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Proceedings of the 5th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology


 
Time and place:
Monteray, California, United States
November 15 - 18, 1992
Editors:
Mackinlay, Jock D. and Green, Mark
Conf. description:
UIST is the premier forum for innovations in developing human-computer interfaces. The symposium brings together user-interface researchers and practitioners with an interest in techniques, tools, and technology for constructing high-quality, innovative user interfaces.
Help us!
Do you know when the next conference is? If yes, please add it to the calendar!
Series:
This is a preferred venue for people like Scott E. Hudson, Ravin Balakrishnan, Brad A. Myers, Steven K. Feiner, and Takeo Igarashi. Part of the UIST - Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology conference series.
Other years:
ISBN:
0897915496
Publisher:
ACM Press
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References from this conference (1992)

The following articles are from "Proceedings of the 5th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology":

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Articles

Reddy, Raj (1992): User Interfaces in GigaPC Environments. In: Mackinlay, Jock D. and Green, Mark (eds.) Proceedings of the 5th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 15 - 18, 1992, Monteray, California, United States. .

Current projections indicate that a PC capable of a billion operations-per-second costing about $3,000 will be available by around 1998. User interfaces provide one of the few areas which can beneficially use such computational power. In this talk, I will present a number of user interface research areas such as multimedia interfaces, self-improving interfaces, intelligent help facilities, interfaces that can provide advice on efficient uses of the system, and systems that can tolerate error and ambiguity.

© All rights reserved Reddy and/or ACM Press

p. 1-6

Herndon, Kenneth, Zeleznik, Robert, Robbins, Daniel, Conner, D. Brookshire, Snibbe, Scott S. and van Dam, Andries (1992): Interactive Shadows. In: Mackinlay, Jock D. and Green, Mark (eds.) Proceedings of the 5th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 15 - 18, 1992, Monteray, California, United States. pp. 1-6. Available online

It is often difficult in computer graphics applications to understand spatial relationships between objects in a 3D scene or effect changes to those objects without specialized visualization and manipulation techniques. We present a set of three-dimensional tools (widgets) called "shadows" that not only provide valuable perceptual cues about the spatial relationships between objects, but also provide a direct manipulation interface to constrained transformation techniques. These shadow widgets provide two advances over previous techniques. First, they provide high correlation between their own geometric feedback and their effects on the objects they control. Second, unlike some other 3D widgets, they do not obscure the objects they control.

© All rights reserved Herndon et al. and/or ACM Press

p. 107-116

Miyashita, Ken, Matsuoka, Satoshi, Takahashi, Shin, Yonezawa, Akinori and Kamada, Tomihisa (1992): Declarative Programming of Graphical Interfaces by Visual Examples. In: Mackinlay, Jock D. and Green, Mark (eds.) Proceedings of the 5th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 15 - 18, 1992, Monteray, California, United States. pp. 107-116. Available online

Graphical user interfaces (GUI) provide intuitive and easy means for users to communicate with computers. However, construction of GUI software requires complex programming that is far from being intuitive. Because of the "semantic gap" between the textual application program and its graphical interface, the programmer himself must conceptually maintain the correspondence between the textual programming and the graphical image of the resulting interface. Instead, we propose a programming environment based on the programming by visual example (PBVE) scheme, which allows the GUI designers to "program" visual interfaces for their applications by "drawing" the example visualization of application data with a direct manipulation interface. Our system, TRIP3, realizes this with (1) the bi-directional translation model between the (abstract) application data and the pictorial data of the GUI, and (2) the ability to generate mapping rules for the translation from example application data and its corresponding example visualization. The latter is made possible by the use of generalization of visual examples, where the system is able to automatically generate generalized mapping rules from a given set of examples.

© All rights reserved Miyashita et al. and/or ACM Press

p. 117-124

Hashimoto, Osamu and Myers, Brad A. (1992): Graphical Styles for Building User Interfaces by Demonstration. In: Mackinlay, Jock D. and Green, Mark (eds.) Proceedings of the 5th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 15 - 18, 1992, Monteray, California, United States. pp. 117-124. Available online

Conventional interface builders allow the user interface designer to select widgets such as menus, buttons and scroll bars, and lay them out using a mouse. Although these are conceptually simple to use, in practice there are a number of problems. First, a typical widget will have dozens of properties which the designer might change. Insuring that these properties are consistent across multiple widgets in a dialog box and multiple dialog boxes in an application can be very difficult. Second, if the designer wants to change the properties, each widget must be edited individually. Third, getting the widgets laid out appropriately in a dialog box can be tedious. Grids and alignment commands are not sufficient. This paper describes Graphical Tabs and Graphical Styles in the Gilt interface builder which solves all of these problems. A "graphical tab" is an absolute position in a window. A "graphical style" incorporates both property and layout information, and can be defined by example, named, applied to other widgets, edited, saved to a file, and read from a file. If a graphical style is edited, then all widgets defined using that style are modified. In addition, because appropriate styles are inferred, they do not have to be explicitly applied.

© All rights reserved Hashimoto and Myers and/or ACM Press

p. 125-134

Guimaraes, Nuno M., Correia, Nuno M. and Carmo, Telmo A. (1992): Programming Time in Multimedia User Interfaces. In: Mackinlay, Jock D. and Green, Mark (eds.) Proceedings of the 5th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 15 - 18, 1992, Monteray, California, United States. pp. 125-134. Available online

The new media types used in advanced user interfaces and interactive systems introduce time as a significant variable. This paper addresses the architectural support and programming tools that should be provided to the programmer to manage the time dependencies. The approach considers that the basic models and programming paradigms adopted in the manipulation and management of time should be isomorphic with the spatial models used in existing graphical user interfaces. The paper describes the architectural principles of a toolkit designed to support the construction of user interfaces with temporal characteristics. The Ttoolkit is an extension of an existing graphical user interface toolkit, the Xt toolkit. Its design is presented and a sample application is described.

© All rights reserved Guimaraes et al. and/or ACM Press

p. 135-141

Lin, Jinkun (1992): MediaMosaic -- A Multimedia Editing Environment. In: Mackinlay, Jock D. and Green, Mark (eds.) Proceedings of the 5th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 15 - 18, 1992, Monteray, California, United States. pp. 135-141. Available online

MediaMosaic is an editing environment developed to provide several features that are either unavailable or not adequately addressed in current editing systems. First, it is a multimedia editor of an open architecture. General media are inserted in documents by embedded virtual screens. Second, it allows users to do markup editing in context. The marked comments are overlapped and attached to the commented areas. Third, it provides a mechanism to allow users to bring data from more than one source to a single document. The views of the included data can be tailored. Fourth, users can work on an included medium through its embedded view or through another complete and duplicated view. It isolates and simplifies the interface design of individual media editors.

© All rights reserved Lin and/or ACM Press

p. 143-149

Cohen, Philip R. (1992): The Role of Natural Language in a Multimodal Interface. In: Mackinlay, Jock D. and Green, Mark (eds.) Proceedings of the 5th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 15 - 18, 1992, Monteray, California, United States. pp. 143-149. Available online

Although graphics and direct manipulation are effective interface technologies for some classes of problems, they are limited in many ways. In particular, they provide little support for identifying objects not on the screen, for specifying temporal relations, for identifying and operating on large sets and subsets of entries, and for using the context of interaction. One the other hand, these are precisely strengths of natural language. This paper presents and interface that blends natural language processing and direct manipulation technologies, using each for their characteristic advantages. Specifically, the paper shows how to use natural language to describe objects and temporal relations, and how to use direct manipulation for overcoming hard natural language problems involving the establishment and use of context and pronominal reference. This work has been implemented in SRI's Shoptalk system, a prototype information and decision-support system for manufacturing.

© All rights reserved Cohen and/or ACM Press

p. 15-22

Adelstein, Bernard D., Johnston, Eric R. and Ellis, Stephen R. (1992): A Testbed for Characterizing Dynamic Response of Virtual Environment Spatial Sensors. In: Mackinlay, Jock D. and Green, Mark (eds.) Proceedings of the 5th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 15 - 18, 1992, Monteray, California, United States. pp. 15-22. Available online

This paper describes a testbed and method for characterizing the dynamic response of the type of spatial displacement transducers commonly used in virtual environment (VE) applications. The testbed consists of a motorized rotary swing arm that imparts known displacement inputs to the VE sensor. The experimental method involves a series of tests in which the sensor is displayed back and forth at a number of controlled frequencies that span the bandwidth of volitional human movement. During the tests, actual swing arm angle and reported VE sensor displacements are collected and time stamped. Because of the time stamping technique, the response time of the sensor can be measured directly, independently of latencies in data transmission from the sensor unit and any processing by the interface application running on the host computer. Analysis of these experimental results allows sensor time delay and gain characteristics to be determined as a functions of input frequency. Results from tests of several different VE spatial sensors (Ascension, Logitech, and Polhemus) are presented here to demonstrate use of the testbed and method.

© All rights reserved Adelstein et al. and/or ACM Press

p. 151-160

Miller, David S., Smith, John G. and Muller, Michael J. (1992): TelePICTIVE: Computer-Supported Collaborative GUI Design for Designers with Diverse Expertise. In: Mackinlay, Jock D. and Green, Mark (eds.) Proceedings of the 5th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 15 - 18, 1992, Monteray, California, United States. pp. 151-160. Available online

It is generally accepted that it is important to involve the end users of a Graphical User Interface (GUI) in all stages of its design and development. However, traditional GUI development tools typically do not support collaborative design. TelePICTIVE is an experimental software prototype designed to allow computer-naive users to collaborate with experts at possibly remote locations in designing GUIs. TelePICTIVE is based on the PICTIVE participatory design methodology and has been prototyped using the RENDEZVOUS system. In this paper we describe TelePICTIVE, and show how it is designed to support collaboration among a group of GUI designers with diverse levels of expertise. We also explore some of the issues that have come up during development and initial usability testing, such as how to coordinate simultaneous access to a shared design surface, and how to engage in the participatory design of GUIs using a Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) system.

© All rights reserved Miller et al. and/or ACM Press

p. 161-170

Rhyne, James R. and Wolf, Catherine G. (1992): Tools for Supporting the Collaborative Process. In: Mackinlay, Jock D. and Green, Mark (eds.) Proceedings of the 5th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 15 - 18, 1992, Monteray, California, United States. pp. 161-170. Available online

Collaborative software has been divided into two temporal categories: synchronous and asynchronous. We argue that this binary distinction is unnecessary and harmful, and present a model for collaboration processes (i.e. the temporal record of the actions of the group members) which includes both synchronous and asynchronous software as submodels. We outline an object-oriented toolkit which implements the model, and present an application of its use in a pen-based conferencing tool.

© All rights reserved Rhyne and Wolf and/or ACM Press

p. 171-180

Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel and Karsenty, Alain (1992): Transparency and Awareness in a Real-Time Groupware System. In: Mackinlay, Jock D. and Green, Mark (eds.) Proceedings of the 5th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 15 - 18, 1992, Monteray, California, United States. pp. 171-180. Available online

This article explores real-time groupware systems from the perspective of both the users and the designer. This exploration is carried out through the description of GroupDesign, a real-time multi-user drawing tool that we have developed. From the perspective of the users, we present a number of functionalities that we feel necessary in any real-time groupware system: Graphic&Audio Echo, Localization, Identification, Age, and History. From the perspective of the designer, we demonstrate the possibility of creating a multi-user application from a single-user one, and we introduce the notion of purely replicated architecture.

© All rights reserved Beaudouin-Lafon and Karsenty and/or ACM Press

p. 181-190

Herczeg, Jurgen, Hohl, Hubertus and Ressel, Matthias (1992): Progress in Building User Interface Toolkits: The World According to XIT. In: Mackinlay, Jock D. and Green, Mark (eds.) Proceedings of the 5th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 15 - 18, 1992, Monteray, California, United States. pp. 181-190. Available online

User interface toolkits and higher-level tools built on top of them play an ever increasing part in developing graphical user interfaces. This paper describes the XIT system, a user interface development tool for the X Window System, based on Common Lisp, comprising user interface toolkits as well as high-level interactive tools organized into a layered architecture. We especially focus on the object-oriented design of the lower-level toolkits and show how advanced features for describing automatic screen layout, visual feedback, application links, complex interaction, and dialog control, usually not included in traditional user interface toolkits, are integrated.

© All rights reserved Herczeg et al. and/or ACM Press

p. 191-198

Berlage, Thomas (1992): Using Taps to Separate the User Interface from the Application Code. In: Mackinlay, Jock D. and Green, Mark (eds.) Proceedings of the 5th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 15 - 18, 1992, Monteray, California, United States. pp. 191-198. Available online

A new mechanism based on taps is introduced to separate the output from the application code in a graphical interactive interfaces. The mechanism is implemented in GINA, an object-oriented application framework. Taps maintain a functional mapping from application data to interface objects that is described in a general-purpose programming language. Taps are triggered automatically by user actions. Compared to constraints or the MVC model, taps do not need execution or memory support from the application objects, at the expense of a performance penalty. Screen updates, which pose the largest performance problem, are minimized by checking for attribute changes and window visibility. A comparison operation is used to maintain structural consistency between hierarchies of application and interface objects. Taps can be defined interactively using formulas in a spreadsheet-like tool.

© All rights reserved Berlage and/or ACM Press

p. 199-208

Hudson, Scott E. and Newell, Gary L. (1992): Probabilistic State Machines: Dialog Management for Inputs with Uncertainty. In: Mackinlay, Jock D. and Green, Mark (eds.) Proceedings of the 5th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 15 - 18, 1992, Monteray, California, United States. pp. 199-208. Available online

Traditional models of input work on the assumption that inputs delivered to a system are fairly certain to have occurred as they are reported. However, a number of new input modalities, such as pen-based inputs, hand and body gesture inputs, and voice input, do not share this property. Inputs under these techniques are normally acquired by a process of recognition. As a result, each of these techniques makes mistakes and provides inputs which are approximate or uncertain. This paper considers some preliminary techniques for dialog management in the presence of this uncertainty. These techniques -- including a new input model and a set of extended state machine abstractions -- will explicitly model uncertainty and handle it as a normal and expected part of the input process.

© All rights reserved Hudson and Newell and/or ACM Press

p. 23-32

Rao, Ramana, Card, Stuart K., Jellinek, Herbert, Mackinlay, Jock D. and Robertson, George G. (1992): The Information Grid: A Framework for Information Retrieval and Retrieval-Centered Applications. In: Mackinlay, Jock D. and Green, Mark (eds.) Proceedings of the 5th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 15 - 18, 1992, Monteray, California, United States. pp. 23-32. Available online

The Information Grid (InfoGrid) is a framework for building information access applications that provides a user interface design and an interaction model. It focuses on retrieval of application objects as its top level mechanism for accessing user information, documents, or services. We have embodied the InfoGrid design in an object-oriented application framework that supports rapid construction of applications. This application framework has been used to build a number of applications, some that are classically characterized as information retrieval applications, other that are more typically viewed as personal work tools.

© All rights reserved Rao et al. and/or ACM Press

p. 33-41

Zarmer, Craig L. and Chew, Chee (1992): Frameworks for Interactive, Extensible, Information-Intensive Applications. In: Mackinlay, Jock D. and Green, Mark (eds.) Proceedings of the 5th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 15 - 18, 1992, Monteray, California, United States. pp. 33-41. Available online

We describe a set of application frameworks designed especially to support information-intensive applications in complex domains, where the visual organization of an application's information is critical. Our frameworks, called visual formalisms, provide the semantic structures and editing operations, as well as the visual layout algorithms, needed to create a complete application. Examples of visual formalisms include tables, panels, graphs, and outlines. They are designed to be extended both by programmers, through subclassing, and by end users, through an integrated extension language.

© All rights reserved Zarmer and Chew and/or ACM Press

p. 43-52

Miller, Christopher A. and Larson, Raymond (1992): An Explanatory and "Argumentative" Interface for a Model-Based Diagnostic System. In: Mackinlay, Jock D. and Green, Mark (eds.) Proceedings of the 5th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 15 - 18, 1992, Monteray, California, United States. pp. 43-52. Available online

That intelligent systems need an explanatory capability if they are to aid or support human users has long been understood. A system which can justify its decisions generally obtains improved user trust, greater accuracy in use and offers embedded training potential. Extensive work has been done to provide rule-based systems with explanatory interfaces, but little has been done to provide the same benefits for model-based systems. We develop an approach to organizing the presentation of large amounts of model-based data in an interactive format patterned after a model of human-human explanatory and argumentative discourse. Portions of this interface were implemented for Honeywell's model-based Flight Control Maintenance and Diagnostic System (FCMDS). We conclude that sufficient information exists in a model-based system to provide a wide range of explanation types, and that, the discourse approach is a convenient, powerful and broadly applicable method of organizing and controlling information exchange involving this data.

© All rights reserved Miller and Larson and/or ACM Press

p. 53-59

Burgess, David A. (1992): Techniques for Low Cost Spatial Audio. In: Mackinlay, Jock D. and Green, Mark (eds.) Proceedings of the 5th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 15 - 18, 1992, Monteray, California, United States. pp. 53-59. Available online

There are a variety of potential uses for interactive spatial sound in human-computer interfaces, but hardware costs have made most of these applications impractical. Recently, however, single-chip digital signal processors have made real-time spatial audio an affordable possibility for many workstations. This paper describes an efficient spatialization technique and the associated computational requirements. Issues specific to the use of spatial audio in user interfaces are addressed. The paper also describes the design of a network server for spatial audio that can support a number of users at modest cost.

© All rights reserved Burgess and/or ACM Press

p. 61-70

Mynatt, Elizabeth D. and Edwards, W. Keith (1992): Mapping GUIs to Auditory Interfaces. In: Mackinlay, Jock D. and Green, Mark (eds.) Proceedings of the 5th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 15 - 18, 1992, Monteray, California, United States. pp. 61-70. Available online

This paper describes work to provide mappings between X-based graphical interfaces with auditory interfaces. In our system, dubbed Mercator, this mapping is transparent to applications. The primary motivation for this work is to provide accessibility to graphical applications for users who are blind or visually impaired. We describe the design of an auditory interface which simulates many of the features of graphical interfaces. We then describe the architecture we have built to model and transform graphical interfaces. Finally, we conclude with some indications of future research for improving our translation mechanisms and for creating an auditory "desktop" environment.

© All rights reserved Mynatt and Edwards and/or ACM Press

p. 7-14

Bolt, Richard A. and Herranz, Edward (1992): Two-Handed Gesture in Multi-Modal Natural Dialogue. In: Mackinlay, Jock D. and Green, Mark (eds.) Proceedings of the 5th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 15 - 18, 1992, Monteray, California, United States. pp. 7-14. Available online

Tracking both hands in free-space with accompanying speech input can augment the user's ability to communicate with computers. This paper discusses the kinds of situations which call for two-handed input and not just the single hand, and reports a prototype in which two-handed gestures serve to input concepts, both static and dynamic, manipulate displayed items, and specify actions to be taken. Future directions include enlargement of the vocabulary of two-handed "coverbal" gestures and the modulation by gaze of gestural intent.

© All rights reserved Bolt and Herranz and/or ACM Press

p. 71-78

Arons, Barry (1992): Tools for Building Asynchronous Servers to Support Speech and Audio Applications. In: Mackinlay, Jock D. and Green, Mark (eds.) Proceedings of the 5th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 15 - 18, 1992, Monteray, California, United States. pp. 71-78. Available online

Distributed client/server models are becoming increasingly prevalent in multimedia systems and advanced user interface design. A multimedia application, for example, may play and record audio, use speech recognition input, and use a window system for graphical I/O. The software architecture of such a system can be simplified if the application communicates to multiple servers (e.g., audio servers, recognition servers) that each manage different types of input and output. This paper describes tools for rapidly prototyping distributed asynchronous servers and applications, with an emphasis on supporting highly interactive user interfaces, temporal media, and multi-modal I/O. The Socket Manager handles low-level connection management and device I/O by supporting a callback mechanism for connection initiation, shutdown, and for reading incoming data. The Byte Stream Manager consists of an RPC compiler and run-time library that supports synchronous and asynchronous calls, with both a programmatic interface and a telnet interface that allows the server to act as a command interpreter. This paper details the tools developed for building asynchronous servers, several audio and speech servers built using these tools, and applications that exploit the features provided by the servers.

© All rights reserved Arons and/or ACM Press

p. 79-88

Bos, Edwin (1992): Some Virtues and Limitations of Action Inferring Interfaces. In: Mackinlay, Jock D. and Green, Mark (eds.) Proceedings of the 5th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 15 - 18, 1992, Monteray, California, United States. pp. 79-88. Available online

An action interring facility for a multimodal interface called Edward is described. Based on the actions the user performs, Edward anticipates future actions and offers to perform them automatically. The system uses inductive inference to anticipate actions. It generalizes over arguments and results, and detects patterns on the basis of a small sequence of user actions, e.g. "copy a lisp file; change extension of original file into .org; put the copy in the backup folder". Multimodality (particularly the combination of natural language and simulated pointing gestures) and the reuse of patterns are important new features. Some possibilities and problems of action interring interfaces in general are addressed. Action interring interfaces are particularly useful for professional users of general-purpose applications. Such users are unable to program repetitive patterns because either the applications do not provide the facilities or the users lack the capabilities.

© All rights reserved Bos and/or ACM Press

p. 89-97

Fisher, Gene L., Busse, Dale E. and Wolber, David (1992): Adding Rule-Based Reasoning to a Demonstrational Interface Builder. In: Mackinlay, Jock D. and Green, Mark (eds.) Proceedings of the 5th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 15 - 18, 1992, Monteray, California, United States. pp. 89-97. Available online

This paper presents a demonstrational interface builder with improved reasoning capabilities. The system is comprised of two major components: an interactive display manager and a rule-based reasoner. The display manager provides facilities to draw the physical appearance of an interface and define interface behavior by graphical demonstration. The behavior is defined using a technique of stimulus-response demonstration. With this technique, an interface developer first demonstrates a stimulus that represents an action that an end user will perform on the interface. After the stimulus, the developer demonstrates the response(s) that should result from the given stimulus. As the behavior is demonstrated, the reasoner observes the demonstrations and draws inferences to expedite behavior definition. The inferences entail generalizing from specific behavior demonstrations and identifying constraints that define the generalized behavior. Once behavior constraints are identified, the reasoner sends them to the display manager to complete the definition process. When the interface is executed by an end-user, the display manager uses the constraints to implement the run-time behavior of the interface.

© All rights reserved Fisher et al. and/or ACM Press

p. 99-106

Kurlander, David and Feiner, Steven K. (1992): A History-Based Macro by Example System. In: Mackinlay, Jock D. and Green, Mark (eds.) Proceedings of the 5th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 15 - 18, 1992, Monteray, California, United States. pp. 99-106. Available online

Many tasks performed using computer interfaces are very repetitive. While programmers can write macros or procedures to automate these repetitive tasks, this requires special skills. Demonstrational systems make macro building accessible to all users, but most provide either no visual representation of the macro or only a textual representation. We have developed a history-based visual representation of commands in a graphical user interface. This representation supports the definition of macros by example in several novel ways. At any time, a user can open a history window, review the commands executed in a session, select operations to encapsulate into a macro, and choose objects and their attributes as arguments. The system has facilities to generalize the macro automatically, save it for future use, and edit it.

© All rights reserved Kurlander and Feiner and/or ACM Press

p. iii

Clanton, Chuck, Mackinlay, Jock D., Ungar, David and Young, Emilie (1992): Animation of User Interfaces. In: Mackinlay, Jock D. and Green, Mark (eds.) Proceedings of the 5th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 15 - 18, 1992, Monteray, California, United States. p. iii.




 

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