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Proceedings of the ACM CHI 96 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference


 
Time and place:
Vancouver, Canada
April 14-18, 1996
Editors:
Tauber, Michael J., Bellotti, Victoria, Jeffries, Robin, Mackinlay, Jock D. and Nielsen, Jakob
Conf. description:
The annual CHI conference is the leading international forum for the exchange of ideas and information about human-computer interaction (HCI).
Help us!
Do you know when the next conference is? If yes, please add it to the calendar!
Series:
This is a preferred venue for people like Ravin Balakrishnan, Brad A. Myers, Hiroshi Ishii, James A. Landay, and Shumin Zhai. Part of the CHI - Human Factors in Computing Systems conference series.
Other years:
Conf. website:
http://sigchi.org/chi96/
Publisher:
ACM Press
EDIT

References from this conference (1996)

The following articles are from "Proceedings of the ACM CHI 96 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference":

 what's this?

Articles

p. 103-110

Rice, James, Farquhar, Adam, Piernot, Philippe and Gruber, Thomas (1996): Using the Web Instead of a Window System. In: Tauber, Michael J., Bellotti, Victoria, Jeffries, Robin, Mackinlay, Jock D. and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 96 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 14-18, 1996, Vancouver, Canada. pp. 103-110. Available online

We show how to deliver a sophisticated, yet intuitive, interactive application over the web using off-the-shelf web browsers as the interaction medium. This attracts a large user community, improves the rate of user acceptance, and avoids many of the pitfalls of software distribution. Web delivery imposes a novel set of constraints on user interface design. We outline the tradeoffs in this design space, motivate the choices necessary to deliver an application, and detail the lessons learned in the process. These issues are crucial because the growing popularity of the web guarantees that software delivery over the web will become ever more wide-spread. This application is publicly available at: http://www-ksl-svc.stanford.edu:5915/

© All rights reserved Rice et al. and/or ACM Press

p. 11-18

Erickson, Thomas (1996): The Design and Long-Term Use of a Personal Electronic Notebook: A Reflective Analysis. In: Tauber, Michael J., Bellotti, Victoria, Jeffries, Robin, Mackinlay, Jock D. and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 96 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 14-18, 1996, Vancouver, Canada. pp. 11-18.

This article describes the design and use of a personal electronic notebook. The findings provide a useful data point for those interested in the issue of how to design highly customizable systems for managing personal information. After a description of the notebook's interface and the usage practices that have co-evolved with the interface, I discuss some of the features that have made the notebook useful over the long term, and trends in the evolution of the design.

© All rights reserved Erickson and/or ACM Press

p. 111-117

Card, Stuart K., Robertson, George G. and York, William (1996): The WebBook and the Web Forager: An Information Workspace for the World-Wide Web. In: Tauber, Michael J., Bellotti, Victoria, Jeffries, Robin, Mackinlay, Jock D. and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 96 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 14-18, 1996, Vancouver, Canada. pp. 111-117. Available online

The World-Wide Web has achieved global connectivity stimulating the transition of computers from knowledge processors to knowledge sources. But the Web and its client software are seriously deficient for supporting users' interactive use of this information. This paper presents two related designs with which to evolve the Web and its clients. The first is the WebBook, a 3D interactive book of HTML pages. The WebBook allows rapid interaction with objects at a higher level of aggregation than pages. The second is the Web Forager, an application that embeds the WebBook and other objects in a hierarchical 3D workspace. Both designs are intended as exercises to play off against analytical studies of information workspaces.

© All rights reserved Card et al. and/or ACM Press

p. 118-125

Pirolli, Peter, Pitkow, James and Rao, Ramana (1996): Silk from a Sow's Ear: Extracting Usable Structure from the Web. In: Tauber, Michael J., Bellotti, Victoria, Jeffries, Robin, Mackinlay, Jock D. and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 96 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 14-18, 1996, Vancouver, Canada. pp. 118-125. Available online

In its current implementation, the World-Wide Web lacks much of the explicit structure and strong typing found in many closed hypertext systems. While this property probably relates to the explosive acceptance of the Web, it further complicates the already difficult problem of identifying usable structures and aggregates in large hypertext collections. These reduced structures, or localities, form the basis for simplifying visualizations of and navigation through complex hypertext systems. Much of the previous research into identifying aggregates utilize graph theoretic algorithms based upon structural topology, i.e., the linkages between items. Other research has focused on content analysis to form document collections. This paper presents our exploration into techniques that utilize both the topology and textual similarity between items as well as usage data collected by servers and page meta-information lke title and size. Linear equations and spreading activation models are employed to arrange Web pages based upon functional categories, node types, and relevancy.

© All rights reserved Pirolli et al. and/or ACM Press

p. 126-133

Noma, Haruo, Miyasato, Tsutomu and Kishino, Fumio (1996): A Palmtop Display for Dextrous Manipulation with Haptic Sensation. In: Tauber, Michael J., Bellotti, Victoria, Jeffries, Robin, Mackinlay, Jock D. and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 96 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 14-18, 1996, Vancouver, Canada. pp. 126-133. Available online

Palmtop displays have been extensively studied, but most of them simply refocus information in the real or virtual world. The palmtop display for dextrous manipulation (PDDM) proposed in this paper allows the users to manipulate a remote object as if they were holding it in their hands. The PDDM system has a small LCD, a 3D mouse and a mechanical linkage (force display). When the user locks onto an object in the center of the palmtop display, s/he can manipulate the object through motion input on the palmtop display with haptic sensation. In this paper, the features of a PDDM with haptic sensation are described, then four operating methods and the haptic representation methods for a trial model are proposed and evaluated.

© All rights reserved Noma et al. and/or ACM Press

p. 134-141

Stafford-Fraser, Quentin and Robinson, Peter (1996): BrightBoard: A Video-Augmented Environment. In: Tauber, Michael J., Bellotti, Victoria, Jeffries, Robin, Mackinlay, Jock D. and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 96 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 14-18, 1996, Vancouver, Canada. pp. 134-141. Available online

The goal of 'Computer Augmented Environments' is to bring computational power to everyday objects with which users are already familiar, so that the user interface to this computational power becomes almost invisible. Video is a very important tool in creating Augmented Environments and recent camera-manufacturing techniques make it an economically viable proposition in the general marketplace. BrightBoard is an example system which uses a video camera and audio feedback to enhance the facilities of an ordinary whiteboard, allowing a user to control a computer through simple marks made on the board. We describe its operation in some detail, and discuss how it tackles some of the problems common to these 'Video-Augmented Environments'.

© All rights reserved Stafford-Fraser and Robinson and/or ACM Press

p. 142-149

Darken, Rudolph P. and Sibert, John L. (1996): Wayfinding Strategies and Behaviors in Large Virtual Worlds. In: Tauber, Michael J., Bellotti, Victoria, Jeffries, Robin, Mackinlay, Jock D. and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 96 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 14-18, 1996, Vancouver, Canada. pp. 142-149. Available online

People have severe problems wayfinding in large virtual worlds. However, current implementations of virtual worlds provide little support for effective wayfinding. We assert that knowledge about human wayfinding in the physical world can be applied to construct aids for wayfinding in virtual worlds. An experiment was conducted to determine whether people use physical world wayfinding strategies in large virtual worlds. The study measures subject performance on a complex searching task in a number of virtual worlds with differing environmental cues. The results show that subjects in the treatment without any additional cues were often disoriented and had extreme difficulty completing the task. In general, subjects' wayfinding strategies and behaviors were strongly influenced by the environmental cues in ways suggested by the underlying design principles.

© All rights reserved Darken and Sibert and/or ACM Press

p. 150-156

Karsenty, Laurent (1996): An Empirical Evaluation of Design Rationale Documents. In: Tauber, Michael J., Bellotti, Victoria, Jeffries, Robin, Mackinlay, Jock D. and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 96 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 14-18, 1996, Vancouver, Canada. pp. 150-156. Available online

While several studies propose methods and notations for "capturing" design rationale (DR), there is to date little data available on how useful this information is when a designer needs to reuse a previous design. This paper presents the results of an empirical evaluation of DR documents, carried out with six experienced professional designers who were asked to understand and to assess a past design. These designers were provided with documents that described the solution and documents describing the DR. These DR documents were constructed using the QOC method. To determine the usefulness of DR documents, we attempt to answer the three following questions: (1) Do designers confronted with an unknown design need to know the design rationales? (2) How designers use design rationale documents? (3) Do we succeed in capturing the rationales looked for by designers? The results provided by this study lead us to conclude that DR should be useful, at least for some designers who use it as a support to their reasoning, but not sufficient. Indeed, this study exhibits some limitations of the traditional approaches for recording DR. We discuss these limitations and some solutions needed to go beyond them.

© All rights reserved Karsenty and/or ACM Press

p. 157-164

Hansen, Brian, Novick, David G. and Sutton, Stephen (1996): Systematic Design of Spoken Prompts. In: Tauber, Michael J., Bellotti, Victoria, Jeffries, Robin, Mackinlay, Jock D. and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 96 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 14-18, 1996, Vancouver, Canada. pp. 157-164. Available online

Designers of system prompts for interactive spoken-language systems typically seek 1) to constrain users so that they say things that the system can understand accurately and 2) to produce "natural" interaction that maximizes users' satisfaction. Unfortunately, these goals are often at odds. We present a set of heuristics for choosing appropriate prompt styles and show that a set of dimensions can be formulated from these heuristics. A point (or region) in the space formed by these dimensions is a "style" for prompts. We develop and apply metrics for empirically testing different prompt styles. Finally, we describe a toolkit that automatically generates prompts in a variety of styles for spoken-language dialogues.

© All rights reserved Hansen et al. and/or ACM Press

p. 165-172

Marx, Matthew and Schmandt, Chris (1996): MailCall: Message Presentation and Navigation in a Nonvisual Environment. In: Tauber, Michael J., Bellotti, Victoria, Jeffries, Robin, Mackinlay, Jock D. and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 96 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 14-18, 1996, Vancouver, Canada. pp. 165-172. Available online

MailCall is a telephone-based messaging system using speech recognition and synthesis. Its nonvisual interaction approaches the usability of visual systems through a combination of intelligent message categorization, efficient presentation, and random-access navigation. MailCall offers improved feedback, error-correction, and online help by considering the conversational context of the current session. Studies suggest that its nonvisual approach to handling messages is especially effective when the user has a large number of messages.

© All rights reserved Marx and Schmandt and/or ACM Press

p. 173-180

Roy, Deb K. and Schmandt, Chris (1996): NewsComm: A Hand-Held Interface for Interactive Access to Structured Audio. In: Tauber, Michael J., Bellotti, Victoria, Jeffries, Robin, Mackinlay, Jock D. and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 96 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 14-18, 1996, Vancouver, Canada. pp. 173-180. Available online

The NewsComm system delivers personalized news and other program material as audio to mobile users through a hand-held playback device. This paper focuses on the iterative design and user testing of the hand-held interface. The interface was first designed and tested in a software-only environment and then ported to a custom hardware platform. The hand-held device enables navigation through audio recordings based on structural information which is extracted from the audio using digital signal processing techniques. The interface design addresses the problems of designing a hand-held and primarily non-visual interface for accessing large amounts of structured audio recordings.

© All rights reserved Roy and Schmandt and/or ACM Press

p. 181-188

Eisenberg, Michael (1996): The Thin Glass Line: Designing Interfaces to Algorithms. In: Tauber, Michael J., Bellotti, Victoria, Jeffries, Robin, Mackinlay, Jock D. and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 96 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 14-18, 1996, Vancouver, Canada. pp. 181-188. Available online

Modern application software often includes operations that are performed by complex mathematical algorithms. These algorithms -- far from being the "black boxes" typically portrayed in computer science courses -- may instead be viewed as interactive processes, each presenting its own particular "interface" to the user. This paper, then, offers a number of interface guidelines for mathematical algorithms -- principles whose purpose is to suggest ways in which users may employ algorithms with greater control and expressiveness. As a source of examples, we illustrate the guidelines through a particular complex mathematical problem -- that of generating a "folding net" for a three-dimensional solid.

© All rights reserved Eisenberg and/or ACM Press

p. 189-196

Soloway, Elliot, Jackson, Shari L., Klein, Jonathan, Quintana, Chris, Reed, James, Spitulnik, Jeff, Stratford, Steven J., Studer, Scott and Eng, Jim (1996): Learning Theory in Practice: Case Studies of Learner-Centered Design. In: Tauber, Michael J., Bellotti, Victoria, Jeffries, Robin, Mackinlay, Jock D. and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 96 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 14-18, 1996, Vancouver, Canada. pp. 189-196. Available online

The design of software for learners must be guided by educational theory. We present a framework for learner-centered design (LCD) that is theoretically motivated by sociocultural and constructivist theories of learning. LCD guides the design of software in order to support the unique needs of learners: growth, diversity, and motivation. To address these needs, we incorporate scaffolding into the context, tasks, tools, and interface of software learning environments. We demonstrate the application of our methodology by presenting two case studies of LCD in practice.

© All rights reserved Soloway et al. and/or ACM Press

p. 19-26

Button, Graham and Dourish, Paul (1996): Technomethodology: Paradoxes and Possibilities. In: Tauber, Michael J., Bellotti, Victoria, Jeffries, Robin, Mackinlay, Jock D. and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 96 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 14-18, 1996, Vancouver, Canada. pp. 19-26. Available online

The design of CSCW systems has often had its roots in ethnomethodological understandings of work and investigations of working settings. Increasingly, we are also seeing these ideas applied to critique and inform HCI design more generally. However, the attempt to design from the basis of ethnomethodology is fraught with methodological dangers. In particular, ethnomethodology's overriding concern with the detail of practice poses some serious problems when attempts are made to design around such understandings. In this paper, we discuss the range and application of ethnomethodological investigations of technology in working settings, describe how ethnomethodologically-affiliated work has approached system design and discuss ways that ethnomethodology can move from design critique to design practice: the advent of technomethodology.

© All rights reserved Button and Dourish and/or ACM Press

p. 197-204

Pane, John F., Corbett, Albert T. and John, Bonnie E. (1996): Assessing Dynamics in Computer-Based Instruction. In: Tauber, Michael J., Bellotti, Victoria, Jeffries, Robin, Mackinlay, Jock D. and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 96 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 14-18, 1996, Vancouver, Canada. pp. 197-204. Available online

We present an evaluation of a multimedia educational software system that includes text, graphics, animations, and simulations. When compared with an informationally equivalent control environment that used text and carefully selected still images, we found little evidence that the dynamic presentations enhanced student understanding of the declarative information in this lesson. Furthermore, students cannot be relied on to take full advantage of exploratory opportunities in computer-based instruction. These results prescribe further investigation of whether and how computer-based multimedia can be used effectively in education and training.

© All rights reserved Pane et al. and/or ACM Press

p. 205-212

Koenemann, Jurgen and Belkin, Nicholas J. (1996): A Case for Interaction: A Study of Interactive Information Retrieval Behavior and Effectiveness. In: Tauber, Michael J., Bellotti, Victoria, Jeffries, Robin, Mackinlay, Jock D. and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 96 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 14-18, 1996, Vancouver, Canada. pp. 205-212. Available online

This study investigates the use and effectiveness of an advanced information retrieval (IR) system (INQUERY). 64 novice IR system users were studied in their use of a baseline version of INQUERY compared with one of three experimental versions, each offering a different level of interaction with a relevance feedback facility for automatic query reformulation. Results, in an information filtering task, indicate that: these subjects, after minimal training, were able to use the baseline system reasonably effectively; availability and use of relevance feedback increased retrieval effectiveness; and increased opportunity for user interaction with and control of relevance feedback made the interactions more efficient and usable while maintaining or increasing effectiveness.

© All rights reserved Koenemann and Belkin and/or ACM Press

p. 213-220

Pirolli, Peter, Schank, Patricia, Hearst, Marti A. and Diehl, Christine (1996): Scatter/Gather Browsing Communicates the Topic Structure of a Very Large Text Collection. In: Tauber, Michael J., Bellotti, Victoria, Jeffries, Robin, Mackinlay, Jock D. and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 96 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 14-18, 1996, Vancouver, Canada. pp. 213-220. Available online

Scatter/Gather is a cluster-based browsing technique for large text collections. Users are presented with automatically computed summaries of the contents of clusters of similar documents and provided with a method for navigating through these summaries at different levels of granularity. The aim of the technique is to communicate information about the topic structure of very large collections. We tested the effectiveness of Scatter/Gather as a simple pure document retrieval tool, and studied its effects on the incidental learning of topic structure. When compared to interactions involving simple keyword-based search, the results suggest that Scatter/Gather induces a more coherent conceptual image of a text collection, a richer vocabulary for constructing search queries, and communicates the distribution of relevant documents over clusters of documents in the collection.

© All rights reserved Pirolli et al. and/or ACM Press

p. 221-227

Plaisant, Catherine, Milash, Brett, Rose, Anne, Widoff, Seth and Shneiderman, Ben (1996): LifeLines: Visualizing Personal Histories. In: Tauber, Michael J., Bellotti, Victoria, Jeffries, Robin, Mackinlay, Jock D. and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 96 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 14-18, 1996, Vancouver, Canada. pp. 221-227. Available online

LifeLines provide a general visualization environment for personal histories that can be applied to medical and court records, professional histories and other types of biographical data. A one screen overview shows multiple facets of the records. Aspects, for example medical conditions or legal cases, are displayed as individual time lines, while icons indicate discrete events, such as physician consultations or legal reviews. Line color and thickness illustrate relationships or significance, rescaling tools and filters allow users to focus on part of the information. LifeLines reduce the chances of missing information, facilitate spotting anomalies and trends, streamline access to details, while remaining tailorable and easily transferable between applications. The paper describes the use of LifeLines for youth records of the Maryland Department of Juvenile Justice and also for medical records. User's feedback was collected using a Visual Basic prototype for the youth record.

© All rights reserved Plaisant et al. and/or ACM Press

p. 228-235

Hartson, H. Rex, Castillo, Jose C., Kelso, John and Neale, Wayne C. (1996): Remote Evaluation: The Network as an Extension of the Usability Laboratory. In: Tauber, Michael J., Bellotti, Victoria, Jeffries, Robin, Mackinlay, Jock D. and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 96 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 14-18, 1996, Vancouver, Canada. pp. 228-235. Available online

Traditional user interface evaluation usually is conducted in a laboratory where users are observed directly by evaluators. However, the remote and distributed location of users on the network precludes the opportunity for direct observation in usability testing. Further, the network itself and the remote work setting have become intrinsic parts of usage patterns, difficult to reproduce in a laboratory setting, and developers often have limited access to representative users for usability testing in the laboratory. In all of these cases, the cost of transporting users or developers to remote locations can be prohibitive. These barriers have led us to consider methods for remote usability evaluation wherein the evaluator, performing observation and analysis, is separated in space and/or time from the user. The network itself serves as a bridge to take interface evaluation to a broad range of networked users, in their natural work settings. Several types of remote evaluation are defined and described in terms of their advantages and disadvantages to usability testing. The initial results of two case studies show potential for remote evaluation. Remote evaluation using video teleconferencing uses the network as a mechanism to transport video data in real time, so that the observer can evaluate user interfaces in remote locations as they are being used. Semi-instrumented remote evaluation is based on critical incident gathering by the user within the normal work context. Additionally, both methods can take advantage of automating data collection through questionnaires and instrumented applications.

© All rights reserved Hartson et al. and/or ACM Press

p. 236-243

Virzi, Robert A., Sokolov, Jeffrey L. and Karis, Demetrios (1996): Usability Problem Identification Using Both Low- and High-Fidelity Prototype. In: Tauber, Michael J., Bellotti, Victoria, Jeffries, Robin, Mackinlay, Jock D. and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 96 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 14-18, 1996, Vancouver, Canada. pp. 236-243. Available online

In two experiments, each using a different product (either a CD-ROM based electronic book or an interactive voice response system), we compared the usability problems uncovered using low- and high-fidelity prototypes. One group of subjects performed a series of tasks using a paper-based low-fidelity prototype, while another performed the same tasks using either a high-fidelity prototype or the actual product. In both experiments, substantially the same sets of usability problems were found in the low- and high-fidelity conditions. Moreover, there was a significant correlation between the proportion of subjects detecting particular problems in the low- and high-fidelity groups. In other words, individual problems were detected by a similar proportion of subjects in both the low- and high-fidelity conditions. We conclude that the use of low-fidelity prototypes can be effective throughout the product development cycle, not just during the initial stages of design.

© All rights reserved Virzi et al. and/or ACM Press

p. 244-251

Kasik, David J. and George, Harry G. (1996): Toward Automatic Generation of Novice User Test Scripts. In: Tauber, Michael J., Bellotti, Victoria, Jeffries, Robin, Mackinlay, Jock D. and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 96 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 14-18, 1996, Vancouver, Canada. pp. 244-251. Available online

Graphical user interfaces (GUI's) make applications easier to learn and use. At the same time, they make application design, construction, and especially test more difficult because user-directed dialogs increase the number of potential execution paths. This paper considers a subset of GUI-based application testing: how to exercise an application like a novice user. We discuss different solutions and a specific implementation that uses genetic algorithms to automatically generate user events in an unpredictable yet controlled manner to produce novice-like test scripts.

© All rights reserved Kasik and George and/or ACM Press

p. 252-259

Wolber, David (1996): Pavlov: Programming by Stimulus-Response Demonstration. In: Tauber, Michael J., Bellotti, Victoria, Jeffries, Robin, Mackinlay, Jock D. and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 96 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 14-18, 1996, Vancouver, Canada. pp. 252-259. Available online

Pavlov is a Programming By Demonstration (PBD) system that allows animated interfaces to be created without programming. Using a drawing editor and a clock, designers specify the behavior of a target interface by demonstrating stimuli (end-user actions or time) and the (time-stamped) graphical transformations that should be executed in response. This stimulus-response model allows interaction and animation to be defined in a uniform manner, and it allows for the demonstration of interactive animation, i.e., game-like behaviors in which the end-user (player) controls the speed and direction of object movement.

© All rights reserved Wolber and/or ACM Press

p. 260-267

Myers, Brad A. and Kosbie, David S. (1996): Reusable Hierarchical Command Objects. In: Tauber, Michael J., Bellotti, Victoria, Jeffries, Robin, Mackinlay, Jock D. and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 96 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 14-18, 1996, Vancouver, Canada. pp. 260-267. Available online

The Amulet user interface development environment uses hierarchical command objects to support the creation of highly-interactive graphical user interfaces. When input arrives or a widget is operated by the user, instead of invoking a call-back procedure as in most other toolkits, Amulet allocates a command object and calls its DO method. Unlike previous uses of command objects, Amulet organizes the commands into a hierarchy, so that low-level operations like dragging or selection invoke low-level commands, which in turn might invoke widget-level commands, which invoke high-level, application-specific commands, and so on. The top-level commands correspond to semantic actions of the program. The result is better modularization because different levels of the user interface are independent, and better code reuse because the lower-level commands, and even many high-level commands such as cut, copy, paste, text edit, and change-color, can be reused from the library. Furthermore, the commands in Amulet support a new form of Undo, where the user can select any previous operation and selectively undo it, repeat it on the same objects, or repeat it on new objects. In addition, operations like scrolling and selections can be undone or repeated, which can be very useful. Thus, the command objects in Amulet make it easier for developers by providing more reusable components, while at the same time providing new capabilities for users.

© All rights reserved Myers and Kosbie and/or ACM Press

p. 268-275

Ackerman, Mark S. and Palen, Leysia (1996): The Zephyr Help Instance: Promoting Ongoing Activity in a CSCW System. In: Tauber, Michael J., Bellotti, Victoria, Jeffries, Robin, Mackinlay, Jock D. and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 96 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 14-18, 1996, Vancouver, Canada. pp. 268-275. Available online

If Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) systems are to be successful over time, it will be necessary to promote ongoing and continuing activity, not just initial adoption. In this paper, we consider what technical and social affordances are required to encourage the continued use of a CSCW system. To explore these issues, we examine a chat-like system, the Zephyr Help Instance, which is used extensively at MIT. The Help Instance facilitates users asking questions of one another, and is an example of a distributed help and problem-solving system. We provide an overview of the system's use as well as those mechanisms, both technical and social, that facilitate continuing its use over time.

© All rights reserved Ackerman and and/or ACM Press

p. 27-34

Gonzalez, Cleotilde (1996): Does Animation in User Interfaces Improve Decision Making?. In: Tauber, Michael J., Bellotti, Victoria, Jeffries, Robin, Mackinlay, Jock D. and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 96 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 14-18, 1996, Vancouver, Canada. pp. 27-34.

This paper reports a laboratory experiment that investigated the relative effects of images, transitions, and interactivity styles used in animated interfaces in two decision making domains. Interfaces used either realistic or abstract images, smooth or abrupt transitions, and parallel or sequential interactivity. Results suggest that decision making performance is influenced by the task domain, the user experience, the image, transition, and interactivity styles used in animated interfaces. Subjects performed better with animated interfaces based on realistic rather than abstract images. Subjects were more accurate with smooth rather than abrupt animation. Subjects were more accurate and enjoyed more the animation with parallel rather than sequential interactivity. Implications on the design of animated interfaces for decision making are provided.

© All rights reserved Gonzalez and/or ACM Press

p. 276-283

Whittaker, Steve and Sidner, Candace (1996): Email Overload: Exploring Personal Information Management of Email. In: Tauber, Michael J., Bellotti, Victoria, Jeffries, Robin, Mackinlay, Jock D. and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 96 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 14-18, 1996, Vancouver, Canada. pp. 276-283. Available online

Email is one of the most successful computer applications yet devised. Our empirical data show however, that although email was originally designed as a communications application, it is now being used for additional functions, that it was not designed for, such as task management and personal archiving. We call this email overload. We demonstrate that email overload creates problems for personal information management: users often have cluttered inboxes containing hundreds of messages, including outstanding tasks, partially read documents and conversational threads. Furthermore, user attempts to rationalise their inboxes by filing are often unsuccessful, with the consequence that important messages get overlooked, or "lost" in archives. We explain how email overloading arises and propose technical solutions to the problem.

© All rights reserved Whittaker and Sidner and/or ACM Press

p. 284-291

Kraut, Robert E., Scherlis, William, Mukhopadhyay, Tridas, Manning, Jane and Kiesler, Sara (1996): HomeNet: A Field Trial of Residential Internet Services. In: Tauber, Michael J., Bellotti, Victoria, Jeffries, Robin, Mackinlay, Jock D. and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 96 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 14-18, 1996, Vancouver, Canada. pp. 284-291. Available online

HomeNet is a field trial of residential Internet use with lowered barriers to use. We use multiple longitudinal data collection techniques, including server-side instrumentation. This paper is an initial description of how diverse families used the Internet in the first five months of the trial, and of variables that predicted this usage. The results have implications for design (e.g., provide more help for adults to get started), for marketing (e.g., lower income people have as much desire for on-line services as do upper income people), and for research (e.g., understand why teenagers' lead family computing).

© All rights reserved Kraut et al. and/or ACM Press

p. 292-299

Graham, Evan D. and MacKenzie, Christine L. (1996): Physical Versus Virtual Pointing. In: Tauber, Michael J., Bellotti, Victoria, Jeffries, Robin, Mackinlay, Jock D. and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 96 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 14-18, 1996, Vancouver, Canada. pp. 292-299. Available online

An experiment was conducted to investigate differences in performance between virtual pointing, where a 2-D computer image representing the hand and targets was superimposed on the workspace, and physical pointing with vision of the hand and targets painted on the work surface. A detailed examination of movement kinematics revealed no differences in the initial phase of the movement, but that the final phase of homing in on smaller targets was more difficult in the virtual condition. These differences are summarised by a two-part model of movement time which also captures the effects of scaling distances to, and sizes of targets. The implications of this model for design, analysis, and classification of pointing devices and positioning tasks are discussed.

© All rights reserved Graham and MacKenzie and/or ACM Press

p. 3-10

Weisband, Suzanne and Kiesler, Sara (1996): Self Disclosure on Computer Forms: Meta-Analysis and Implications. In: Tauber, Michael J., Bellotti, Victoria, Jeffries, Robin, Mackinlay, Jock D. and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 96 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 14-18, 1996, Vancouver, Canada. pp. 3-10. Available online

Do people disclose more on a computer form than they do in an interview or on a paper form? We report a statistical meta-analysis of the literature from 1969 to 1994. Across 39 studies using 100 measures, computer administration increased self-disclosure. Effect sizes were larger comparing computer administration with face-to-face interviews, when forms solicited sensitive information, and when medical or psychiatric patients were the subjects. Effect sizes were smaller but had not disappeared in recent studies, which we attribute in part to changes in computer interfaces. We discuss research, ethical, policy, and design implications.

© All rights reserved Weisband and Kiesler and/or ACM Press

p. 300-307

Mithal, Anant Kartik and Douglas, Sarah A. (1996): Differences in Movement Microstructure of the Mouse and the Finger-Controlled Isometric Joystick. In: Tauber, Michael J., Bellotti, Victoria, Jeffries, Robin, Mackinlay, Jock D. and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 96 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 14-18, 1996, Vancouver, Canada. pp. 300-307. Available online

This paper describes a study comparing the movement characteristics of the mouse and the velocity-control isometric joystick. These characteristics are called the microstructure of movement. The comparison found random variations in the velocity of the isometric joystick that make it hard to control. The study shows that the microstructure of movement can explain differences in performance among devices.

© All rights reserved Mithal and Douglas and/or ACM Press

p. 308-315

Zhai, Shumin, Milgram, Paul and Buxton, Bill (1996): The Influence of Muscle Groups on Performance of Multiple Degree-of-Freedom Input. In: Tauber, Michael J., Bellotti, Victoria, Jeffries, Robin, Mackinlay, Jock D. and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 96 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 14-18, 1996, Vancouver, Canada. pp. 308-315. Available online

The literature has long suggested that the design of computer input devices should make use of the fine, smaller muscle groups and joints in the fingers, since they are richly represented in the human motor and sensory cortex and they have higher information processing bandwidth than other body parts. This hypothesis, however, has not been conclusively verified with empirical research. The present work studied such a hypothesis in the context of designing 6 degree-of-freedom (DOF) input devices. The work attempts to address both a practical need -- designing efficient 6 DOF input devices -- and the theoretical issue of muscle group differences in input control. Two alternative 6 DOF input devices, one including and the other excluding the fingers from the 6 DOF manipulation, were designed and tested in a 3D object docking experiment. Users' task completion times were significantly shorter with the device that utilised the fingers. The results of this study strongly suggest that the shape and size of future input device designs should constitute affordances that invite finger participation in input control.

© All rights reserved Zhai et al. and/or ACM Press

p. 316-323

Quinones, Manuel A. Perez and Sibert, John L. (1996): A Collaborative Model of Feedback in Human-Computer Interaction. In: Tauber, Michael J., Bellotti, Victoria, Jeffries, Robin, Mackinlay, Jock D. and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 96 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 14-18, 1996, Vancouver, Canada. pp. 316-323. Available online

Feedback plays an important role in human-computer interaction. It provides the user with evidence of closure, thus satisfying the communication expectations that users have when engaging in a dialogue. In this paper we present a model identifying five feedback states that must be communicated to the user to fulfill the communication expectations of a dialogue. The model is based on a linguistics theory of conversation, but is applied to a graphical user interface. An experiment is described in which we test users' expectations and their behavior when those expectations are not met. The model subsumes some of the temporal requirements for feedback previously reported in the human-computer interaction literature.

© All rights reserved Quinones and Sibert and/or ACM Press

p. 324-331

Kitajima, Muneo and Polson, Peter G. (1996): A Comprehension-Based Model of Exploration. In: Tauber, Michael J., Bellotti, Victoria, Jeffries, Robin, Mackinlay, Jock D. and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 96 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 14-18, 1996, Vancouver, Canada. pp. 324-331. Available online

This paper describes a comprehension-based model of how experienced Macintosh users learn a new application by doing a task presented as a series of exercises. A comprehension mechanism transforms written instructions into goals that control an action planning process proposed by Kitajima and Polson [11]. The transformation process is based on a theory of solving word problems developed by Kintsch [8,9]. The comprehension and action planning processes define constraints on the wording of effective instructions. The combined model is evaluated using data from Franzke [3]. We discuss implications of these results for Minimalist Instructions [1] and Cognitive Walkthroughs [17].

© All rights reserved Kitajima and Polson and/or ACM Press

p. 332-339

Bhavnani, Suresh K. and John, Bonnie E. (1996): Exploring the Unrealized Potential of Computer-Aided Drafting. In: Tauber, Michael J., Bellotti, Victoria, Jeffries, Robin, Mackinlay, Jock D. and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 96 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 14-18, 1996, Vancouver, Canada. pp. 332-339. Available online

Despite huge investments by vendors and users, CAD productivity remains disappointing. Our analysis of real-world CAD usage shows that even after many years of experience, users tend to use suboptimal strategies to perform complex CAD tasks. Additionally, some of these strategies have a marked resemblance to manual drafting techniques. Although this phenomenon has been previously reported, this paper explores explanations for its causes and persistence. We argue that the strategic knowledge to use CAD effectively is neither defined nor explicitly taught. In the absence of a well-formed strategy, users often develop a synthetic mental model of CAD containing a mixture of manual and CAD methods. As these suboptimal strategies do not necessarily prevent users from producing clean, accurate drawings, the inefficiencies tend to remain unrecognized and users have little motivation to develop better strategies. To reverse this situation we recommend that the strategic knowledge to use CAD effectively should be made explicit and provided early in training. We use our analysis to begin the process of making this strategic knowledge explicit. We conclude by discussing the ramifications of this research in training as well as in the development of future computer aids for drawing and design.

© All rights reserved Bhavnani and John and/or ACM Press

p. 340-346

Page, Stanley R., Johnsgard, Todd J., Albert, Uhl and Allen, C. Dennis (1996): User Customization of a Word Processor. In: Tauber, Michael J., Bellotti, Victoria, Jeffries, Robin, Mackinlay, Jock D. and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 96 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 14-18, 1996, Vancouver, Canada. pp. 340-346. Available online

The purpose of the study was to identify the customization changes users typically make to their word processor. Ninety-two percent of the participants customized their software in some way. Participants who used the software most heavily also did the most customization (p < .05). Most of the customization was done to facilitate the participants' work practices. The most common changes involved providing easier access to custom or often-used functionality. Button Bars seemed to provide an easy and effective means for participants to customize access to the functionality they wanted. Few participants customized the visual appearance of the interface.

© All rights reserved Page et al. and/or ACM Press

p. 347-354

Ishizaki, Suguru (1996): Multiagent Model of Dynamic Design: Visualization as an Emergent Behavior of Active Design Agents. In: Tauber, Michael J., Bellotti, Victoria, Jeffries, Robin, Mackinlay, Jock D. and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 96 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 14-18, 1996, Vancouver, Canada. pp. 347-354. Available online

This research has been motivated by the lack of models and languages in the visual design field that are able to address design solutions, which continuously adapt in response to the dynamic changes both in the information itself and in the goals or intentions of the information recipient. This paper postulates a multiagent model of dynamic design -- a theoretical framework of design that provides a model with which the visual designer can think during the course of designing. The model employs a decentralized model of design as a premise, and borrows its conceptual model from the improvisational performance, such as dance and music, and bases its theoretical and technical framework on the field of multiagent systems. A design solution is considered an emergent behavior of a collection of active design agents, or performers, each of which is responsible for presenting a particular segment of information. The graphical behaviors of design agents are described by their dynamic activities -- rather than by the traditional method of fixed attributes. The model is illustrated with two design projects, Dynamic News Display System and E-Mail Reader, both of which were implemented using a multiagent design simulation system, perForm, along with an agent description language, persona.

© All rights reserved Ishizaki and/or ACM Press

p. 35-41

Schumann, Jutta, Strothotte, Thomas, Raab, Andreas and Laser, Stefan (1996): Assessing the Effect of Non-Photorealistic Rendered Images in CAD. In: Tauber, Michael J., Bellotti, Victoria, Jeffries, Robin, Mackinlay, Jock D. and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 96 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 14-18, 1996, Vancouver, Canada. pp. 35-41. Available online

Recent work in computer graphics has resulted in new techniques for rendering so-called non-photorealistic images. While such features are now already appearing in commercially available software, little is known about the effect of non-photorealistic images on users and their usefulness in specific contexts. In this paper we report on an empirical study with 54 architects who compared the output of a sketch-renderer for producing pencil-like drawings with standard output of CAD systems for architectural designs. The results show that the different kinds of renditions actually have a very different effect on viewers and that non-photorealistic images actually do deserve their place in the repertoire of CAD systems.

© All rights reserved Schumann et al. and/or ACM Press

p. 355-361

Terveen, Loren and Murray, La Tondra (1996): Helping Users Program Their Personal Agents. In: Tauber, Michael J., Bellotti, Victoria, Jeffries, Robin, Mackinlay, Jock D. and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 96 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 14-18, 1996, Vancouver, Canada. pp. 355-361. Available online

Software agents are computer programs that act on behalf of users to perform routine, tedious, and time-consuming tasks. To be useful to an individual user, an agent must be personalized to his or her goals, habits, and preferences. We have created an end-user programming system that makes it easy for users to state rules for their agents to follow. The main advance over previous approaches is that the system automatically determines conflicts between rules and guides users in resolving the conflicts. Thus, user and system collaborate in developing and managing a set of rules that embody the user's preferences for handling a wide variety of situations.

© All rights reserved Terveen and and/or ACM Press

p. 362-367

Gale, Stephen (1996): A Collaborative Approach to Developing Style Guides. In: Tauber, Michael J., Bellotti, Victoria, Jeffries, Robin, Mackinlay, Jock D. and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 96 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 14-18, 1996, Vancouver, Canada. pp. 362-367. Available online

A vital element in exploiting the benefits of Graphical User Interfaces (GUIs) is the use of an appropriate Style Guide. This paper outlines a collaborative approach to the development of Style Guides and highlights the associated benefits and pitfalls.

© All rights reserved Gale and/or ACM Press

p. 368-375

Miller, Anne (1996): Integrating Human Factors in Customer Support Systems Development Using a Multi-Level Organisational Approach. In: Tauber, Michael J., Bellotti, Victoria, Jeffries, Robin, Mackinlay, Jock D. and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 96 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 14-18, 1996, Vancouver, Canada. pp. 368-375. Available online

Integrating usability into software development projects involves working across multiple organisational levels. Aligning the Customer Support Platform Usability (CSPU) Teams objectives with those of the organisation allowed more effective integration of usability activities within project teams. Primarily, corporate alignment provided a legitimate mandate for the CSPU Team to develop standards and guidelines, and to require that usability activities be undertaken by project teams. However, at the project team level, integration was achieved by definition of roles, activities and processes according to the objectives, constraints and processes of project teams. Achieving common ground in project teams involved a willingness to work with, and to actively adapt to both organisational and project based needs.

© All rights reserved Miller and/or ACM Press

p. 376-382

Sawyer, Paul, Flanders, Alicia and Wixon, Dennis (1996): Making a Difference -- The Impact of Inspections. In: Tauber, Michael J., Bellotti, Victoria, Jeffries, Robin, Mackinlay, Jock D. and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 96 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 14-18, 1996, Vancouver, Canada. pp. 376-382. Available online

In this methodology paper we define a metric we call impact ratio. We use this ratio to measure the effectiveness of inspections and other evaluative techniques in getting usability improvements into products. We inspected ten

© All rights reserved Sawyer et al. and/or ACM Press

p. 383-390

Kamba, Tomonari, Elson, Shawn, Harpold, Terry, Stamper, Tim and Sukaviriya, Piyawadee (1996): Using Small Screen Space More Efficiently. In: Tauber, Michael J., Bellotti, Victoria, Jeffries, Robin, Mackinlay, Jock D. and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 96 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 14-18, 1996, Vancouver, Canada. pp. 383-390. Available online

This paper describes techniques for maximizing the efficient use of small screen space by combining delayed response with semi-transparency of control objects ("widgets") and on-screen text. Most research on the limitations of small display screens has focused on methods for optimizing concurrent display of text and widgets at the same level of transparency (that is, both are equally opaque). Prior research which proposes that widgets may be made semi-transparent is promising, but it does not, we feel, adequately address problems associated with user interaction with text that is partially obscured by the widgets. In this paper, we will propose that a variable delay in the response of overlapping widgets and text improves the effectiveness of the semi-transparent widget/text model. Our conclusions are based on usability studies of a prototype of an online newspaper that combined transparency and delayed-response techniques.

© All rights reserved Kamba et al. and/or ACM Press

p. 391-398

Harrison, Beverly L. and Vicente, Kim J. (1996): An Experimental Evaluation of Transparent Menu Usage. In: Tauber, Michael J., Bellotti, Victoria, Jeffries, Robin, Mackinlay, Jock D. and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 96 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 14-18, 1996, Vancouver, Canada. pp. 391-398. Available online

This paper reports a systematic evaluation of transparent user interfaces. It reflects our progression from theoretically-based experiments in focused attention to more representative application-based experiments on selection response times and error rates. We outline how our previous research relates to both the design and the results reported here. For this study, we used a variably-transparent, text menu superimposed over different backgrounds: text pages, wire-frame images, and solid images. We compared "standard" text (Motif style, Helvetica, 14 point) and a proposed font enhancement technique ("Anti-Interference" outlining). More generally, this experimental evaluation provides information about the interaction between transparency and text legibility.

© All rights reserved Harrison and Vicente and/or ACM Press

p. 399-405

Douglas, Sarah A. and Kirkpatrick, Ted (1996): Do Color Models Really Make a Difference?. In: Tauber, Michael J., Bellotti, Victoria, Jeffries, Robin, Mackinlay, Jock D. and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 96 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 14-18, 1996, Vancouver, Canada. pp. 399-405. Available online

User interfaces for color selection are based upon an underlying color model. There is widespread belief, and some evidence, that color models produce significant differences in human performance. We performed a color-matching experiment using an interface with high levels of feedback. With this interface, we observed no differences in speed or accuracy between the RGB and HSV color models, but found that increasing feedback improved accuracy of matching. We suggest that feedback may be an important factor in usability of a color selection interface.

© All rights reserved Douglas and Kirkpatrick and/or ACM Press

p. 406-412

Tweedie, Lisa, Spence, Robert, Dawkes, Huw and Su, Hua (1996): Externalising Abstract Mathematical Models. In: Tauber, Michael J., Bellotti, Victoria, Jeffries, Robin, Mackinlay, Jock D. and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 96 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 14-18, 1996, Vancouver, Canada. pp. 406-412. Available online

Abstract mathematical models play an important part in engineering design, economic decision making and other activities. Such models can be externalised in the form of Interactive Visualisation Artifacts (IVAs). These IVAs display the data generated by mathematical models in simple graphs which are interactively linked. Visual examination of these graphs enables users to acquire insight into the complex relations embodied in the model. In the engineering context this insight can be exploited to aid design. The paper describes two IVAs for engineering design: The Influence Explorer and The Prosection Matrix. Formative evaluation studies are briefly discussed.

© All rights reserved Tweedie et al. and/or ACM Press

p. 413-419

Lokuge, Ishantha, Gilbert, Stephen A. and Richards, Whitman (1996): Structuring Information with Mental Models: A Tour of Boston. In: Tauber, Michael J., Bellotti, Victoria, Jeffries, Robin, Mackinlay, Jock D. and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 96 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 14-18, 1996, Vancouver, Canada. pp. 413-419. Available online

We present a new systematic method of structuring information using mental models. This method can be used both to evaluate the efficiency of an information structure and to build user-centered information structures. In this paper we present the method using Boston tourist attractions as an example domain. We describe several interfaces that take advantage of our mental models with an activation spreading network. Multidimensional Scaling and Trajectory Mapping are used to build our mental models. Because of the robustness of the technique, it is easy to compare individual difference in mental models and to customize interfaces for individual models.

© All rights reserved Lokuge et al. and/or ACM Press

p. 420-427

Comstock, Elizabeth M. and Duane, William M. (1996): Embed User Values in System Architecture: The Declaration of System Usability. In: Tauber, Michael J., Bellotti, Victoria, Jeffries, Robin, Mackinlay, Jock D. and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 96 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 14-18, 1996, Vancouver, Canada. pp. 420-427. Available online

The underlying architecture of complex software products profoundly influences their direction and usability. This paper shares an effort to embed usability within the architecture of complex network products. We began by attempting to build a conceptual model, but we ended by representing customers' and users' values in a Declaration of System Usability to guide product direction and system architecture decisions.

© All rights reserved Comstock and Duane and/or ACM Press

p. 428-435

Hofmeester, G. H., Kemp, J. A. M. and Blankendaal, A. C. M. (1996): Sensuality in Product Design: A Structured Approach. In: Tauber, Michael J., Bellotti, Victoria, Jeffries, Robin, Mackinlay, Jock D. and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 96 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 14-18, 1996, Vancouver, Canada. pp. 428-435. Available online

This paper describes a user-centred process for designing a product which induces a sensual feeling. It is assumed that in the design of consumer products feelings are an essential part of human-product interaction. The objective of the graduation project discussed here was to pro-actively design a pager which the target user group (women aged 18-30 years) perceived as sensual. Users were involved at an early stage of the design process. Based on information gathered in a series of interviews two pagers were designed. In an evaluation both models were perceived as significantly more sensual than a reference model.

© All rights reserved Hofmeester et al. and/or ACM Press

p. 436-441

Graefe, Christopher, Wahila, Derek, Maguire, Justin and Dasna, Orya (1996): Designing the muse: A Digital Music Stand for the Symphony Musician. In: Tauber, Michael J., Bellotti, Victoria, Jeffries, Robin, Mackinlay, Jock D. and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 96 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 14-18, 1996, Vancouver, Canada. pp. 436-441. Available online

As part of the 1995 Apple Design Project, we designed and prototyped the muse, a digital music stand for the symphony musician. Our group consisted of four students from Carnegie Mellon University. We worked closely with members of the Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra during the development of our product. By observing their practice, rehearsal, and performance habits, we studied the symphony culture and generated the concept of a product that would replace a number of conventional tools and processes with a single digital device. The integration of the interface and industrial design resulted in a cohesive look and feel to the muse. The muse contains a metronome with audio and visual feedback, a pitch-generating tuner, stylus-based on-screen annotation, inter-symphony communication capabilities, a music library, and manual or automatic page turning with indexing. The muse is fashioned from mahogany, aluminum, and steel to reflect the timeless beauty of the instruments with which it shares the stage.

© All rights reserved Graefe et al. and/or ACM Press

p. 442-449

Ranson, David S., Patterson, Emily S., Kidwell, Daniel L., Renner, Gavin A., Matthews, Mike L., Corban, Jim M., Seculov, Emil and Souhleris, Constantine S. (1996): Rapid Scout: Bridging the Gulf Between Physical and Virtual Environments. In: Tauber, Michael J., Bellotti, Victoria, Jeffries, Robin, Mackinlay, Jock D. and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 96 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 14-18, 1996, Vancouver, Canada. pp. 442-449. Available online

We explored how to bridge the gulf between physical and virtual environments for the sport of whitewater paddling. Field observations, critical incident analysis, exploratory prototyping, and field and lab evaluations were used to make discoveries. Lessons learned in this ethnographic process led to the design of a guiding, communication, and navigation aid for kayakers and canoeists. In designing "Rapid Scout", we gained insights on making virtual representations context-sensitive, coupling multiple perspectives, dealing with uncertainty, and extending human views. Ways to facilitate collaboration through shared graphic frames of reference were also explored.

© All rights reserved Ranson et al. and/or ACM Press

p. 450-457

Oosterholt, Ron, Kusano, Mieko and Vries, Govert de (1996): Interaction Design and Human Factors Support in the Development of a Personal Communicator for Children. In: Tauber, Michael J., Bellotti, Victoria, Jeffries, Robin, Mackinlay, Jock D. and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 96 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 14-18, 1996, Vancouver, Canada. pp. 450-457. Available online

Today's computer games for children are primarily focused on boys. Two years ago Philips started the development of a new 'personal communication' product that addresses the needs of young children and especially the needs of young girls. This article is focused on the interaction design and human factors support provided throughout the development of this product. It illustrates the involvement of the interaction design discipline, ranging from the initial generation and visualization of interface ideas to the final transfer to the software engineering team of detailed user interface specifications. The article also describes how human factors support ensured that potential users were involved on continuously in the design process, as well as how this involvement influenced the development of the final product. The article concludes with a discussion of the lessons learned in designing products for children.

© All rights reserved Oosterholt et al. and/or ACM Press

p. 458-465

Wagner, Annette and Capucciati, Maria (1996): Demo or Die: User Interface as Marketing Theatre. In: Tauber, Michael J., Bellotti, Victoria, Jeffries, Robin, Mackinlay, Jock D. and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 96 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 14-18, 1996, Vancouver, Canada. pp. 458-465. Available online

This design briefing describes the design and development of a demonstration which simultaneously utilizes and illustrates the use of SunSoft's distributed object technology, NEO. The design is notable in that the demo is primarily a marketing tool, not a product. We discuss the factors that made the NEO demo different from a typical project, and how we created a successful user experience through the visual design and story of the NEO demo.

© All rights reserved Wagner and Capucciati and/or ACM Press

p. 466-472

Mohageg, Mike, Myers, Rob, Marrin, Chris, Kent, Jim, Mott, David and Isaacs, Paul (1996): A User Interface for Accessing 3D Content on the World Wide Web. In: Tauber, Michael J., Bellotti, Victoria, Jeffries, Robin, Mackinlay, Jock D. and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 96 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 14-18, 1996, Vancouver, Canada. pp. 466-472. Available online

A strategy for accessing and viewing three dimensional data on the World Wide Web is introduced. Factors driving the user interface design of a 3D web browser are presented. The interface for the initial implementation of Silicon Graphics' WebSpaceNavigator, the first commercially available 3D Web browser, is given. Close attention is paid to design issues. Usability lessons learned from this interface are described and it is shown how they affected the second generation browser interface design.

© All rights reserved Mohageg et al. and/or ACM Press

p. 473-480

Sullivan, Kent (1996): The Windows 95 User Interface: A Case Study in Usability Engineering. In: Tauber, Michael J., Bellotti, Victoria, Jeffries, Robin, Mackinlay, Jock D. and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 96 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 14-18, 1996, Vancouver, Canada. pp. 473-480. Available online

The development of the user interface for a large commercial software product like Microsoft Windows 95 involves many people, broad design goals, and an aggressive work schedule. This design briefing describes how the usability engineering principles of iterative design and problem tracking were successfully applied to make the development of the UI more manageable. Specific design problems and their solutions are also discussed.

© All rights reserved Sullivan and/or ACM Press

p. 481-488

Ashlund, Stacey and Horwitz, Karen J. (1996): Usability Improvements in Lotus cc:Mail for Windows. In: Tauber, Michael J., Bellotti, Victoria, Jeffries, Robin, Mackinlay, Jock D. and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 96 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 14-18, 1996, Vancouver, Canada. pp. 481-488. Available online

This is a case study about a commercial software design and development process. The highly successful product contained some usability problems that were apparent from a usability perspective, but were to be delayed in the upcoming release. A Lotus Notes database was used to record usability issues, UI design recommendations, and decision rationale. This database was the key strategy that helped convince the team to make changes. The processes and UI design solutions described are not new; rather this design briefing focuses on how they were deployed to effect change that wouldn't have happened otherwise. "Before" and "After" screen shots illustrate this success story.

© All rights reserved Ashlund and Horwitz and/or ACM Press

p. 489-495

Hopper, Susan, Hambrose, Harold and Kanevsky, Paul (1996): Real World Design in the Corporate Environment: Designing an Interface for the Technically Challenged. In: Tauber, Michael J., Bellotti, Victoria, Jeffries, Robin, Mackinlay, Jock D. and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 96 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 14-18, 1996, Vancouver, Canada. pp. 489-495. Available online

The development of a graphical user interface for Merrill Lynch's Trusted Global Advisor (TGA) system is a major endeavor to bring enhanced information access and updated technology to the desktops of more than 15,000 financial consultants and industry professionals firmwide. The TGA development team's goals and challenges are two-fold. The business goal is to create a comprehensive, integrated computing environment that is unique and would identify Merrill Lynch as the technology pioneer in the financial services industry. The technological challenge included the design of a graphical user interface that could be easily learned and understood by all users in the Firm-the majority of which are PC illiterate. In order to have acceptance from the users, this new system has to appeal to both the first-time GUI user and mouse aficionados alike.

© All rights reserved Hopper et al. and/or ACM Press

p. 496-503

Velichovsky, Boris M. and Hansen, John Paulin (1996): New Technological Windows into Mind: There is More in Eyes and Brains for Human-Computer Interaction. In: Tauber, Michael J., Bellotti, Victoria, Jeffries, Robin, Mackinlay, Jock D. and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 96 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 14-18, 1996, Vancouver, Canada. pp. 496-503.

This is an overview of the recent progress leading towards a full subject-centered paradigm in human-computer interaction. At this new phase in the evolution of computer technologies it will be possible to take into account no just characteristics of average human beings, but create systems sensitive to the actual states of attention and intentions of interacting persons. We discuss some of these methods concentrating on the use of eye-tracking and brain imaging. The development is based on the use of eye movement data for a control of output devices, for gaze-contingent image processing and for disambiguating verbal as well as nonverbal information.

© All rights reserved Velichovsky and Hansen and/or ACM Press

p. 504-505

Magpantay, Andrew (1996): The Virtual Library: A New Common Ground. In: Tauber, Michael J., Bellotti, Victoria, Jeffries, Robin, Mackinlay, Jock D. and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 96 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 14-18, 1996, Vancouver, Canada. pp. 504-505.

The American Library Association (ALA), a nonprofit educational and service organization based in Chicago, Illinois is the world's oldest and largest professional library association. Founded in 1876, it currently has over 56,000 members -- primarily librarians, but also trustees, publishers, and library supporters. Its mission is to provide leadership and information services and the profession of librarianship in order to enhance learning and ensure access to information for all. In 1995, APA embarked on a five year strategic initiative -- ALA Goal 2000 -- to advocate for the public's right to a free and open information society. As part of this initiative ALA has expanded its Washington Office, now celebrating its 50th anniversary, to increase its ability to influence national issues, policy and legislation. Additionally, ALA established an Office of Information Technology Policy, also in Washington, D.C., to address complex technology policy issues and promote the development and utilization of electronic access to information as a means to ensure the public's right to a free and open information society.

© All rights reserved Magpantay and/or ACM Press

p. 506-507

Druin, Allison (1996): CHIKids: A Common Ground for Kids and Adults. In: Tauber, Michael J., Bellotti, Victoria, Jeffries, Robin, Mackinlay, Jock D. and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 96 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 14-18, 1996, Vancouver, Canada. pp. 506-507.

CHIkids challenges the traditional notion of childcare and rolls summer camp, technology, and CHI into a new hands-on experience for children. This is an opportunity for the next generation to explore computers, technology, and user interface design at the CHI 96 conference. Children (3-12 years of age) will have the opportunity to create multimedia stories, try the latest educational multimedia titles, test emerging software technologies with CHI researchers, and to be conference reporters using desktop publishing tools and the World Wide Web. These activities will be reported on and presented by CHIkids leaders at the close of the CHI 96 conference.

© All rights reserved Druin and/or ACM Press

p. 58-65

Bowers, John, Pycock, James and O'Brien, Jon (1996): Talk and Embodiment in Collaborative Virtual Environments. In: Tauber, Michael J., Bellotti, Victoria, Jeffries, Robin, Mackinlay, Jock D. and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 96 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 14-18, 1996, Vancouver, Canada. pp. 58-65. Available online

This paper presents some qualitative, interpretative analyses of social interaction in an internationally distributed, real-time, multi-party meeting held within a collaborative virtual environment (CVE). The analyses reveal some systematic problems with turn taking and participation in such environments. We also examine how the simple polygonal shapes by means of which users were represented and embodied in the environment are deployed in social interaction. Strikingly, some familiar coordinations of body movement are observed even though such embodiments are very minimal shapes. The paper concludes with some suggestions for technical development, derived from the empirical analyses, which might enhance interactivity in virtual worlds for collaboration and cooperative work.

© All rights reserved Bowers et al. and/or ACM Press

p. 66-71

Raman, T. V. (1996): Emacspeak -- A Speech Interface. In: Tauber, Michael J., Bellotti, Victoria, Jeffries, Robin, Mackinlay, Jock D. and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 96 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 14-18, 1996, Vancouver, Canada. pp. 66-71. Available online

Screen-readers -- computer software that enables a visually impaired user to read the contents of a visual display -- have been available for more than a decade. Screen-readers are separate from the user application. Consequently, they have little or no contextual information about the contents of the display. The author has used traditional screen-reading applications for the last five years. The design of the speech-enabling approach described here has been implemented in Emacspeak to overcome many of the shortcomings he has encountered with traditional screen-readers. The approach used by Emacspeak is very different from that of traditional screen-readers. Screen-readers allow the user to listen to the contents appearing in different parts of the display; but the user is entirely responsible for building a mental model of the visual display in order to interpret what an application is trying to convey. Emacspeak, on the other hand, does not speak the screen. Instead, applications provide both visual and speech feedback, and the speech feedback is designed to be sufficient by itself. This approach reduces cognitive load on the user and is relevant to providing general spoken access to information. Producing spoken output from within the application, rather than speaking the visually displayed information, vastly improves the quality of the spoken feedback. Thus, an application can display its results in a visually pleasing manner; the speech-enabling component renders the same in an aurally pleasing way.

© All rights reserved Raman and/or ACM Press

p. 72-78

Mereu, Stephen W. and Kazman, Rick (1996): Audio Enhanced 3D Interfaces for Visually Impaired Users. In: Tauber, Michael J., Bellotti, Victoria, Jeffries, Robin, Mackinlay, Jock D. and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 96 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 14-18, 1996, Vancouver, Canada. pp. 72-78. Available online

Three dimensional computer applications such as CAD packages are often difficult to use because of inadequate depth feedback to the user. It has, however, been shown that audio feedback can help improve a user's sense of depth perception. This paper describes an experiment which evaluates the use of three different audio environments in a 3D task undertaken by visually impaired users. The three audio environments map tonal, musical, and orchestral sounds to an (x, y, z) position in a 3D environment. In each environment the user's task is to locate a target in three dimensions as accurately and quickly as possible. This experiment has three important results: that audio feedback improves performance in 3D applications for all users; that visually impaired users can use 3D applications with the accuracy of sighted users; and that visually impaired users can attain greater target accuracy than sighted users in a sound-only environment.

© All rights reserved Mereu and Kazman and/or ACM Press

p. 79-86

Robertson, Scott P., Wharton, Cathleen, Ashworth, Catherine and Franzke, Marita (1996): Dual Device User Interface Design: PDAs and Interactive Television. In: Tauber, Michael J., Bellotti, Victoria, Jeffries, Robin, Mackinlay, Jock D. and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 96 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 14-18, 1996, Vancouver, Canada. pp. 79-86. Available online

Computing environments which involve many interacting devices are a challenge for system and user interface designers. A prototype of a multiple-device application consisting of a personal digital assistant (PDA) that operates in conjunction with interactive television (ITV) was developed from user requirements for a real estate information service. The application is used both as a stand-alone service and in conjunction with a television. Users interact exclusively with the PDA. The television responds to PDA output and is used for the presentation of visual images and videos. In this paper the application is described and user interface design issues that arise in the context of multiple device systems are discussed.

© All rights reserved Robertson et al. and/or ACM Press

p. 87-94

Lecoanet, Stephane Chatty Patrick (1996): Pen Computing for Air Traffic Control. In: Tauber, Michael J., Bellotti, Victoria, Jeffries, Robin, Mackinlay, Jock D. and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 96 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 14-18, 1996, Vancouver, Canada. pp. 87-94. Available online

Modernizing workstations for air traffic controllers is a challenge: designers must increase efficiency without affecting safety in any way. Air traffic control is a time-intensive and safety-critical activity, and thus interaction efficiency and low error rates are crucial. Classical interaction techniques have been used in prototype workstations, but the resulting efficiency is not always satisfactory. This leads designers to consider more advanced interaction techniques. This paper reports on the design and a preliminary evaluation of the first prototype of project IMAGINE, which represents the second generation of graphical interfaces for air traffic control. This prototype, GRIGRI, uses a high resolution touch screen and provides mark based input through the screen. The use of gestures, as well as the use of multi-modal techniques, make interaction faster, and closer to the controllers' habits.

© All rights reserved Lecoanet and/or ACM Press

p. 95-102

Oviatt, Sharon (1996): Multimodal Interfaces for Dynamic Interactive Maps. In: Tauber, Michael J., Bellotti, Victoria, Jeffries, Robin, Mackinlay, Jock D. and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 96 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 14-18, 1996, Vancouver, Canada. pp. 95-102. Available online

Dynamic interactive maps with transparent but powerful human interface capabilities are beginning to emerge for a variety of geographical information systems, including ones situated on portables for travelers, students, business and service people, and others working in field settings. In the present research, interfaces supporting spoken, pen-based, and multimodal input were analyze for their potential effectiveness in interacting with this new generation of map systems. Input modality (speech, writing, multimodal) and map display format (highly versus minimally structured) were varied in a within-subject factorial design as people completed realistic tasks with a simulated map system. The results identified a constellation of performance difficulties associated with speech-only map interactions, including elevated performance errors, spontaneous disfluencies, and lengthier task completion time -- problems that declined substantially when people could interact multimodally with the map. These performance advantages also mirrored a strong user preference to interact multimodally. The error-proneness and unacceptability of speech-only input to maps was attributed in large part to people's difficulty generating spoken descriptions of spatial location. Analyses also indicated that map display format can be used to minimize performance errors and disfluencies, and map interfaces that guide users' speech toward brevity can nearly eliminate disfluencies. Implications of this research are discussed for the design of high-performance multimodal interfaces for future map systems.

© All rights reserved Oviatt and/or ACM Press




 

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