

5. Data release policy

Our policy is only to release the data we collect in the following circumstances:

  • As required by law, such as in response to a valid request from law enforcement.
  • To designated third parties to resolve or investigate abuse complaints.
  • When the information is related to spiders or bots, usually when investigating technical issues.
  • For abusive users, we may release information to assist in attempting to block the abusive user or to complain to that user's Internet Service Provider.
  • If necessary to defend legal claims against us by third parties.
  • When we deem it necessary to protect the property or rights of the user community, or this website.

6. Public data and publishing

Browsing this site doesn't reveal your identity publicly, though see Private Logging later in this document for more information.

7. Author identification

When making contributions to this site (e.g. posting a comment, commentaries, editing a page in the wiki, etc), a name and email address may be required. You do not have to select your real name or use your regular email address. If you are concerned, you may wish to get a free email account or attempt to use a remail service.

Your activity on our website may be identified by your IP address. These numbers could potentially be traceable to identifying information about you, whether it is your home ISP or the University or Work account where the IP address is registered. Your IP address could potentially be used in conjunction with other data to identify you.

If you are concerned about attempts to match your IP address to your identity, you may wish to use an anonymous browsing service or attempt some means to obfuscate your real IP address.

If so, you might like to try Tor, an anonymous browsing service.

8. Information security

We make no guarantee that the information that you provide us will be secure.