What is this field of Human-Computer Interaction? People are quite different from computers. This is hardly a novel observation, but whenever people use computers, there is necessarily a zone of mutual accommodation and this defines our area of interest. People are so adaptable that they are capable of shouldering the entire burden of accommodation to an artifact, but skillful designers make large parts of this burden vanish by adapting the artifact to its users. To understand successful design requires an understanding of the technology, the person, and their mutual interaction [...]
-- Stephen Draper and Donald Norman. In "User Centered System Design" (1986) p. 1
Proceedings of the 2011 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics
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The topics of the ECCE conference include; Affective/emotional aspects of human interaction with IT artefacts; Cognitive task analysis and modelling; Collaborative work; Creativity Decision aiding, information presentation and visualization; Evaluation of cognitive performance, social interaction, usability; Human decision making and problem solving;Human error and reliability; Human learning behaviour; Human-centred automation; Interfaces for people with cognitive restrictions; Supporting diverse user groups (the disabled, the elderly, children, personality traits, cognitive styles, gender, culture etc.)
The following articles are from "Proceedings of the 2011 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics":
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Lehmann, Hagen, Iacono, Iolanda, Robins, Ben, Marti, Patrizia and Dautenhahn, Kerstin (2011): 'Make it move': playing cause and effect games with a robot companion for children with cognitive disabilities. In: Proceedings of the 2011 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2011. pp. 105-112. Available online
Play is one of the most important activities in child development. Children with special needs are often excluded from play activities due to the nature of their impairments. This paper describes the use of two types of robots with very different configurations, one humanoid robot (KASPAR) and one mobile robotic platform (IROMEC), in a six month long-term study with children with different levels of cognitive and social disabilities. In this study we tested the effectiveness of KASPAR and IROMEC. IROMEC was designed for children with special needs in order to encourage them to be engaged in play activities. KASPAR was developed to facilitate social interaction, including applications designed to help children with autism. We examined whether these two robots can support the achievement of fundamental therapeutic and educational objectives for the cognitive and social development of these children. We performed similar play scenarios with both robots and monitored their effects on the behaviour of the children. In this paper we focus on the cause and effect game called Make it move. A preliminary analysis of the data shows very encouraging results. The interaction with the robots seemed to have in general positive influence on the development of the children's social skills. The level of success achieving the different objectives varied from child to child depending on the level and nature of their disability.
Dix, Alan J. (2011): Physical creatures in a digital world. In: Proceedings of the 2011 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2011. pp. 11-14. Available online
We are creatures of flesh and blood, our whole cognitive nature well fitted to a physical world of solid things, and yet, within our lifetimes, learning to deal with digital devices our flint-knapping forbearers could never envisage. This paper explores some aspects of this. Inter alia, we see how Fitts' law is really a law of cybernetic extension and how this extension has been part of our being since the earliest humans and we discuss the way imagination and externalisation, two complimentary aspects of our cognitive being, fit us for physical life and yet are also essential as digital denizens.
Dumke, Romy and Dittmar, Anke (2011): An exploratory study about the everyday use of digital material in university education. In: Proceedings of the 2011 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2011. pp. 115-118. Available online
Motivation -- We were interested in exploring everyday usage practices of digital material that developed within traditional university education. Research approach -- Different methods were applied simultaneously: interview, diary keeping and questionnaire. The data from the inquiry methods were first analysed separately and, then, merged in a concluding discussion. Findings/Design -- The results suggest that the use of digital material is widely accepted among students and teachers. The study also reveals the critical approach of many participants. Teachers and students appropriate digital artefacts in a continuous learning process. The study suggests usage patterns but also describes individual work styles. Research limitations/Implications -- The study has an exploratory character. It was conducted in one university and with a small sample size. Participation was voluntarily. The results cannot be generalized but encourage further studies. Originality/Value -- There are studies evaluating the use of computer artefacts in learning environments. However, there exists few work exploring overall effects on everyday practices in university education. Take away message -- The study of artefact use allows insights into current teaching and learning practices. It supports reflection and change.
Vyas, Dhaval, Bhatt, Hinal, Moroni, Lorenzo and Nijholt, Anton (2011): Feeling the life: a look into the visual culture of life scientists. In: Proceedings of the 2011 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2011. pp. 119-126. Available online
In order to deal with human biological problems, life scientists have started investigating artificial ways of generating tissues and growing cells -- leading to the evolution of tissue engineering. In this paper we explore visualization practices of life scientists working within the domain of tissue engineering. We carried out a small scale ethnographic exploration with 8 scientists and explored that the real value of scientists' experiments (and simulations), reasoning and collaborative processes go beyond their end results. We observed that these scientists' three-dimensional reasoning, corporeal knowledge and intimacy with biological objects and tools play a vital role in overall success.
Gauducheau, Nadia (2011): Electronic mail usage at work: an analysis of the users' representations and affects. In: Proceedings of the 2011 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2011. pp. 137-140. Available online
Motivation -- The objective of this paper is to understand the different components of the professionals' experience of email. Research approach -- Twenty-five interviews (inspired by "explicitation" and "autoconfrontation" techniques) have been made with employees of a same company in order to identify the affects elicited by email usage and the representations of users about email. Findings/Design -- One consequence of email is that professionals perceive the work activity as more difficult to control (a source of overload and constraints). Email is also perceived as a communicative "space" where social and communicative rules are violated. Finally, email is seen as a device requiring specific skills which are not acquired. Research limitations/Implications -- Affects elicited by the professionals are most often negative but this result is perhaps due to the limits of the method. Originality/Value -- The research makes a contribution to the field of User Experience (UX). Take away message -- This study reveals that one important factor of professionals' negative experience of email is the lack of a shared representation about social rules in email exchanges.
Kammer, Dietrich, Franke, Ingmar S., Groh, Rainer, Steinhauf, Juliane, Kirchner, Maxi and Schönefeld, Frank (2011): The eleventh finger: levels of manipulation in multi-touch interaction. In: Proceedings of the 2011 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2011. pp. 141-148. Available online
Motivation -- Multi-touch surfaces offer a great potential for collaborative activities due to direct interaction and engaging user experiences. User input is no longer mediated through indirect devices like keyboard or mouse; instead, users can work in parallel or quickly alternate between interacting persons. So far, only standard manipulation gestures for rotating, scaling, and translation have been established as natural interaction with multi-touch devices. In this contribution, novel tools and paradigms to enrich multi-touch interaction are investigated. Research approach -- A workshop setting involving ten students, tutors, and business experts was used, in order to implement novel multi-touch prototypes over the course of two weeks. Findings/Design -- Five case studies have been implemented based on Microsoft® Surface technology, exploiting different levels of manipulation. Research limitations/Implications -- Exhaustive user studies concerning the presented model have not been conducted. Implications of the model are tentatively discussed, suggesting possible study designs for the future. Originality/Value -- Five levels of manipulation are formalized in a model that can be used to design and evaluate cognitive ergonomics of new multi-touch interfaces for collaborative activities. Take away message -- By implementing different levels of manipulation, multi-touch interfaces for collaborative interfaces can be made more powerful and enable users to easily achieve diversified results.
Turner, Phil and Turner, Susan (2011): My grandfather's iPod: an investigation of emotional attachment to digital and non-digital artefacts. In: Proceedings of the 2011 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2011. pp. 149-156. Available online
Originality/Value -- complements earlier reported studies which suggest that digital artefacts are much less likely to afford attachment Take away message -- digital artefacts do not pose unique challenges for sustainable interaction design
Ziegler, Jürgen (2011): Semantic web meets UI: context-adaptive interaction with semantic data. In: Proceedings of the 2011 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2011. pp. 15-16. Available online
While the Semantic Web and its underlying technologies since their inception have been mainly focused on processing Web information by machines, it is increasingly recognized that users could also benefit more directly from semantic techniques. Users must be provided with suitable means to interact with the immensely growing Web of Data, to satisfy their information needs in a more targeted and efficient manner, to explore unknown concepts or relationships, and to obtain personalized and context-adaptive access to relevant resources and services. In this talk, we will address visual search and exploration of semantic data, discuss the role of ontologies in modeling users and context, and highlight some research directions that might make semantic data and techniques more beneficial for human users.
Bach, Cedric, Gauducheau, Nadia and Salembier, Pascal (2011): Combining interviews and scales in the multidimensional evaluation of user experience: a case study in 3D games. In: Proceedings of the 2011 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2011. pp. 157-160. Available online
Originality/Value -- The research makes a contribution to study the effective gain of UX assessment approaches combining different methods. Take away message -- Methods based on self-reports of experience are critical as questionnaires did not allow to make a clear distinction between UX of two applications.
Oostendorp, Herre van and Varik, Ferdy van (2011): Stimulation of activity in online communities. In: Proceedings of the 2011 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2011. pp. 163-170. Available online
Motivation -- Identify the factors that relate to the activity within a community, to derive a framework which can be used to stimulate activity in both new and existing online communities and to test the effectiveness of the framework. Research approach -- The relations between 9 metrics of community success and 26 community properties have been identified in a statistical analysis of 58 online communities. Guidelines derived from this analysis have been applied to a case study. Findings/Design -- 13 factors have been identified. These factors have been incorporated into the Community Activity (CA) framework and 11 guidelines for stimulating online community activity. Application of this framework to an existing online community resulted in more interest in parts of the website and increased actual usage. Research limitations/Implications -- Only (health-based) social communities have been used in the analysis. Generalisation to other kinds of online communities (e.g. technical) may require additional research. Originality/Value -- The research provides an insight as to why communities may fail, by presenting factors that may have a positive or negative effect on member activity. Take away message -- Functionality available within online communities may influence member activity. Place focus on privacy options, notifications and member profiles.
Veer, Gerrit v. d., Kulyk, Olga, Vyas, Dhaval, Kubbe, Onno and Ebert, Achim (2011): Task modeling for collaborative authoring. In: Proceedings of the 2011 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2011. pp. 171-178. Available online
Motivation -- Task analysis for designing modern collaborative work needs a more fine grained approach. Especially in a complex task domain, like collaborative scientific authoring, when there is a single overall goal that can only be accomplished only by collaboration between multiple roles, each requiring its own expertise. We analyzed and re-considered roles, activities, and objects for design for complex collaboration contexts. Our main focus is on a generic approach to design for multiple roles and subtasks in a domain with a shared overall goal, which requires a detailed approach. Collaborative authoring is our current example. This research is incremental: an existing task analysis approach (GTA) is reconsidered by applying it to a case of complex collaboration. Our analysis shows that designing for collaboration indeed requires a refined approach to task modeling: GTA, in future, will need to consider tasks at the lowest level that can be delegated or mandates. These tasks need to be analyzed and redesigned in more in detail, along with the relevant task object.
Beckmann, Christoph and Gross, Tom (2011): AGReMo: providing ad-hoc groups with on-demand recommendations on mobile devices. In: Proceedings of the 2011 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2011. pp. 179-182. Available online
Recommender systems provide users with suggestions of artefacts or other users. Group recommender systems facilitate decision making in groups of users who need to make a choice together. In this paper we introduce a novel approach providing ad-hoc groups of users who want to watch a movie together with shared on-demand recommendations on mobile devices. We present the AGReMo system and report on a user study.
Detienne, Francoise, Cahour, Beatrice, Legout, Marie-Christine and Relieu, Marc (2011): Participation framework(s) in Second Life meetings: communication media and roles. In: Proceedings of the 2011 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2011. pp. 183-188. Available online
Originality/Value -- Our analytical framework is based on the combination of two perspectives: a third view perspective based on analyses of observational data and a first view perspective based on users reports on their experience in SL. Take away message -- Designing collaborative virtual environment should be based on the understanding of the variety of use-cases with concomitant variance in SL communication media.
Grönvall, Erik and Kyng, Morten (2011): Beyond Utopia: reflections on participatory design in home-based healthcare with weak users. In: Proceedings of the 2011 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2011. pp. 189-196. Available online
Motivation -- Participatory Design (PD) activities in private homes challenge how we relate to the PD process, compared to PD in professional settings. Grounded in a project related to chronic dizziness among older people, we outline four challenges. These challenges, we argue, have to be carefully addressed when PD processes include the home. Research approach -- A PD project developing rehabilitation technologies for elderly people in private homes has been used to reflect on home-based PD projects compared with more traditional, workplace-oriented PD projects such as Utopia. Findings -- We identify four challenges in home-based PD. The challenges are 1) Negotiating knowledge about the home, 2) Ill, weak users, 3) Divergent interests of participants and 4) Usable and sustainable post-project solutions. These challenges are used to reflect upon differences between a home-based PD process, such as ours with non-workers, and work-place projects, such as Utopia. Through this reflection, the paper contributes to a more general discussion on PD in non-work settings with weak users. Research limitations -- The paper is grounded in one project where the elderly participants are heavily affected by their illness. Furthermore, they have no or very little experience with ICT, e.g. computers or mobile phones. Take away message -- Differences do exist between traditional PD projects in work settings, such as Utopia, and home-based PD with weak users especially in relation to knowledge about settings and how to reconcile differences in interests. The home as a place for (technology-assisted) treatment and PD must be carefully analyzed, and diverse interests and roles should be negotiated among all stakeholders.
Looije, Rosemarijn and Mioch, Tina (2011): The effect of task load on the occurrence of cognitive lockup in a high-fidelity flight simulator. In: Proceedings of the 2011 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2011. pp. 19-26. Available online
Originality/Value -- The research makes a contribution to understanding why pilots deviate from normative behaviour and with this to make it possible to improve the safety of operations on aircrafts. Take away message -- The error production mechanism cognitive lockup might partially be explained by a high cognitive task load, produced by time pressure and a high number of tasks.
Munoz, Maria Isabel, Mollo, Vanina, Barcellini, Flore and Nascimento, Adelaide (2011): Design of a safe computer-supported cooperative environment in radiotherapy: exploratory identification of cooperation strategies. In: Proceedings of the 2011 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2011. pp. 197-204. Available online
Motivation -- This research deals with the identification of collective production of a safe radiotherapy treatment and its potential assistance through computer-supported environments. It takes place at the beginning of a four years design project involving software companies and scientific and clinical institutions. Research approach -- This work presents an exploratory analysis of cooperation between the four professionals involved in the production of radiotherapy treatment. Our general research objective is to investigate how to support managed safety in the design of a computer-supported cooperative environment. Uses and functions of cooperative tools have been outlined through observations and the "think aloud" technique. Findings/Design -- We identify three types of cooperation tools (computer-based tools, including an existing workflow, unformal verbal exchanges, and the patient body) involved in the production of a safe treatment. Their main functions are: to produce shareable data between professionals, to share the progress in the construction of a treatment and to share procedures and work practices. Research limitations/Implications -- This paper aims at contributing to the articulation of two research approaches: CSCW and safety in healthcare. Originality/Value -- Our study reveals informal strategies that participate to a "managed" healthcare safety performed by professionals. Take away message -- Our work may contribute to transform the initial technocentric approach of the design project into a more anthropocentric design project and flexible CSCW tool.
Rankin, Amy, Field, Joris, Kovordanyi, Rita, Morin, Magnus, Jenvald, Johan and Eriksson, Henrik (2011): Training systems design: bridging the gap between users and developers using storyboards. In: Proceedings of the 2011 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2011. pp. 205-212. Available online
Motivation -- Designing distributed training systems for crisis management (CM) requires an approach with the ability to address a great variety of needs and goals. Crisis responses involve multiple agents, each with different backgrounds, tasks, priorities, goals, responsibilities, organizations, equipment, and approaches. Identifying the different user training needs and translating these into user and functional requirement therefore poses great challenges. Research approach -- In this paper we present experiences of how to enable the collaboration between multiple stakeholders and partners when creating and adapting ideas throughout the design phase. The techniques have been used in a European project aimed at developing an interactive Virtual Reality (VR) environment for training crisis management. Findings/Design -- The focus of the paper is on the initial storyboard iterations and lo-fi prototypes, as this is a crucial stage for expressing ideas in a perceivable way without having to spend too much time and effort on creating detailed prototypes. Take away message -- Experiences using low-cost commercial software for creating storyboards are presented, as these provided the means to create, share, present, adapt and circulate ideas, facilitating the fusing of ideas, shared understanding and distributed working.
Veer, Gerrit C. van der, Ebert, Achim and Scheler, Inga (2011): Non-formal modelling for interaction design. In: Proceedings of the 2011 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2011. pp. 215-216. Available online
Motivation -- If modelling is included in the requirements analysis phase of a systematic interaction design method, it mostly focuses on some kind of formalism, e.g., task modelling and requirements specification. However, when designing in collaboration with non-expert, stakeholders this will not work. Approach -- This workshop will allow exchange of ideas, experiences, techniques and tools for collaboration with stakeholders of interaction design early in the design process, in order to aim at a more creative as well as more user-centred requirement development. Limitations/Implications -- Our finding will in no way guarantee "the best design solution", but they show a type of creative collaboration between stakeholders and designers in a very early design phase, which allows considering and exploring new solutions before these need to be prototyped or implemented. Originality/Value -- The techniques we intend to discuss are in no way new, however their application early in design in this open ended approach is not well documented and, hence, awareness and comparing notes on successes and failure experiences will allow us to learn from each other and help us develop a general understanding among interaction designers. Take away message -- Non-formal modelling tools and techniques for early collaboration with stakeholders are relatively cheap and, at the other hand, uniquely stimulating techniques for identifying both the boundaries and the opportunities of the design space for interactive systems.
Stary, Christian (2011): Concepts of agency and situation in cognitive engineering. In: Proceedings of the 2011 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2011. pp. 217-218. Available online
Motivation -- Highly adaptive technologies are becoming common use: Mobile applications are situation-aware, web applications are personalized, search engines follow individual needs etc. Behind all the implementations certain models of cognitive processes are applied. Research approach -- How do those models look like. how do user profiles or functional roles come into being? How can situation awareness be achieved? Looking across disciplines and applications might help to find common grounds or modelling guidelines. Findings/Design -- The workshop should shed light on conceptual cornerstones, basic assumptions, and design patterns arising from these constituents. Research limitations/Implications -- Designers learn about possible models of agency and situation, their disciplinary ground and application context. Originality/Value -- It might be the first interdisciplinary discourse on that topic inducing further research, e.g. ontology-based design. Take away message -- Agency and situation are constructs influencing design, either implicitly or in a transparent or traceable way.
Wolf, Katrin (2011): Microinteractions for supporting grasp tasks through usage of spare attentional and motor resources. In: Proceedings of the 2011 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2011. pp. 221-224. Available online
This paper concludes the nine months progress of my Ph.D. project. It specifies its research focus on investigating microinteractions -- a sub-topic of HCI and gesture research -- and on developing a frame work for applications, which use microgestures for supporting everyday tasks through invisible and context-aware appearing interface layers underneath object-grasping hands. In an expert study, I explore the motor limitations and opportunities of microgestures while grasping objects and valued manual dual-task scenarios by walking through three tasks, with usage of grasping probs. The study's outcome is a generic microgesture set for different grasp types and a collection of parameters that have a relevant effect on the choice of the grasping tasks. A further user study in progress is investigating the effect of grasped object, such as handheld devices, on the feasibility of microgestures. In this study users are asked to perform finger-tip and drags on the front and/or back side of a held device. For this user study I have used a two-sided touch-sensitive device by stacking 2 pads together to a sandwich-like prototype. This allows tracking users' finger gestures through camera as well as through front and touch screens. The outcome of the two mentioned studies will describe a design space for out-of-a-grasp microgestures. At the ECCE doctoral consortium I aim to present this design space and discuss how this can serve as a base for developing a framework for out-of-grasp microinteractions that are subtasks of grasping tasks. The microinteractions will be developed to support the grasp tasks regarding their perceived ergonomic and hedonic qualities.
Consiglio, Teresa and Veer, Gerrit van der (2011): Designing an interactive learning environment for a worldwide distance adult learning community. In: Proceedings of the 2011 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2011. pp. 225-228. Available online
This research is about the intersection between technological innovations and adoption in society for the purpose of adult learning. More specifically it aims to develop an e-learning environment, to be available, both as a standalone learning marketplace, and as support for classroom based learning. The intention is using the open source process to improve the quality of learning at any time and anywhere and make it as flexible as possible towards the culture, learning style and age of the learners. We use the open source process in an iterative project. In the first iteration a sample of 30 higher education students has been involved in a blended course in Service Design. After the first empirical results at the start of a three year iterative development, practical guidelines have been developed for the learning environment's improvements, for the interaction of teachers and instructional designers with the environment, as well as developing structure and format of learning resources to be included.
Rogier, Els and Veer, Gerrit van der (2011): Designing education for people's understanding and experience. In: Proceedings of the 2011 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2011. pp. 229-232. Available online
Motivation -- The purpose of this paper is to analyse how students experience different modalities in online ICT learning. The general aim is to develop a system that maps learning activities within their own context to different modalities. Research approach -- A first study was conducted in which about 30 students were asked to view three online presentations on three different topics and presented in three different modalities. After each presentation they were asked to evaluate the experience in a questionnaire.. Findings/Design -- Despite the fact that no significant differences were found on how students experience different modalities, there are indications that the results would be different with a larger control group Research limitations/Implications -- Only Italian university students whose native language is not English participates in the study. This might influence the results. We intend to repeat this study with other student populations and for other learning domains. Originality/Value -- E-learning today comes in different modalities. The choice for a certain modality nowadays is often technology or teacher driven. In this research we want to investigate e-learning from a user-centred perspective to discover in what situations what modalities enhance the learning experience of students most.
Kang, Ni, Brinkman, Willem-Paul, Riemsdijk, M. Birna van and Neerincx, Mark A. (2011): Internet-delivered multi-patient virtual reality exposure therapy system for the treatment of anxiety disorders. In: Proceedings of the 2011 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2011. pp. 233-236. Available online
Motivation -- The project is to reduce the therapist's workload in virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) for anxiety disorders and explore cognitive ergonomic factors in the design of an internet-delivered multi-patient treatment system. Research questions -- The aim can be achieved by system improvement on both the patient side and the therapist side, which leads to two main research questions. First, how should a virtual environment be designed to reduce the therapist's workload and give a relative high presence to patients? Second, in what way should a usable internet-delivered VRET system be designed which can treat multiple patients simultaneously? Research approach -- A case study of a VRET treatment system for social phobia is carried out to investigate the design of an internet-delivered VRET treatment system and its impact on the main actors, e.g. the patient and the therapist.
Loggem, Brigit van (2011): SDDPL: a software documentation design pattern language. In: Proceedings of the 2011 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2011. pp. 237-240. Available online
Motivation -- To support documentation designers in their on-going search for documentation that genuinely supports end users. Research approach -- Existing findings from a multi-disciplinary literature are combined to arrive at a model of the cognitive involvement of users with software, and separately a model of the way people interact with documentation. A number of design patterns are proposed that target particular elements in the two models. The patterns will be field-tested for applicability by designers as well as end users. Findings/Design -- The hope is that the design patterns will prove of value to both stakeholder groups (documentation designers and end users). Research limitations/Implications -- The naturalistic nature of the theoretical framework as well as the subsequent field-testing hinders generalization of the results. Originality/Value -- The research makes a contribution to the need of documentation designers to base their work on current insights resulting from theoretical and applied research. Take away message -- Documentation is a relatively under-valued professional discipline, which needs academic input as much as any other design discipline that works to support the end user.
Zaki, Michael (2011): Integration of patterns into model-based specifications of smart environments. In: Proceedings of the 2011 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2011. pp. 241-244. Available online
Motivation -- Modeling interactive systems to be employed in smart environments is an overwhelming process for the developer as several surrounding factors have to be taken into account in order to successfully model the tasks to be executed and the environmental constraints associated to those tasks. Therefore, the already existing modeling languages are usually fostered by a tool which guides the developer while constructing her models. However, a lack of concept of reuse on a high level of abstraction can be easily detected. By fetching reusable solutions for reoccurring problems within the models of a given domain, one can accelerate the process of building those models and improve its performance. Thus, the main motivation for our work is to reduce the complexity of designing interactive applications for domains like smart environments by using different kinds of patterns encapsulating best practices for well-known modeling situations. Research approach -- The investigation of one or several suitable modeling languages for smart environments in order to extract useful reusable patterns to be used by the developer. Findings/Design -- We suggested patterns which are able to guide the developer through the different development stages (e.g.: Analysis, Interaction Requirements, Design) and currently we are developing patterns in order to make the model's construction process itself easier and less error-prone. Take away message -- The modeling of interactive applications for ubiquitous computing environments (e.g. Smart environments) is a non-trivial process. We suggest overcoming the encountered complexity by taking benefit of the concept of reuse provided by patterns.
Wieken, John-Harry (2011): Towards a meta-model to utilize the measuring of competence. In: Proceedings of the 2011 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2011. pp. 245-248. Available online
Motivation -- To support subjects performing knowledge-intensive processes and to predict their performance, it is necessary to describe and measure the subject's competence (trait) in suitable dimensions. Research approach -- By combining different aspects of process modeling, knowledge modeling and educational competence, a Meta-Model-Map (M3) has been developed. Findings/Design -- A Meta-Model-Map combining the different aspects seems to be a possible approach to combine the different aspects and allow adapting different models for the single areas. Research limitations/Implications -- So far only some parts of the M3 have been tested by populating the model with real data. The statistical evaluation may lack from insufficient number of data. Originality/Value -- So far the idea of competence (trait) has not been widely introduced to process modeling. While the concept is familiar in educational science and human resource management, few work has been done to try a fine-grained, explanatory approach. Take away message -- To evaluate competence for further use, a Meta-Model along with statistics is a possible approach.
Seidel, Niels (2011): Enable Wikis for seamless hypervideo integration. In: Proceedings of the 2011 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2011. pp. 251-252. Available online
Motivation -- Wikis are Web-based collaborative systems that allow users to create, share and interlink content. Existing Wikis restrict users to edit and arrange text with other embedded media formats. Unfortunately moving pictures are handled as a whole without considering their temporal dimension. Their time-related composition and association with other parts of the wiki are withhold from the users influence. Thus, current wikis cannot be used to host or author rich dynamic and interactive hypervideos along with hypertext elements. Research approach -- A comparison of hypermedia systems and video production tools as well as wiki software was made to identify requirements of time-based user interfaces for hypervideo authoring environments. Findings/Design -- In this paper I present an approach for seamless and collaborative integration of interactive hypervideos into existing wiki environments. The wiki metaphor is combined with a direct manipulation user interface for hypervideo authoring and particular markup conventions. Originality/Value -- The research makes a contribution to collaborative work and learning with wikis. It enables users to annotate spatio temporal hyperlinks as well as composite sequential video clips through both, graphical user interface and generic markup language. Take away message -- Moving images within wikis can communicate ideas in ways that text can not. These images can be interconnected with other wiki contents.
Narasimhan, Kavin Preethi (2011): Towards modelling spatial cognition for intelligent agents. In: Proceedings of the 2011 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2011. pp. 253-254. Available online
When people participate in face-to-face interactions they position themselves intuitively, and throughout the course of interaction, they try to maintain a common focus of attention with co-present individuals by readjusting their position as and when necessary. Kendon's (1990) F-formation system shows people's spatial positions and orientations as key in accounting for their behavioral patterns in social interactions. By taking insights from such human spatial cognition abilities, we aim to design for spatial behaviors in intelligent agents. For example, in a multi-agent system, we would expect agents to approach one another from right directions, maintain appropriate interpersonal distances, and during interactions, maintain a common focus of attention with co-present agents. In this paper, we present AgentMax, a software agent with a qualitative view of its spatial environment, capable of positioning and orienting itself appropriately with respect to the objects and events in its simulated environment called the Grid World. With the growing need for autonomous agents to exhibit appropriate social behaviors, we argue that our approach, which accounts for some fundamental behavioral abilities of software agents at the interactional level, is a necessary foundation of intelligent agent design.
Dhir, Amandeep (2011): Putty clay and probe in user centered-design. In: Proceedings of the 2011 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2011. pp. 255-256. Available online
We aim at utilizing the constructive and action research techniques for contributing the existing User Centered-Design (UCD) approaches. The putty clay as a constructive research tool and Probe as an action research mechanism was used for adding value to UCD practices. Both these tools can bring user-driven contextual insights. They have the potential of contributing the existing UCD processes.
Sammels, Jean Maurice (2011): Digital focus points for emotional immersion in emergency training. In: Proceedings of the 2011 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2011. pp. 257-258. Available online
Motivation -- To improve the emotional immersion of digital training for emergency services. Research approach -- At first a literature study was done. Exploring the current state of the scientific field on emotion, learning and gaming. Followed by explorative interviews. In which 9 emergency professionals were asked about emotion in serious games and emergency service training exercises. Findings/Design -- The results suggest that emotion has become a greater part in emergency training. Emotion has no scientific definition. Still scientists recognize its ability to influence behavior. Emotion as we know it is actually an emotion episode. A collection of smaller emotion processes. These processes work on input of the senses. To create digital training with emotion the digital impulses given should mimic reality as much as possible. Research limitations/Implications -- only 9 emergency professionals have been interviewed, resulting in a possibly incorrect generalization of information. Originality/Value -- The research makes a contribution to increasing the human computer interaction for digital training exercises of emergency professionals. Take away message -- Nowadays emotion is a must in the training of emergency professionals, to do digital training with emotion the training should provide realistic visual and aural impulses.
Imants, Puck and Greef, Tjerk de (2011): Using eye tracker data in air traffic control. In: Proceedings of the 2011 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2011. pp. 259-260. Available online
Motivation/Research approach -- An exploratory study was conducted to investigate whether eye movement metrics discriminate between different air traffic control tasks. Findings/Design -- The results show the three tasks elicit different eye movement, as Yarbus (1967) also showed in static pictures, and that a number of eye tracking metrics demonstrate the differences. Research limitations/Implications -- The effect was demonstrated using only one participant. The results can be used to further study various eye movement metrics. Originality/Value -- The research demonstrates that different calculus distinguishes between tasks allowing targeting specific support given the type of task. Take away message -- A combination of eye tracker metrics discriminates between tasks helping to provide flexible task support.
Broos, Martin, Gammeren, Philippe van, Steenoven, Tim van and Haan, Geert de (2011): Creating a context-aware mobile application to enlarge social cohesion: skating together. In: Proceedings of the 2011 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2011. pp. 261-262. Available online
This research is aimed at creating an application that adapts to its environment and brings people together. The question is whether this feasible for an audience that is not directly associated with social media products. A concept and a prototype have been developed as proof of concept that social applications can and should be build by focusing on the factors which determine social cohesion of the target audience. Context-awareness may increase the value of an app to its users thereby increasing the social cohesion in the community. Context-awareness also provides the data which enables designers to continue improving the usability of the design.
Raab, Felix (2011): Collaborative code reviews on interactive surfaces. In: Proceedings of the 2011 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2011. pp. 263-264. Available online
Developing software is one of the most cognitively challenging activities for humans. The majority of current tools in this domain are based on traditional user interface concepts and do not yet incorporate more modern interaction forms that may reduce mental load and increase joy of use. This works aims to examine how multimodal and natural interaction methods can be applied to common software engineering tasks such as code reviews and refactoring. A new support system for collaborative code reviews on interactive tabletops is currently being prototyped and will be evaluated in a user study. The review environment and workflow are outlined in this paper. Furthermore, it is briefly described how natural refactoring tools can be designed and integrated into future versions of the system.
Strecker, Florian and Meyer, Nils (2011): The S-BPM modelling technique as an enabling tool for representation of agency and situation. In: Proceedings of the 2011 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2011. pp. 265-266. Available online
Motivation -- Modelling and representing knowledge about activities and communication by using the S-BPM modelling technique sets focus on the participants and their behaviour in a situation. Research approach -- A desk research was used, in which the S-BPM modelling approach -- originally designed to model business processes -- has been analysed regarding its ability to represent agency and situation when describing activities and communication. Findings/Design -- The result shows that S-BPM can be used as a tool for representation of agency and situation due to its 2-level approach. This approach divides between communication design and different behaviours for the involved actors. Take away message -- The modelling technique described in this paper seems to be easily understandable even to untrained users due to its simplicity.
Kühn, Robert and Forbrig, Peter (2011): PERIKLES: a workflow based approach to support the operating room management. In: Proceedings of the 2011 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2011. pp. 267-268. Available online
Motivation -- This paper reviews the process of mapping and modeling of the perioperative process to form the basis for a workflow-based assistance system as part of the PERIKLES project. Research approach -- The goal is to provide an assistance system, which discharges the OP-coordinator. The system shall simplify common tasks (for example scheduling, coordinating, communication and tracking) which occur in the perioperative process. Originality/Value -- Because the perioperative process consists of many complex steps, we described the workflows and tasks of every stakeholder very detailed as HOPS processes. These processes formed the basis for the inclusion of the stakeholders into the modeling process. After revising, these processes were transformed into a YAWL net. Take away message -- The inclusion of domain experts into the modeling process can contribute to the quality of the models by eliminating ambiguities, inaccuracies, or errors at a very early stage of the development process. This will also improve the acceptance of the results.
This article is aimed at measuring the relationships between psychophysical ratings (pain level) of forceful impacts on human subjects as a result of the energy of impact, the velocity of the impact, and the size of the impacting object to better understand the psychophysical effect of impacts to create methods to prevent the effect of impact on human soft tissues and better treat patients suffering from impacts injures. This study found that the pendulum energy was indeed the most important variable associated with the psychophysical ratings.
Field, Joris, Rankin, Amy, Pal, Jelke van der, Eriksson, Henrik and Wong, William (2011): Variable uncertainty: scenario design for training adaptive and flexible skills. In: Proceedings of the 2011 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2011. pp. 27-34. Available online
Motivation -- Today's training systems for crisis management (CM) largely focus on technical and procedural skills. However the dynamic and unpredictable nature of a crisis also requires skills that are flexible, adaptive and creative. Training systems enforce limitations on the freedom of interaction the trainee has compared with the real world, thereby limiting their effectiveness for real world emergencies. Furthermore, the training scenarios are often played out in a linear and rigid manner, limiting the ability to train skills such as adapting to the on-going situation and being flexible in an uncertain and variable environment. Research approach -- The Variable Uncertainty Framework (VUF) has been developed as part of a European project (CRISIS) developing an interactive simulated Virtual Reality (VR) environment for training CM to address some of the challenges faced in training scenario design today. The principles from software systems design have been compared to those of instructional design to develop a framework that can be applied in this project. Findings/Design -- The VUF brings together three important dimensions of real-world emergencies that can be manipulated and controlled in virtual training environments: (1) situational complexity, (2) the number of events occurring simultaneously, and (3) the randomness of these events. By controlling these three dimensions in the training environment, an instructor can design scenarios that are either basic drill oriented, or advanced scenarios where events are complex and combined in un-predictable ways. Take away message -- The VUF is illustrated as a method of achieving the variability and complexity in the training scenario design. It offers an accessible method for instructors to design and adapt training scenarios to optimise the training effectiveness.
Maciuszek, Dennis and Martens, Alke (2011): Cognitive tasks and collaborative agents for microadaptive game activities. In: Proceedings of the 2011 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2011. pp. 271-272. Available online
Motivation -- Activities in video games should be made more interactive to be motivating and meaningful. Research approach -- We decompose textual recipes in role-playing games by cognitive task analysis to make them interactive and act as knowledge bases for agents. Findings/Design -- So far, we have adopted an approach that works as a quick solution. A more intelligent approach may provide more authentic collaboration. Research limitations/Implications -- We are currently implementing one proof-of-concept scenario that later needs to be evaluated against alternative solutions. Originality/Value -- A cognitive science perspective on game design is still new, especially one that recognises the potential of virtual worlds as simulations of real life. Take away message -- Game design can benefit from a cognitive engineering perspective.
Neubauer, Matthias (2011): Towards situational business process modeling support. In: Proceedings of the 2011 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2011. pp. 273-274. Available online
Organizations need to adapt their business processes to increasingly dynamic business environments. In this context, business processes models serve as boundary objects between technology and business operations. Current approaches to business process modeling capture primarily information considering the execution and technological support of business processes. However, situational information, e.g. strategic decisions or external factors, considering current processes in-use have only be tackled rudimentary on the level of representational assets and requirements. This contribution discusses the enhancement of existing business process modeling approaches with situational information. Furthermore, a generic representation approach enabling such an enrichment of business process models is presented.
Engel, Jürgen, Herdin, Christian and Märtin, Christian (2011): A task and pattern-based modeling approach for knowledge sharing systems. In: Proceedings of the 2011 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2011. pp. 275-276. Available online
Motivation -- Adaptable systems need flexible design strategies. Our approach combines task- and pattern-based a priori modeling for the construction of context and situation aware target systems in the knowledge sharing domain. Research approach -- An extensive study, the p.i.t.c.h. project , ,  with partners from industry and research was conducted in order to define a hierarchical pattern language with domain, structure, HCI and transformation patterns, find candidate patterns for each category and map individual knowledge sharing task models to these patterns. Findings/Design -- The results show that tasks models offer a flexible way to select patterns of all categories for diverse target contexts and situations. The approach also provides directions for automated generation of the target user interface. Research limitations/Implications -- Currently the pattern selection process is controlled by the developer. Future versions will try to automate the selection process in order to allow for runtime selection and generation of situation aware target user interfaces. Originality/Value -- Our approach contributes to model-based design by offering a straight-forward method for mapping task-models to patterns of various categories that can be exploited for UI generation. Take away message -- Define a broad collection of patterns, structure them hierarchically, map individual task-models to selected patterns.
Haan, Geert de (2011): Software design and media design: tools to design mobile and sensory interfaces and interactive environments. In: Proceedings of the 2011 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2011. pp. 277-278. Available online
This paper discusses ETAG, a formalism for user interface design. We discuss the differences between computer software and media product design: media design is a much more flexible, iterative process and prototype-driven process which allows for continuous adaptation of the design.. Finally, to meet user requirements in ubiquitous computing and interactive environments, we propose to use co-design practices, sensory labs and living labs to push the usability lab into the real world.
Kantorowitz, Eliezer (2011): Verbal use case specifications for informal requirements elicitation. In: Proceedings of the 2011 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2011. pp. 279-280. Available online
Requirements elicitation is considered by some to be the most difficult and most critical phase of system development. Some of the most difficult to correct bugs are due to deficiencies in the requirement specifications. Requirements elicitation is basically an informal process where the insights of the stakeholders and end users are most useful. Dan Beery claims  that it is also useful to have persons that are not familiar with the problem domain in the requirement elicitation team. Such domain ignorant people may raise questions outside the train of thoughts of the domain experts. The requirements elicitation team need also computer scientists to evaluate the technical feasibility of the requirements. The team that elicits the requirements and specify the system may thus be composed of persons having very different backgrounds. A productive collaboration between such team members is in itself an interesting challenge.
Loggem, Brigit van (2011): Placing documentation at the heart of the development cycle. In: Proceedings of the 2011 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2011. pp. 281-282. Available online
A convincing argument can be made for placing documentation at the heart of the development cycle. Communication between stakeholders is facilitated when the system under consideration is represented in a semi-formal manner, creating common ground for discussion and decision-making. By enhancing and elaborating one and the same document, ownership of which is repeatedly passed from one stakeholder group to another, it is ensured that this common ground is maintained throughout the design and development process and that no contributions will ever be lost.
Ebert, Achim, Deller, Matthias, Thelen, Sebastian and Scheler, Inga (2011): iGreen: non-formal modelling in practice. In: Proceedings of the 2011 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2011. pp. 283-284. Available online
Motivation -- In the following we describe the development of new visualization and interaction metaphors in the context of iGreen. iGreen is a project dealing with knowledge management in the agricultural industry. We give two example scenarios in which formal modelling cannot be applied easily. Research approach -- The number of actors participating in iGreen is high and encompasses different levels of background knowledge, project expectations, and technical affinities. Over the course of time objective targets gradually changed due to an increased understanding of processes within the project and new unforeseen technical opportunities that turned up in the area of mobile computing. The methods developed had to be accessible for a wide variety of potential users and offer opportunities for interactive data exploration on various hardware platforms. Findings/Design -- The project dynamic made conventional software development strategies hard to apply. The demand for more flexible methods to design visualization techniques and interaction metaphors portable and scalable to different sized hardware platforms increased during the project. Research limitations/Implications -- The target group of users for techniques developed in iGreen is highly related to practice. In order to overcome adaption resistances and replace traditional, mostly manual, workflows, the methods had to be highly intuitive, reliable, and offer steep learning curves. Take away message -- Two application areas in the field of agricultural industry are discussed for which visualization and interaction techniques have been developed. Both examples represent different ends of a wide spectrum of potential target platforms that had to be served.
Veer, Gerrit C. van der and Vyas, Dhaval (2011): Non-formal techniques for requirements elicitation, modeling, and early assessment for services. In: Proceedings of the 2011 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2011. pp. 285-286. Available online
Designing systems for multiple stakeholders requires frequent collaboration with multiple stakeholders from the start. In many cases at least some stakeholders lack a professional habit of formal modeling. We report observations from two case studies of stakeholder-involvement in early design where non-formal techniques supported strong collaboration resulting in deep understanding of requirements and of the feasibility of solutions.
Hess, Steffen, Maier, Andreas and Trapp, Marcus (2011): We need non-formal methods based on formal models in interaction design. In: Proceedings of the 2011 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2011. pp. 287-288. Available online
Motivation -- With collaborative interaction design, formal models have to be used by expert stakeholders in order to work effectively and efficiently. But these formal models should not be discussed with non-expert stakeholders. Therefore, we use non-formal methods which are based on our formal models when we talk to non-expert stakeholders. Research approach -- Expert stakeholders have to get a common ground for their discussions. To achieve that common ground, expert stakeholders have to use models, which formalize an interaction they want to design. We develop non-formal methods based on a conceptual model that are easy to apply by non-experts. This way, non-expert stakeholders can allow free play to their thoughts and do not have to adopt formal entities and models. Therefore, the expert can easily interpret the information received from non-expert stakeholders by using the underlying conceptual model. Findings/Design -- Early collaboration with non-expert stakeholders in order to design interaction in a user centered way is important and performed best with a formal model for expert stakeholders and non-formal methods based on these formal models for discussions between expert and non-expert stakeholders. Actually, formal modelling is crucial from our point of view, but we experienced that insisting on it when collaborating with non-experts, leads to insufficient results. Take away message -- Without having formal models in mind, non-formal methods cannot be applied effectively for a collaborative design of interactions. Non-formal methods like an open requirements elicitation in form of workshops or interviews may fail gaining all necessary information if there is no formal model which builds the basis for the non-formal methods. Only with formal models, we are able to plan, lead, and analyze non-formal methods in a way to get optimal results.
Stary, Christian (2011): Agency and situatedness in cognitive engineering. In: Proceedings of the 2011 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2011. pp. 289-290. Available online
Highly adaptive technologies are becoming common use: Mobile applications are situation-aware, web applications are personalized, and search engines follow individual needs etc. Implementations of that kind frequently follow certain models of cognitive processes and situations of use. How do those models look like, how do user profiles or functional roles come into being? How can situation awareness be achieved? Looking across disciplines and applications might help to find common grounds or modeling guidelines. Reviewing existing approaches shed light on conceptual frameworks, basic assumptions, models and design patterns arising from system developments leading to adaptable or adaptive systems. Designers could learn about possible models of agency and situatedness, their disciplinary ground and application context. Agency and situatedness are constructs influencing design, either implicitly or in a transparent, traceable way.
Bødker, Susanne (2011): Use is everywhere and changing: analysis and design with the human-artifact model. In: Proceedings of the 2011 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2011. pp. 3-10. Available online
Using the Human-Artifact Model, this paper is revisiting the current implications for design of ubiquity, of use being everywhere, and technological artifacts replacing and supplementing one another. I look back on seamlessness and boundary-crossing as design ideals for these kinds of technologies. Based on the dialectical methods of activity theory, I offer an alternative analysis where seamlessness and seamfulness are considered as dialectical pairs, always in play in use and appropriation of technological artifact. Using the Human-Artifact Model, the paper offers more specific dialectics on the levels of activity, action and operation.
Norros, Leena, Norros, Ilkka, Liinasuo, Marja and Seppänen, Kari (2011): Impact of human operators on communication network dependability. In: Proceedings of the 2011 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2011. pp. 35-42. Available online
Motivation -- To shed light on the context and content of the human operators' work in maintaining the dependability of telecommunication networks. Research approach -- A case study was accomplished in a large telecommunication company. The research focused on clarifying the impact of human operators on the dependability of telecommunication network. Findings/Design -- Interviews confirmed earlier assumption among members of the Communication Network Operations (CNO) community that the human operator has an important impact on the network dependability. Specific sources of errors in daily work were identified and strategies of avoiding erroneous action were described. Moreover we defined generic control demands of the CNO work domain, and operators' ways of coping with these demands. Research limitations/Implications -- The study was restricted to one Finnish telecommunication company. This limits possible empirical generalisation of the findings. Originality/Value -- There is a scarcity of scientific literature about the characteristics of the control work and its demands in this critical domain. Take away message -- Regarding human dependability of communication network operations, a combination of resilient and proactive ways of acting is needed. Due to daily changes in the network and the continuous increase of its complexity, specifically change management on both organisational and work practice levels is required.
Neubauer, Matthias, Stary, Christian and Oppl, Stefan (2011): Polymorph navigation utilizing domain-specific metadata: experienced benefits for e-learners. In: Proceedings of the 2011 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2011. pp. 45-52. Available online
Interactivity has become a crucial issue in most domain-specific applications. For content-rich applications navigation can be designed in a user-centered way utilizing metadata. In this way standard access facilities can be enriched using inherent domain structures. They enforce systemic understanding and support individualized learning management. In case the latter is enhanced through coupling communication facilities directly to content elements, learners can be encouraged to share individual perspectives on the provided content. In this paper we introduce and compare two different navigation design solutions that even can be used complementary. Our empirical findings indicate that learners appreciate the intertwining of linear browsing and association-based selection, as they need various structures to keep control over their learning process.
Gorecky, Dominic, Worgan, Simon F. and Meixner, Gerrit (2011): COGNITO: a cognitive assistance and training system for manual tasks in industry. In: Proceedings of the 2011 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2011. pp. 53-56. Available online
In this paper we present a novel concept for cognitive assistance and training in manual industrial assembly. In the European FP7 project COGNITO, our aim is to design a mobile, personal system, which instructs operators in task solving and tool handling. The system not only provides instructions, but it is also able to understand and induce human workflows. Due to its high sensing capabilities, the system automatically analyzes and records assembly workflows by observing advanced users to build-up a system-internal understanding of assembly processes. The captured knowledge is then used by the system to assist and train inexperienced operators. The overall approach is based on state-of-the-art techniques in motion and object tracking, task analysis, decision-making and user-adaptive visualisation by means of augmented reality. The COGNITO system is an important step towards cognitive operator support. Enterprise knowledge can be documented, shared and applied in a cooperative and interactive manner, enabling human operators to keep pace with increased complexity in industrial processes.
Passera, Stefania and Haapio, Helena (2011): Facilitating collaboration through contract visualization and modularization. In: Proceedings of the 2011 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2011. pp. 57-60. Available online
Motivation -- To change the way contracts are perceived, designed and communicated in order to improve their usability as tools for inter-firm collaboration. Research approach -- Work-in-progress: a literature review and interviews with participating companies will be used to determine the detailed research plan and the design of the prototypes and tests that will follow. Findings/Design -- Preliminary results and discussions with participating companies suggest that tremendous opportunities exist for improving the ergonomics and usability of complex commercial contracts through visualization and modularization. New tools and approaches are needed to change researchers' and business managers' attitudes towards contracts. Visualization and modularization seem to offer such tools. Further approaches from the field of cognitive ergonomics are welcome to be explored in our research. Take away message -- Contracts are not just legal documents, they are artefacts designed by people for people in order to succeed in collaborative ventures. The time has come to turn cross-professional research teams' attention to improving the usability and communication of inter-firm contracts.
Koskinen, Hanna and Hurlen, Lars (2011): Outage on the table: the design of interactive surfaces for collaborative operation in outage control centres. In: Proceedings of the 2011 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2011. pp. 61-64. Available online
Motivation Outage in an industrial plant is an activity that takes place at regular intervals and demands the effort and commitment of the whole operating organization. The main objective is to carry out this collaborative activity in an efficient and safe manner. Therefore, the development of centralized coordination and management unit for outages, outage control centre (OCC), has gained a lot interest in recent years. This paper presents an on-going work, in which the aim is to explore the potential usefulness and applications of interactive surface technologies in an OCC. In particular, the focus is on multi-touch technology. Research approach The project started with a literature review on interactive surfaces. Then two sets of interviews were conducted with experienced outage personnel in order to better understand the nature of the outage activity and form requirements for OCC. Interviews were followed by an exploratory concept phase in which the known and future challenges of outage work were addressed in the light of new technological possibilities. Different prototyping techniques were used for illustrating the functioning of an imagined touch-table concept and to facilitate end user involvement. Findings/Design The results suggest that the touch-table has the potential to support collaborative problem solving situations. Video-prototyping materializes these benefits and makes them accessible for user evaluations. Next, the aim is to involve users to give concrete feedback and develop tabletop concept further. Take away message Interactive surface technologies seem a promising tool for establishing a collaborative problem-solving platform to support efficient and safe operation of outages.
Helldin, Tove, Falkman, Göran, Alfredson, Jens and Holmberg, Johan (2011): The applicability of human-centred automation guidelines in the fighter aircraft domain. In: Proceedings of the 2011 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2011. pp. 67-74. Available online
Originality/Value -- By comparing with existing automated functions, the research makes contributions to HCA guidelines to be used in the fighter aircraft domain. Suggestions of human-centred automation improvements within the fighter aircraft domain are presented. The analysis has also identified differences between the proposed guidelines and parts of the studied implementation examples. Take away message -- The HCA guidelines must be adapted according to the specific tasks that the automated functions are intended to assist the operators with. To adapt the automation according to the level of experience of the operators as well as to expand the cooperative automation functions between aircraft in a team have been identified as future directions for automation improvements within the fighter aircraft domain.
Aguero, Cécilia, Mooij, Martijn and Varkevisser, Michel (2011): Human in the loop concept design and evaluation of a multi-targeting system. In: Proceedings of the 2011 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2011. pp. 75-82. Available online
Motivation -- The research goal was to support the design, development and evaluation of a new multitargeting weapon system while considering (future) endusers' requirements and limitations at early stages of the concept design. Research approach -- An original Human Factors approach was adopted and based on three steps in which future end-users were highly involved. 1) Scenario walkthroughs allowed end-users to envision the system in use, prior to development, 2) the design of the system concept and associated Human Machine Interface (HMI) materialised in a first multi-targeting simulator version and 3) the simulations were used to evaluate the concept. Findings -- The user-lead development approach proved to be useful to define a first version of the multi-targeting concept and to ensure that user requirements are represented in the system definition. Especially, the simulation provided valuable information on how well a multi-targeting system could be used by military operators. Despite costs associated with the multi-targeting task, (e.g. increased mental load), operators were able to manage up to four incoming targets. Research limitations -- Although this research provided a first version of the operational concept, further design studies are necessary to see what adjustments (e.g., level of automation, adaptive HMI) could support the operational task even better. Originality -- The approach tackled the system design problem in its entirety, not only focusing on the HMI elements but on the operational concept of a novel system which included system, control and information requirements from a user perspective. Take away message -- The user-lead development in this specific military field was a valuable method for generating design requirements for a non-existing system at early stages of the concept design.
Bigot, Nathalie Le and Jaschinski, Wolfgang (2011): Hand position at computer screens: effect on visual processing. In: Proceedings of the 2011 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2011. pp. 85-88. Available online
Today, electronic reading is not limited to the classical computer screen put on the desk. It is possible to process electronic documents from screens that can be held in the hands. Several studies already showed that visual processing can be modified when participants direct the hands toward the visual display. Using an experimental approach we tested whether visual processing is affected by holding the screen with the hands when performing a task for an extended period of time. Therefore, we had participants to scan pseudo-texts in order to detect a target letter under two conditions depending on their hand position (near the display vs. far from the display). Unexpectedly, the results showed that participants made significantly more errors with hands near the display. No difference was observed on the time to perform the task. By taking together these results with some previous observations, the discussion points out that having hands near the display could have negative effects on some daily computer activities.
McGregor, Iain, Larsson, Pontus and Turner, Phil (2011): Evaluating a vehicle auditory display: comparing a designer's expectations with listeners' experiences. In: Proceedings of the 2011 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2011. pp. 89-92. Available online
This paper illustrates a method for the early evaluation of auditory displays in context. A designer was questioned about his expectations of an auditory display for Heavy Goods Vehicles, and the results were compared to the experiences of 10 listeners. Sound design is essentially an isolated practice and by involving listeners the process can become collaborative. A review of the level of agreement allowed the identification of attributes that might be meaningful for the design of future auditory displays. Results suggest that traditional auditory display design guidelines that focus on the acoustical properties of sound might not be suitable.
Moel, Niek de and Veer, Gerrit van der (2011): Design pattern based decision support. In: Proceedings of the 2011 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2011. pp. 93-96. Available online
We improved a tool to support design experts and nonexpert engineers to share design knowledge. Our approach is a systematic and iterative design of a new tool variant, including high fidelity prototyping and assessment with students in real design cases. Iterative design allowed us to improve the learnability of the tool. Patterns libraries commonly are provided through relatively unstructured lists ("collections"). Tools will help engineers by making the design space (including an overview of context dependent relevance of available design patterns) explicit.
Seitlinger, Paul and Ley, Tobias (2011): Implicit and explicit memory in social tagging: evidence from a process dissociation procedure. In: Proceedings of the 2011 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2011. pp. 97-104. Available online
Motivation -- We analyzed the importance of social tags during an information search in a social software system. In particular, we examined the effects of tags on users' implicit/automatic and explicit/controlled memory processes. Research approach -- An experiment was conducted in which 48 students took part. By means of process dissociation and a multinomial model we tested our dual-process model (implicit vs. explicit) of social tagging. Findings/Design -- We conclude that implicit and explicit processes can be dissociated and that tags are important cues during an information search: they leave robust explicit memory representations. Research limitations/Implications -- A laboratory setting was chosen to care for conclusive findings. Our methods may have to be applied in the natural field to increase external validity. Originality/Value -- This study directly measures cognitive processes of social tagging and uses an empirical as well as experimental approach to the research questions. Take away message -- Generative Models of social tagging would benefit from incorporating a dual-process account, where formalizations of signal-detection-theory and markov-models would enable the integration of automatic and controlled processes, respectively.
What is this field of Human-Computer Interaction? People are quite different from computers. This is hardly a novel observation, but whenever people use computers, there is necessarily a zone of mutual accommodation and this defines our area of interest. People are so adaptable that they are capable of shouldering the entire burden of accommodation to an artifact, but skillful designers make large parts of this burden vanish by adapting the artifact to its users. To understand successful design requires an understanding of the technology, the person, and their mutual interaction [...]
-- Stephen Draper and Donald Norman. In "User Centered System Design" (1986) p. 1