Proceedings of the 2010 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics
Time and place:
The topics of the ECCE conference include; Affective/emotional aspects of human interaction with IT artefacts; Cognitive task analysis and modelling; Collaborative work; Creativity Decision aiding, information presentation and visualization; Evaluation of cognitive performance, social interaction, usability; Human decision making and problem solving;Human error and reliability; Human learning behaviour; Human-centred automation; Interfaces for people with cognitive restrictions; Supporting diverse user groups (the disabled, the elderly, children, personality traits, cognitive styles, gender, culture etc.)
The following articles are from "Proceedings of the 2010 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics":
Cole, Michael J., Gwizdka, Jacek, Bierig, Ralf, Belkin, Nicholas J., Liu, Jingjing, Liu, Chang and Zhang, Xiangmin (2010): Linking search tasks with low-level eye movement patterns. In: Proceedings of the 2010 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2010. pp. 109-116. Available online
Motivation -- On-the-task detection of the task type and task attributes can benefit personalization and adaptation of information systems. Research approach -- A web-based information search experiment was conducted with 32 participants using a multi-stream logging system. The realistic tasks were related directly to the backgrounds of the participants and were of distinct task types. Findings/Design -- We report on a relationship between task and individual reading behaviour. Specifically we show that transitions between scanning and reading behaviour in eye movement patterns are an implicit indicator of the current task. Research limitations/Implications -- This work suggests it is plausible to infer the type of information task from eye movement patterns. One limitation is a lack of knowledge about the general reading model differences across different types of tasks in the population. Although this is an experimental study we argue it can be generalized to real world text-oriented information search tasks. Originality/Value -- This research presents a new methodology to model user information search task behaviour. It suggests promise for detection of information task type based on patterns of eye movements. Take away message -- With increasingly complex computer interaction, knowledge about the type of information task can be valuable for system personalization. Modelling the reading/scanning patterns of eye movements can allow inference about the task type and task attributes.
Motivation -- Develop a portable, mobile information and communication device with specific applications that meet the identified needs of people with mild dementia. Research approach -- A qualitative study with a user centred design was applied: Three iterative development cycles of one year each were performed, in which around 15 persons with mild dementia and their carers participated in each cycle of development to attune the functions and form of the cognitive prosthetic to their needs and wishes. A mixed methods approach of qualitative interviews and standardised tools were used for the evaluations that were performed by formulating research questions and assigning appropriate methods for data collection before, during and after the field tests at the end of each development cycle. Findings/Design -- The COGKNOW Day Navigator consists of a touch screen, a mobile device, sensors, a home hub and a central server. Several features such as colours and icons, can be adjusted to personal preferences, which was much appreciated by users. The functions to support people in their daily activities were overall appreciated, though there were individual differences in preferences and abilities to use them. Research limitations/Implications -- It was recommended to perform an impact study within the target group for a longer period of time when the system is considered stable and to make use of a randomised controlled design in a larger study population. Originality/Value -- The research built upon previous evidence of needs of people with mild dementia and the findings are valuable in directing further research and innovation. However, it was found that this technology can be complex to implement in a manner that ensures good quality of service delivery during field tests. Take away message -- The work has shown the value of designing an analysis framework for development of assistive technology that gives a strong voice to people with dementia and their carers.
Kodagoda, Neesha, Wong, B. L. William and Khan, Nawaz (2010): Information seeking behaviour model as a theoretical lens: high and low literate users behaviour process analysed. In: Proceedings of the 2010 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2010. pp. 117-124. Available online
Motivation -- The paper focuses on how information seeking behaviour model is used as a theoretical lens to analyse high and low literate users online behaviour which in turn will support interface design suggestions. Research approach -- Five high and five low literate users of a local charity which provides social service information participated to carry out four online information seeking tasks. Data were captured using think-aloud, video, observation and semi structured interview techniques. A data analysis on the study previously discovered eight information seeking behaviour strategies: Reading, Scanning, Focus, Satisfied, Verification, Recovery, Trajectories, Representation and Abandon. Several information seeking behaviour models were evaluated prior to selecting Ellis (1989) information seeking behaviour model which includes features such as: starting, chaining, browsing, differentiating, monitoring, extracting, verifying, and ending. The model is used as a theoretical lens to analyse the data combining with the previous findings to make interface design suggestions. The study will not validate the correctness or the features of Ellis model. Findings/Design -- The analysis uncovered two variations of Ellis model for the high and low literate users, and how the models were used to give interface design suggestions. Research limitations/Implications -- The small sample size of five high and five low literate participants, limited the possibility of generalizing the findings. Originality/Value -- The low and high literate users information seeking behaviour were analysed using Ellis model as a theoretical lens along with the previously identified information seeking behaviour strategies of these users. These finds of the refined models are used to suggest interface design to improve the low literate users online information seeking. Take away message -- The models will be used to suggest interface design recommend for low literate users. We hope the design suggestions will help improve the low literate users online information seeking.
Karanam, Saraschandra, Oostendorp, Herre van and Indurkhya, Bipin (2010): The role of content in addition to hyperlinks in user-clicking behavior. In: Proceedings of the 2010 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2010. pp. 125-131. Available online
Motivation -- Cognitive models of web-navigation such as CoLiDeS, CoLiDeS+, SNIF-ACT compute the correct hyperlink by using information from the hyperlink text alone and ignore all other information on a web-page. This paper focuses on verifying the validity of this assumption by investigating the role played by the main content in addition to hyperlink text on the deciding the correct hyperlink. Research approach -- A mock-up website with two conditions: (i) with main content and hyperlinks and (ii) without main content but with hyperlinks was created. 18 students performed 8 information retrieval tasks on this mock-up website. Findings/Design -- The results showed that the user-click behaviour with or without main content remained largely the same. The same links were selected by users in both conditions. Also, the same amount of time was spent on the commonly selected links in both conditions. Research limitations/Implications -- We restrict ourselves to the role of main content in this experiment and did not study the impact of other factors like pictures. Originality/Value -- These results provide an empirical proof to the assumption CoLiDeS makes in its 3rd and 4th phases of focusing and selecting. Take away message -- Implication of the results is that one needs to study deeper the relevance/quality of wording used for hyperlinks in relation to the main content. We assume that if the wordings (of the links) are relevant or familiar to the user, the influence of main content would be negligible but if they are less relevant or unfamiliar, the content becomes more influential.
Dijk, Betsy van, Dadlani, Pavan, Halteren, Aart van and Biemans, Margit (2010): Life changes, connection stays: photo sharing and social connectedness for people with special needs. In: Proceedings of the 2010 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2010. pp. 135-142. Available online
We study the effects of digital photo sharing on social connectedness of people with special needs. We target people dealing with a transition in life that forced them to live away from their family and friends. Our study included four people with spinal-cord injury staying in a rehabilitation centre and eight elderly people staying in a nursing home. Each participant was provided with a web-enabled digital photo frame and their family members were provided with a camera phone. The results of our study show positive effects. For rehabilitants photo sharing simplified the way they could reconnect to their family. For the elderly people, photo sharing served as 'food for talk'.
Conci, Mario, Pianesi, Fabio and Zancanaro, Massimo (2010): Older adults' attitude towards a monitoring technology. In: Proceedings of the 2010 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2010. pp. 143-146. Available online
Motivation -- Investigate the acceptance of a monitoring technology by older people when presented as part of a tele-assistance service. Research approach -- Quantitative and qualitative methods were used to investigate the attitude of 10 older people towards a tele-assistance service augmented by a sensor network installed at home. Data were collected at different stages of the study through questionnaires and unstructured interviews. Findings/Design -- Although the augmented system was perceived as useful as the traditional one, the attitude towards the service slightly decreased in terms of perceived safety and satisfaction. This might be due to lack of perceived control over the functioning of the sensors. It also emerged that the aesthetic of the sensors was an important dimension that affected the general attitude towards the system. Research limitations/Implications -- Limited number of subjects involved. Originality/Value -- Although the study is only a pilot one and the number of subjects is limited, the value of the study is in the ecological setting (the participants used the system in their houses for 2.5 months). Take away message -- The dimension of control and the aesthetics are fundamental in the user's acceptance of new technologies also for frail users with low technological skills and high levels of computer anxiety.
Motivation -- To provide to physical therapists a monitoring system with effective and accurate patient monitoring and evolution analysis. Research approach -- We analyzed therapy sessions with tetraplegic patients to better understand the rehabilitation process and highlight the major requirements for a technology-enhanced tool. We developed a prototype able to automate and improve the current monitoring and follow-up processes. Findings/Design -- Preliminary results indicate that computational movement analysis and comparison can improve the quality of a rehabilitation session and overall patient evolution analysis. Research limitations/Implications -- Analysis and studies have been performed in a rehabilitation centre with a limited set of therapists (3) and patients (7). Originality/Value -- The research herein contributes with a requirement analysis for a computer-assisted rehabilitation platform. We present a tracking-based system instantiating these requirements and outline its values after a preliminary informal validation. Take away message -- The capture and virtual playback of motion in physical therapy sessions increases therapist awareness of patient condition and evolution thus improving the rehabilitation process.
Vassilakopoulou, Polyxeni, Tsagkas, Vassilis and Marmaras, Nicolas (2010): Exploratory analysis of deviations from formal procedures during preoperative anaesthetic evaluation. In: Proceedings of the 2010 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2010. pp. 151-154. Available online
Motivation -- The aim of this paper is to study deviations from formal procedures during preoperative anaesthetic evaluation and to investigate their possible association with the assumptions that anaesthesiologists make during the evaluation. The findings of this analysis can be applied for the identification of requirements and limitations for the standardisation of the task through supporting tools. Research approach -- Records of 100 consecutive preanaesthesia evaluations for elective surgery in a private hospital were retrospectively analysed. In addition, field observations were carried out in order to guide data collection and support the formulation of an initial framework for organizing our findings. This way, data analysis and fieldwork were interwoven, feeding each other. Findings/Design -- The review of 100 preanaesthesia evaluation records revealed that a significant number of them deviated from the normative course of action. Specifically, contrary to the stipulations of the prescribed procedure, in 26% of our cases, the evaluation was performed without having available the preoperative laboratory test results. Furthermore, the form provided for the documentation of the evaluation was scarcely filled-in (75% of the forms had less than 30 out of the 83 total fields completed. In the same time, free-text fields were extensively used, spilling over their content to other fields in 15% of the cases. Our findings are consistent with prior research which indicates that routine laboratory tests are not critical for the evaluation of the patient. Furthermore, the frequently completed fields coincide with the main findings of previous research on the opinions of anaesthesiologists regarding what variables they consider as important. A possible explanation for the observed deviations from formal procedures and low utilisation of standardized forms could be that anaesthesiologists are engaged in a thinking-acting process rather than in a process of information collection directed by a protocol. Standardisation efforts through supporting tools ought to be non-obstructive to this process. Research limitations/Implications -- Our research is limited by the modest sample size of 100 cases and input from a single hospital. Nevertheless, the questions raised and initial hypotheses formulated can be further tested with a larger sample size and different medical establishments. Originality/Value -- Anaesthesiologists have been leaders in applying lessons from Human Factors and Cognitive Ergonomics, but most effort was directed to the development of support tools and decision aids for the operating theatre. The research presented here aims at extending those lessons to the preanaesthesia related tasks. Take away message -- Deviations from the formal procedure during preoperative anaesthetic evaluation can be used for the identification of requirements and limitations for the standardisation of the task through supporting tools.
Papakostopoulos, Vassilis, Nathanael, Dimitris and Marmaras, Nicolas (2010): An explorative study of visual scanning strategies of motorcyclists in urban environment. In: Proceedings of the 2010 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2010. pp. 157-160. Available online
Motivation -- To identify the objects/entities that determine the ontology of the motorcyclist's visual exploration activity, when driving in urban arterials. This ontology may form the basis for modelling the motorcyclists' visual activity in urban traffic as well as shed light in their interaction with automobile drivers. Research approach -- An explorative naturalistic field study was conducted, using the eye-tracking method, in which three experienced motorcyclists were asked to drive normally in a predefined route consisting of three road sections: motorway, avenue, local urban two way street. Immediately after driving an interview of each participant was conducted using the video assisted autoconfrontation method. Findings/Design -- The results suggest that (i) visual scan patterns of motorcyclists in urban arterials are much more vivid compared to those in motorway and extend well beyond formal signals, (ii) to minimize the cognitive effort of scanning motorcyclists seek for specific cues to monitor the future intentions of the other road users (iii) motorcyclists feel more vulnerable than car drivers, which leads them to recurring visual checks of the points of concern. Research limitations/Implications -- The results presented are based on a small sample of motorcyclists. In the near future we intend to extend our sample of participants and to perform formal protocol analysis of the a-posteriory, verbalizations. Originality/Value -- One of the very few naturalistic field studies of motorcyclist visual exploration activity in urban environment using eye tracking and autoconfrontation. Promises to offer fresh insights to safety measures for motorcyclists. Take away message -- Urban driving scan patterns of motorcyclists are very systematic and recurring across situations and participants. Fixation points are rarely directed to road elements as such. Fixations tend to be clearly directed at specific points (e.g. side mirrors, car wheels, rear edge of car roofs) that convey information about the other road users' state and intentions.
Cahour, Beatrice, Forzy, Jean-François and Martin, Clémence (2010): Feelings and strategies of senior drivers: ways of coping with fear?. In: Proceedings of the 2010 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2010. pp. 161-168. Available online
Motivation -- This study explores the way senior drivers (compared to younger ones) adapt to the growing difficulties they have in being attentive and reactive when driving. Research approach -- The approach is based on video analysis and post-activity verbalisations; we videotaped 12 subjects' natural drive in a big city, and conducted video-based interviews. Findings -- The analysis indicates that seniors are more frightened than younger drivers and less aggressive, and that they express more their emotions verbally right after the drive than mimically during the drive. We also distinguish two profiles of senior drivers: one is hypervigilant, hesitating and very anxious, and the other one is deliberately delegating the control and the attention to the other drivers, is quieter and has a smoother driving. Implications and message -- We conclude on the importance of the emotional comfort in the strategies of adaptation chosen by the drivers, and propose some advices for designing help systems for seniors.
Papakostopoulos, Vassilis, Spanou, Eleana-Georgia, Nathanael, Dimitris and Gkikas, Kostas (2010): Understanding overtaking, beyond limitations of the visual system in making spatiotemporal estimations. In: Proceedings of the 2010 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2010. pp. 169-172. Available online
Motivation -- To enrich our understanding of the factors that influence the decision to overtake against two way traffic, and this, beyond the limitations of the human visual system in making spatiotemporal estimations. Such understanding may be valuable for the design of future adaptive aid systems. Research approach -- An explorative naturalistic observation was conducted with a vehicle equipped with three cameras travelling at normal speed for a total distance of 300 km. 40 unobtrusive observations of overtaking episodes were recorded. Findings/Design -- The data is still at the analysis stage. There is however evidence that before the decision to overtake (i) there is a preparation phase prior to the initiation of the overtaking manoeuvre which deals with the intentions/state of the driver ahead and (ii) frequent users of the particular road will use their specific knowledge and initiate overtaking manoeuvres Research limitations/Implications -- The study has an explorative character mainly for generating hypotheses and cannot as such prove its findings without subsequent complementary methods. Originality/Value -- A contribution of the present paper is on the observation method which ensures the collection of data with a high degree of ecological validity. Take away message -- Spatiotemporal estimation just prior to manoeuvre initiation is only one of the factors influencing the decision to overtake. For understanding naturally occurring overtaking manoeuvres longer time frames of analysis are needed.
Tavanti, Monica and Rankin, Ivan (2010): Memory fragments of the industrial landscape. In: Proceedings of the 2010 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2010. pp. 175-182. Available online
Motivation -- To enhance the awareness of places of a city industrial heritage by exposing in situ its identities and stories through the personal memories of its inhabitants. Research approach -- Analysis followed by an explorative survey based on interviews in which museum visitors are asked to discuss their impressions about an exhibition in which personal memories are reminisced. Findings/Design -- Personal narrative seems to trigger criticism, curiosity, and engage visitors in actively discussing and critically questioning views on places and their past. Based on these findings we propose concepts for possible designs. Research limitations/Implications -- The survey was based on a limited number of participants and entails a single narrative. Originality/Value -- This work contributes to research and debate on interpretation and representation of material and cultural heritage, with particular focus on industrial landscapes and modern vestiges left over by the industry of the 19th century. Take away message -- To tell what we remember, and to keep on telling it, is to keep the past alive in the present (Gruchow, 1995).
Burrows, Luke, Turner, Susan and Turner, Phil (2010): Re-creating Edinburgh: adopting the tourist gaze. In: Proceedings of the 2010 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2010. pp. 183-186. Available online
Motivation -- The work described in this paper investigated the potential of a low fidelity desktop application using the metaphor of the 'tourist gaze' in conveying a sense of place. Research approach -- An exploratory study was used, in which an application was developed and evaluated by 25 participants. Findings/Design -- The results suggest that the simple, non-immersive representation of Edinburgh through augmented images and sound supported a reasonable degree of sense of place. Research limitations/Implications -- This was a small scale study and trials against other environments are required. Originality/Value -- Relatively economical applications of this type could be of value in resource-constrained contexts such as therapeutic arenas. Take away message -- Low fidelity virtual reality applications may be surprisingly effective if expectations are constrained.
O'Brien, Sharon, O'Hagan, Minako and Flanagan, Marian (2010): Keeping an eye on the UI design of Translation Memory: how do translators use the "Concordance" feature?. In: Proceedings of the 2010 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2010. pp. 187-190. Available online
Motivation -- To investigate the usefulness of subsegment matching (Concordance feature) in a Translation Memory interface and translators' attitudes to new UI developments around such matching. Research approach -- An explorative work-in-progress using eye tracking for translation conducted by professional translators, followed by an opinion survey. Findings/Design -- The results suggest that the Concordance window is useful for checking terminology and context, but there is some evidence that the translators do not wish to have this feature turned on constantly. Research limitations/Implications -- This is an initial work-in-progress study with a limited number of participants. Quantitative and qualitative results are presented. Originality/Value -- This is the first empirical research of its kind. Translators are rarely, if ever, consulted about the UI of the tools they have to use. Take away message -- The potential productivity and quality gain from sub-segment matches in Translation Memory is not fully realised and may be enhanced with improved UI design derived from focused research on user experience.
Nicolau, Hugo, Guerreiro, Tiago, Jorge, Joaquim and Goncalves, Daniel (2010): Proficient blind users and mobile text-entry. In: Proceedings of the 2010 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2010. pp. 19-22. Available online
Motivation -- Understand how NavTap, an assistive text-entry method, stands in relation to traditional approaches. Research approach -- We performed a between-subjects text-entry study with 12 blind users proficient with MultiTap and five blind users proficient with NavTap. Participants were asked to input ten sentences with different length and complexity. Findings/Design -- MultiTap significantly outperformed NavTap when considering text entry speed, confirming its theoretical advantage. However, when considering method effectiveness, NavTap's less experienced participants committed significantly fewer errors, indicating that it is both easier to learn and use, reaffirming it is an alternative for those unable to adjust to demanding adaptations. Research limitations/Implications -- Before NavTap appeared its users were unable to input text in a mobile device. Indeed, existing data make it difficult to assess differences between the users of either method. Further, NavTap users had less experience using the method (four months) than MultiTap (years). Originality/Value -- We contribute to understanding the limitations and merits of different text-entry approaches for blind people, after extensive usage. Take away message -- Different methods have different limitations and values. Selecting a match for a particular user may depend on his individual differences.
Smets, N. J. J. M., Streefkerk, J. W. and Neerincx, M. A. (2010): Commanders Dashboard: overview of tactical changes to improve situated decision making in the field. In: Proceedings of the 2010 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2010. pp. 193-200. Available online
Motivation -- To support group commanders of small tactical units in information exchange and decision making while in the field, a mobile system called Commanders Dashboard is developed. Research approach -- Based on a situated Cognitive Engineering (sCE) methodology, user requirements and claims for this decision support system are specified. A prototype system is designed that presents a geographical overview, (changes in) the assignment and decision support. A first assessment of these claims is done by having four end-users interact with the prototype on a mission through a virtual environment. A qualitative analysis with questionnaires and a debriefing discussion gives insight into the ease and accuracy of decision making and user experience of the prototype. Findings -- The sCE methodology helped to establish a first -- theoretical and empirical founded -- decision support prototype to be iteratively improved. Users were very positive about ease of use and decision support from the system. However, auditory feedback, the amount of information presented and user trust should be improved. Research limitations/Implications -- The generalizability of the evaluation outcomes is limited because of a small number of qualitative measures and end-users. Originality/Value -- This research emphasizes that incorporating operational demands and human factors knowledge helps to improve and refine the knowledge base for the design of mobile decision support. Take away message -- Future decision support should show how tactical changes affect the Commanders options.
Jalote-Parmar, Ashis and Badke-Schaub, Petra (2010): Situation awareness in medical visualization to support surgical decision making. In: Proceedings of the 2010 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2010. pp. 201-208. Available online
Motivation -- To design information visualisation that in a decision support system for surgeons that aims to enhance situation awareness and hence improves performance. Research approach -- A prototype of an Intra-operative Visualization System (IVS) was developed, Based on the understanding of surgical workflow (problem solving process). IVS aimed to provide decision support to perform a minimally invasive procedure called Radio Frequency Ablation (RFA), to treat cancerous tumors in liver. Theory of situation awareness which is regarded as the theoretical backbone for improving information visualization in system design was incorporated to design the IVS. An experimental study was conducted with 8 expert intervention radiologist and 8 final year medical students. The study compared the performance of both the groups by using two systems: IVS and the conventional Ultrasound (US) guided intervention to perform RFA. Findings/Design -- The results reveal significant evidence for improved decision-making when using the IVS by both the clinical experts and students. In terms of three performance measures both the groups: (1) needed less intra-operative planning time; (2) illustrated increase in accuracy of hitting the tumor in the centre and (3) fewer errors in hitting the wrong tumor. Take away message -- Medical visualisation in decision support systems that focuses on enhancing situation awareness and supports surgical workflow can improve surgical decision making and hence the task performance.
Chauvin, Christine, Coppin, Gilles and Chéné, Héléna (2010): Analysis of the dynamics of common ground: a methodological proposal. In: Proceedings of the 2010 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2010. pp. 209-212. Available online
The elaboration and maintenance of a common ground between team members are crucial aspects for the efficiency and safety of complex systems. A method has been designed to analyze communication between members of a bridge team of a merchant ship, that was recorded during training sessions on a bridge simulator. This method aims to pointing out the positive or negative dynamics of their common ground. It relies on Hoc coding schemes, as well as on the Bales Interaction Process Analysis. Using a transposition of computer science parsing tools, we try to qualify the different levels and the dynamics of the common ground, expressed in terms of left-open requests or average time of closure. This research is in progress. Its main interest is to combine existing coding schemes (coming from cognitive ergonomics and from social psychology) to formalize functional communications and to use computer science tools to point out and qualify the dynamics of a common ground.
Basahel, Abdulrahman M., Young, Mark S. and Ajovalasit, Marco (2010): Impacts of physical and mental workload interaction on human attentional resources performance. In: Proceedings of the 2010 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2010. pp. 215-217. Available online
Motivation -- Task workload is key determinant of human performance. It may include physical and/or cognitive components, and these can interact to influence operator performance. This research study investigates the interaction of physical workload, mental workload and arousal level on attentional resources in order to predict performance. Research approach -- This study was divided into two experiments. In both experiments, fifteen participants (aged 25-35) performed a physical task (pedalling on a bicycle-ergometer) concurrently with a mental task under nine levels of workload in a 3x3 design (low, medium and high levels for both physical and mental). In the first experiment, the mental task was designed to occupy verbal attentional resources through mental arithmetic, whereas a spatial figures task was used in the second experiment to evaluate spatial resources. Findings/Design -- The hypothesis of the study is that optimum performance occurs at intermediate levels of workload, whereas poor performance is observed at the extreme low and high levels of physical and mental demand due to underload and overload. It is also anticipated that physical and mental workload can interact to 'offset' underload or overload decrements. Originality/Value -- The present study will fill the gap in the ergonomics literature by explaining performance degradation due to mental underload and by clarifying the interaction with physical workload. Take away message -- It is possible that moderate levels of physical workload could compensate for attentional resource reduction with mental underload.
Gwizdka, Jacek (2010): Using Stroop task to assess cognitive load. In: Proceedings of the 2010 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2010. pp. 219-222. Available online
Motivation -- Assessment of cognitive load on user tasks is useful for characterizing user interfaces and tasks with respect to their demands on the user's mental effort. Research approach -- We conducted a controlled experiment with 48 subjects. The primary task involved information search. Stroop-like task was used as a secondary task. Reaction time to the secondary task events was used to assess cognitive load. Findings/Design -- Reaction time on the secondary task differentiated between the primary task stages and the user interfaces. Higher cognitive load component of the secondary task performance discriminated primary task stages, while lower cognitive load component discriminated user interfaces. Research limitations/Implications -- Results presented in this short paper were an unexpected finding. They are thus preliminary and need to be confirmed in further experiments. Originality/Value -- This finding promises a method that separates extraneous cognitive load from intrinsic load. Take away message -- Secondary task can be designed to yield separate assessment of intrinsic and extraneous load.
Sar, Manon van der and Mulder, Ingrid (2010): Human-camera interaction: an exploratory study on people's emotions and attitude towards cameras. In: Proceedings of the 2010 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2010. pp. 223-226. Available online
Motivation -- Cameras are increasingly dominating our life, but do these influence our behaviour as well? What are people's emotions and attitude towards camera surveillance? Research approach -- In an exploratory study (n=23) people's emotional reactions to (visible and hidden) cameras were observed. Next, a survey studied people's attitude towards camera surveillance at different places (n=102). Findings/Design -- Results suggest that people are conditioned by cameras, as they react both consciously and unconsciously to cameras. People like to spy other people, while they do not like to be observed. Research limitations/Implications -- The current study is exploratory, which limited generalisation of our findings. Originality/Value -- The research contributes to the public debate on camera surveillance and how people (un)consciously react to cameras. Take away message -- Cameras evoke emotions.
Nap, H. H. and Greef, H. P. de (2010): Self-efficacy & stress in senior computer interaction. In: Proceedings of the 2010 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2010. pp. 227-230. Available online
Motivation -- To gather an understanding about the relation between system complexity, self-efficacy and stress in senior computer interaction. Research approach -- An empirical study was employed in which 30 seniors performed a number of tasks on a low and high complexity search system. Self-efficacy was manipulated by positive and negative performance feedback. Self-efficacy and perceived stress were both measured by self-reports. Findings/Design -- The results revealed that stress plays a role in senior computer interaction. Negative performance feedback increases stress and decreases self-efficacy. Furthermore, it was found that positive performance feedback significantly increases seniors' self-efficacy during computer interaction. Moreover, a significant effect was found of self-efficacy on stress. Perceived stress increased with decreasing self-efficacy. Although system complexity significantly influenced self-efficacy, no relation was found between system complexity and stress. Research limitations/Implications -- The findings can be used in the design of interaction devices for seniors. To increase self-efficacy and to decrease stress in senior computer interaction, it is advised to present seniors with positive performance feedback; negative performance feedback should rather be avoided for satisfying interaction. Originality/Value -- The research contributes to the need of designers to target senior users by creating satisfying interaction for these groups. Take away message -- To increase seniors' confidence with computers, i.e. to increase self-efficacy, it is vital to provide positive performance feedback and high accessibility. Furthermore, increasing self-efficacy reduces the stress experience of seniors during computer interaction.
Higgins, Peter G. and Glasgow, Adam (2010): Home technology design for the cognitively impaired. In: Proceedings of the 2010 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2010. pp. 23-26. Available online
Motivation -- To prolong functional independence of elderly persons who experience cognitive decline in attention, perceptual encoding, memory and self-efficacy. Research approach -- Ability of older adults to use domestic appliances depends on their mental model of operation. This may depend on transfer of understanding from similar, more familiar technology. Leveraging established mental models creates affordances for operating new technology but may constrain the discovery of advanced functionality. Familiar mental models may also interfere with developing appropriate mental models or interaction behaviour. Findings/Design -- Designing appliances to extend cognitive abilities provides opportunity to prolong functional independence. Concepts from cognitive psychology, human factors, and gerontology are reviewed to explain age-related behaviour towards technology to support innovative product development of technologies for older adults with cognitive impairment. Take away message -- The understanding of declining cognitive abilities must drive the development of technologies that sustain the independence of persons who are cognitive impaired.
Karvonen, Hannu, Aaltonen, Iina, Wahlström, Mikael, Salo, Leena, Savioja, Paula and Norros, Leena (2010): Unraveling metro train driver's work: challenges in automation concept. In: Proceedings of the 2010 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2010. pp. 233-240. Available online
Motivation -- We focused on the question: "What is the significance of the train driver in the metro system?" We were especially interested in challenges related to an automation concept of a driverless metro. Research approach -- Metro train drivers' work and the metro system as a whole was examined in interview and field observation studies based on the core-task analysis method. Afterward, a mirror data workshop was organised. Findings/Design -- We describe the diversity of metro train driver's work: in addition to accelerating or braking and door opening or closing, the driver contributes to a variety of other functions in the metro system. For example, the driver maintains an awareness of the surrounding environment and facilitates communication between different actors of the system. Research limitations/Implications -- The participants for both the interview (N=12) and field observation study (N=4) were chosen in advance by the metro organisation. The small sample in the observation study might have also affected the results. Originality/Value -- Our paper analyses the role of the driver in the metro system. The results suggest that a change to a driverless system can affect the quality of service and raise safety issues. The results can be applied to automation implementations also in other domains. Take away message -- There is more to driving a metro train than meets the eye.
Nathanael, Dimitris, Vosniakos, George-Christopher and Mosialos, Stergios (2010): Cognitive task analysis for virtual reality training: the case of CNC tool offsetting. In: Proceedings of the 2010 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2010. pp. 241-244. Available online
Motivation -- To examine if cognitive task analysis of expert machinists can be effective in developing a virtual reality based training system for CNC tool offsetting. Research approach -- A cognitive task analysis of expert machinists was conducted which informed the development of a VR training system for CNC tool offsetting. Subsequently the effectiveness of the analysis was evaluated by conducting an experiment with 31 mechanical engineering students. Findings/Design -- The virtual reality system demonstrated positive training transfer for the task of tool offsetting. The above indicates that the cognitive task analysis performed was effective in identifying a number of key skills of the tool offsetting task. Research limitations/Implications -- The study does not prove the superiority of cognitive task analysis over other approaches for specifying virtual reality training systems, since it does not compare the cognitively tuned system with another one. Originality/Value -- The present work provides evidence that skill transfer can be achieved even with low physical fidelity provided that the cognitive organization of a task is adequately mapped in the virtual reality system. Take away message -- Further and beyond fidelity issues, cognitive task analysis can provide important input in specifying effective VR training systems.
Comans, J., Paassen, M. M. van and Mulder, M. (2010): Pilot workload monitoring and adaptive aviation automation: a solution space-based approach. In: Proceedings of the 2010 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2010. pp. 245-250. Available online
Motivation -- Pilot workload is an important constraint in designing novel flight deck automation systems. We aim to provide context awareness to adaptive automation systems by analyzing the constraints of the work domain. This context awareness can be used by the automation to adapt its functionality and human-machine interface on-line; in such a way that pilot workload is reduced. Research approach -- The problem of developing adaptive automation to support pilots in dealing with other aircraft is chosen as the focal point. The approach entails that the functional constraints of the surrounding traffic can be captured using a so-called 'solution space' analysis. The solution space allows a prediction of the complexity of a particular traffic situation to be made. Experiments showed that complexity is strongly related to the perceived workload. When complexity is high, workload may be high as well and in these situations the automation can decide to provide other ways of supporting the pilot. Findings/Design -- The solution space analysis has been shown to be able to predict the complexity of a traffic situation and therefore operator workload. In turn, this allows for adaptive automation strategies to mitigate the workload. Take away message -- Analysis of the solution space properties can provide a metric for the complexity of the operational context. When complexity is higher, support tools can be activated to reduce the workload of pilots.
Edwards, Tamsyn, Sharples, Sarah, Wilson, John R. and Kirwan, Barry (2010): The need for a multi-factorial model of safe human performance in air traffic control. In: Proceedings of the 2010 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2010. pp. 253-260. Available online
Motivation -- A review of the focus on single-factor effects on performance, and understanding of how this focus on single factors is relevant to human performance decrements and incidents in an Air Traffic Control environment. Research approach -- A literature review of 83 articles investigating human factor interactions, followed by an analysis of 420 European aviation incident reports. Findings/Design -- The results suggest that Human Factors approaches reported in the literature are fundamentally single-factor, or at most two-factor in nature. Multiple factor co-occurrences were found to exist throughout aviation incident reports. Research limitations/Implications -- It is believed that reporting biases may have impacted the accuracy of incident reports. Data may therefore need to be interpreted with some caution. The implication of the contrasting findings from literature and incident reports suggests the need now for a new approach to understanding how multiple human factors impact performance, how incidents occur, and how they can be prevented. Originality/Value -- This research demonstrates the need for a modified focus in human factor literature, and encourages further investigation of the impact of multiple factor interactions on performance decrements, especially within safety-critical environments. Take away message -- A multi-factor approach to human performance is needed to explain and prevent performance decrements in safety critical environments.
Rahman, S. M. B. Abdul, Mulder, M. and Paassen, M. M. van (2010): The effects of Air Traffic Control sector design on the Solution Space Diagram. In: Proceedings of the 2010 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2010. pp. 261-268. Available online
Motivation -- Traffic complexity and workload in Air Traffic Control (ATC) are important factors in the design of procedures and ATC sectors. The Solution Space Diagram (SSD), which shows all possible conflict-free vectors for aircraft, has been proposed as a tool for assessing sector complexity. When considering the SSD for an aircraft, each neighbouring aircraft introduces a zone of conflict, the Forbidden Beam Zone (FBZ) on the SSD. The changes in these FBZ are systematically studied to increase understanding of the SSD usability in reducing workload and managing sector complexity. Research approach -- The following sector variables are investigated in this research; the intercept angle of streams of aircraft, aircraft speed and aircraft horizontal proximity. Matlab® simulations of two aircraft conditions are set up for a number of case studies with different sector variables. These are then compared using quantitative analysis using the SSD. Findings -- In this study it is assumed that a denser Solution Space results in a higher rating for the complexity factor. The results show that in certain cases, where other variables are fixed to certain values, larger intercept angle and horizontal proximity produces a less dense Solution Space. Speed changes lead to other typical changes, as higher speeds result in the FBZ being shifted outwards on the SSD. Research limitations -- The findings regarding the relation between the complexity metric and sector design should be validated by means of an experiment, to obtain the opinion of professional Air Traffic Controllers (ATCos). Take away message -- Previous researches have introduced the Solution Space as a method to determine airspace complexity and therefore ATCo workload (Hermes et al., 2009; D'Engelbronner, 2009 and Mercado, 2009). This research extends these studies through exploring the effects of air traffic sector design in a systematic fashion.
Guerreiro, Tiago, Jorge, Joaquim and Goncalves, Daniel (2010): Identifying the relevant individual attributes for a successful non-visual mobile experience. In: Proceedings of the 2010 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2010. pp. 27-30. Available online
Motivation -- To understand the individual differences with the greatest impact on a blind user's mobile interaction effectiveness and learning abilities. Research approach -- We performed a semi-structured interview to 10 specialized professionals (psychologists, occupational therapists, rehabilitation technicians, IT teacher) working closely with blind users. Findings/Design -- Results suggest that peripheral sensitivity, spatial ability, blindness onset age, age, intelligence and memory are the characteristics affecting user capabilities the most. Research limitations/Implications -- This study offers a wide view on the possible influencing attributes. Empirical studies are required to dissect the impact of each characteristic in mobile blind users' performance. Originality/Value -- We contribute with an understanding of the individual differences among the blind population that may affect mobile interaction. Take away message -- Individual differences among the blind have greater impact than those between sighted users. Understanding these differences is mandatory.
Gavrilova, Tatiana, Gorovoy, Vladimir and Bolotnikova, Ekaterina (2010): Cognitive ergonomics of teaching ontologies. In: Proceedings of the 2010 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2010. pp. 271-278. Available online
Motivation -- Evaluation of the visual design and cognitive ergonomics of teaching ontologies. Research approach -- The underlying research framework is pursuing one method, where clarity and harmony of teaching ontology are evaluated by assessing its structure with several quantitative metrics. Findings/Design -- The method represents an 8-step methodology where different parameters of an ontology are assessed. An application was developed that helps experts during the evaluation process by utilizing automatic metric values calculating. Research limitations/Implications -- Such an approach is feasible for ontologies that are used by people for education or knowledge sharing; it is not applicable for evaluating ontology performance in the software applications. Originality/Value -- This method will practically aid the process of knowledge structuring and ontology design. Take away message -- The main characteristic of "good" teaching ontology is its harmony.
Westera, Matthijs, Boschloo, Jimmy, Diggelen, Jurriaan van, Koelewijn, Laurens S., Neerincx, Mark A. and Smets, Nanja J. J. M. (2010): Employing use-cases for piecewise evaluation of requirements and claims. In: Proceedings of the 2010 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2010. pp. 279-286. Available online
Motivation -- Complex design specifications must be partitioned in manageable pieces to be able to evaluate them in separate experiments. No methodology existed to deal with this task. Research approach -- Practical experience in Situated Cognitive Engineering and the Mission Execution Crew Assistant is combined with a theoretical perspective on the relation between use-cases, requirements and claims. Findings/design -- Hierarchical clustering is an effective method for partitioning a design specification. Use-cases provide a good criterion based on which to cluster the requirements and claims. Originality/Value -- A new method and tool are presented for organising requirements and for systematising the evaluation of a complex design specification. Take away message -- Piecewise evaluation benefits from a use-case-based partitioning of the design specification combined with an experimental stance on requirements and claims.
Wouters, Pieter, Oostendorp, Herre van and Spek, Erik D. van der (2010): Game design: the mapping of cognitive task analysis and game discourse analysis in creating effective and entertaining serious games. In: Proceedings of the 2010 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2010. pp. 287-293. Available online
Motivation -- Game design and instructional design have to be reconciled in order to create effective and engaging serious games. However, a methodology for this purpose is not yet available. Research approach -- Such a methodology should meet two requirements. It should provide (1) a taxonomy of categories that can be used to describe both information related to learning objectives (e.g., cognitive skills) and information describing the dynamics of the game, (2) guidelines to trigger learning naturally in the game. Findings/Design -- Our proposed methodology comprises two stages. First, a cognitive task analysis (CTA) is made of the task or the domain that has to be learned. Second, the information of this analysis has to be integrated with game-related information elements using our Game Discourse Analysis (GDA). We developed a taxonomy of information elements, types of relations and aggregates of information elements which form the tools for the GDA. We showcase the methodology in the domain of triage. In addition, we present two pilot studies to validate our claims. Research limitations/Implications -- Although the two pilot studies provide some evidence for our claims, more research is needed. Originality/Value -- Currently, the community of (serious) games designers lacks an instrument to design engaging serious games, to communicate about these games and to make comparisons between serious games. Our methodology fills in this gap. Take away message -- Serious game design requires a methodology (GDA) that enables designers to describe, visualize, understand and manipulate the information flow in games in order to create effective and engaging serious games.
Brinkman, Willem-Paul, Doherty, Gavin, Gorini, Alessandra, Gaggioli, Andrea and Neerincx, Mark (2010): Cognitive engineering for technology in mental health care and rehabilitation. In: Proceedings of the 2010 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2010. pp. 297-298. Available online
The use of technology, such as virtual reality, electronic diaries, multimedia, brain computing and computer games, to support the care and rehabilitation of patients affected by mental disorders is a relatively new and advancing research area. In this workshop, researchers, developers and mental health professionals will present and discuss their latest work, with a focus on cognitive, emotional and ergonomic aspects on issues as acceptance, usage, experience and accessibility of these innovative technologies.
Love, Steve, Young, Mark and Brinkman, Willem-Paul (2010): Putting users' first: the importance of human-centred design in the development of mobile applications and services. In: Proceedings of the 2010 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2010. pp. 299-300. Available online
The aim of this workshop is to bring together researchers interested in exploring the state of the art research in relation to human factors aspects of mobile application and service design. The workshop format will allow each member to present a short paper on their current work and open this up to general discussion afterwards. The overall aim of the workshop will be to put forward the contents and structure for an edited book on this topic with contributions from the workshop participants.
Shibata, Takanori (2010): Integration of therapeutic robot, Paro, into welfare systems. In: Proceedings of the 2010 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2010. p. 3. Available online
Since 1993, Paro, a baby seal robot, has been developed for two purposes: one is for as companion at home, and the other is for therapy at hospitals, elderly institutions, schools, and so on. In 2005, Paro was commercialized in Japan, and so far, more than 1,300 units have been sold there. About 70% of customers are individuals, and about 20% are institutions. As research on international comparison of evaluation of Paro by people, we had questionnaires to visitors who interacted with Paro at exhibitions in seven countries; Japan, Korea, Sweden, UK, Italy, Brunei, and US. Most people had high evaluation value on Paro regardless of countries. However, when we analyzed the data by the principal component analysis, two different usages of Paro were observed; one was for pet, and the other was for therapy. In Japan and Korea, people expected Paro to be a pet for them. In Sweden, Italy and UK, people expected Paro to be for therapy. In US and Brunei, people expected Paro for both types. In Japan, this result has similar tendency to the ratio of individual customers of Paro. In relationship between human and animals, there are cultural differences between Asia and Europe. For example, most Japanese people do not know nor believe animals in therapy. In Denmark, Danish Technological Institute (DTI) have been distributing Paro only to welfare institutions and hospitals in Denmark since late 2008. So far, more than 100 welfare institutions and hospitals in Denmark have been using Paro, especially for caring elderly people with dementia. DTI plan that they will introduce 1,000 Paros to elderly institutions in Denmark by 2011. In the US, FDA (Food and Drug Administration) certified Paro as a "medical device" in Sep. 2009. Since Dec. 2009, Paro has been officially sold in the US. So far, about 50 Paros have been used there. I will explain details of how Paro works for therapy, especially for elderly people with dementia. Then, I will explain how Paro has been introduced in the welfare systems.
Many countries face pressure on their health care systems. To alleviate this pressure, 'self care' and 'self monitoring' are often stimulated with the use of new assistive technologies. Social robotics is a research area where robotic technology is optimized for various social functions. One of these functions is self care assistance. To foster progress in this area of 'social robotics for self care', coordinated efforts between research institutes, companies and end users are needed. This workshop focuses on bringing these stakeholders together and creating a shared research agenda.
Greef, Tjerk de, Botzer, Assaf and Maanen, Peter-Paul van (2010): Eye-tracking = reading the mind. In: Proceedings of the 2010 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2010. pp. 303-304. Available online
Eye activity measures are utilized to make inferences about human activity. While much is known how to use the eye to infer workload, less is known about inferring higher-level cognitive processes from lower-level eye movements. The main question addressed in the workshop is how to use eye activity measures in order to support higher-level cognitive processes. The workshop mainly serves to establish an international special interest group interested in making research proposals about the above-mentioned topic. The workshop entails a full day using the morning to establish a short overview of the state-of-the-art in eye activity measures and applications. The afternoon will be used to form consortia and generate research proposal ideas. People interested are required to shortly motivate their attendance by describing their research interest, experience, and a visionary statement that identifies knowledge gaps and possible approaches to bridge them (max. 500 words).
Sanjram, Premjit K. and Azizuddin, Khan (2010): Attention and programmer characteristics in prospective memory: an investigation of habit intrusion error in programmer multitasking. In: Proceedings of the 2010 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2010. pp. 307-310. Available online
Motivation -- To examine prospective memory (ProM) performance in programmer multitasking emphasizing how attention, time orientation, and expertise affect ProM performance. Research approach -- An experimental paradigm was developed to perform ProM research under the situations that occasionally require individuals to face naturalistic atypical actions. A total of 108 computer science and engineering students participated in the experiment. Findings/Design -- Attention played a crucial role in multitasking and ProM performance. Polychrons exhibited lesser degree of ProM performance failure than monochrons whereas expertise did not have an effect. Results showed that out of overall ProM performance failure 16.22% were of habit intrusion errors occurring 1.75 times in every 10 valid click responses of ProM task. Moreover, experts demonstrated superior performance over novices in programming. Research limitations/Implications -- The experiment was conducted in a specific context of programmer multitasking. The results should not be implied to assert that polychrons would have better performance in any ProM task in general. Originality/Value -- The research makes a contribution by reporting a new experimental paradigm to capture ProM error of habit intrusion. This atypical action paradigm allows ProM research to be carried out under the situations that occasionally require individuals to face atypical actions. Take away message -- Programmers are vulnerable to habit intrusion errors.
Karvonen, Hannu (2010): Different aspects of trust in ubiquitous intelligent transportation systems. In: Proceedings of the 2010 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2010. pp. 311-314. Available online
Motivation -- The purpose of this research is to analyze different aspects of human trust affecting to the use of ubiquitous intelligent transportation systems. In general, the aim is to contribute to the conceptual foundations of trust in human-technology interaction. Research approach -- In addition to a literature review, various approaches from user psychological laboratory studies with a driving simulator to interview and field observation studies of authentic situations are used. Findings/Design -- The preliminary results suggest that even though these kinds of safety-critical ubiquitous systems are designed to improve safety, they can often have contrary effects when users' trust towards them is inappropriate. Research limitations/Implications -- Only Finnish based university students have participated in the driving simulator studies, which limits the possible generalisation of the findings. Originality/Value -- Previous public research regarding trust in ubiquitous intelligent transportation systems has been scarce. However, some applicable results have been achieved in the field of traditional ubicomp research. This research also makes a contribution to study the user psychological aspects of the concept of trust in ubiquitous intelligent transportation system. Take away message -- Trust is one of the most important factors that needs to be taken into account when evaluating and designing new ubiquitous intelligent transportation systems.
Kocaballi, A. Baki (2010): Wearable environments: reconfiguring human-machine-environment relations. In: Proceedings of the 2010 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2010. pp. 315-318. Available online
Motivation -- The main motivation of this research is to gain a better understanding of dynamic agency between human, machine and environment relations mediated by a synthesis of wearable computing and smart environments technologies. Research approach -- The study follows a research through design approach. There are two main stages of the study involving a series of workshops involving designed prototype systems with different configurations. The prototype systems are designed based on the idea of "Wearable Environments" combining wearable computing and smart environments approaches to ubiquitous computing together. The interactions between prototype systems and human participants are analysed from a post-phenomenological perspective. Findings/Design -- The preliminary workshop study showed that the perception and interpretation of sonic and tactile feedbacks and consequently the strategies of subjects were highly dependent on the places of wearable devices attached to. Research limitations/Implications -- The study deals with only low-level cognitive actions and micro-perception shaping the machine-mediated human agency. Originality/Value -- The research will clarify some critical dimensions and aspects of complex phenomenon of agency in service of designing wearable environments by synthesizing the approaches of the fields of wearable computing and smart environments. Take away message -- Wearable environments with enactive interfaces can provide unique opportunities for investigating and reconfiguring various forms of human-machine-environment relations.
Spek, Erik D. van der (2010): COgnition-based DEsign Rules Enhancing Decisionmaking TRaining In A Game Environment (Code Red Triage): doctoral consortium paper. In: Proceedings of the 2010 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2010. pp. 319-322. Available online
Motivation -- To improve the effectiveness of (serious) games by empirically testing a number of cognition-based game design guidelines. Research approach -- A serious game was made to train players in performing the primary triage procedure in a large scale crisis situation. With this game, a number of game design decisions are systematically varied and the subsequent corresponding effects on learning gains, mental model construction and perceived engagement empirically tested. Findings -- While the game has been successful in training the triage procedure, the use of auditory guidance cues has led to worse mental model construction. Research limitations/Implications -- A triage consists of mostly procedural information, and the empirically tested guidelines are only tested in one game, making the possibility of generalization to other games and game types unclear. In addition, only the effects with relatively short play times are measured. Originality/Value -- Many serious games struggle to effectively convey their instructional material to the player. Conventional game design practice may even harm serious games; we seek to measure what works and what doesn't. Take away message -- When designing a serious game, pay careful attention to how much you task the player, subtle changes can make a big difference.
Ling, Yun, Nefs, Harold T., Brinkman, Willem-Paul, Heynderickx, Ingrid and Qu, Chao (2010): The role of display technology and individual differences on presence. In: Proceedings of the 2010 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2010. pp. 323-326. Available online
Originality/Value -- Having a better understanding of the relation between human factors and feelings of presence may facilitate the selection of people that are most likely to benefit from virtual reality applications such as virtual reality exposure therapy (e.g. Krijn et al, 2004). A better understanding of how presence can be optimized on different displays, may also lead to the possibility to use less complex display types (as compared to HMD's or CAVE's) to create virtual reality consumer applications. It also opens the possibility to tailor the virtual reality display to the individual, optimizing presence. Research approach -- First, we investigate the relationships between perceived presence and some human factors, including stereoscopic ability, depth impression, and personality. We describe this experiment here in some detail. Second, we focus on the potential maximum presence that can be obtained for specific devices, for example, by manipulating the size, perspective and viewing distance. Third, we will investigate how monocular depth cues can be used to maximize presence for different display types. Finally, we will look specifically at how presence can be maximized on small hand-held devices, for example by incorporating compensation for display movement. In all our experiments we will focus on public speaking and person-to-avatar communication. Presence is measured in three different ways: 1) through questionnaires, 2) behaviourally, and 3) physiologically. Motivation -- Several factors such as the kind of display technology and the level of user interaction have been found to affect presence (e.g., IJsselsteijn et al, 2000). Generally, it had been concluded that the more immersive types of display result in higher levels of presence. However, studies comparing the effect of display technology on presence are mostly based on rendering the same content across different displays. Previous studies have typically not attempted to optimize the content for each display type individually. Furthermore, it has not been considered before that some viewers may not benefit as much as others from higher levels of technology.
Laverman, M., Schonk, J. H. M., Boog, P. J. M. van der and Neerincx, M. A. (2010): Personalized and contextualized information in self-management systems for chronically ill patients (PERISCOPE). In: Proceedings of the 2010 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2010. pp. 327-330. Available online
Motivation -- It is becoming necessary to seriously consider self-management in the treatment of chronically ill patients. A number of self-management applications have already been developed, but an explicit theoretical model is lacking. The PERISCOPE-project aims to provide (1) a conceptual framework for self-management systems aimed at lifestyle changes, (2) guidelines for implementing personalization and contextualization to enhance self-management skills of chronically ill patients, and (3) an overview of how human factors influence the design and implementation of self-management systems. In our approach we pay particular regard to lifestyle changes. Research approach -- The conceptual framework for self-management systems will be constructed based on key literature and interviews with care professionals. The Situated Cognitive Engineering framework will guide the development of a prototype self-management system aimed at lifestyle changes and the formulation of guidelines for personalization and contextualization. Last, a randomized controlled trial (RCT) will be used to examine (1) the influence of human factors on personalization and contextualization and (2) the impact of personalization and contextualization on the self-management skills of patients. Findings -- We have thus far developed a conceptual framework for self-management systems. Take away message -- The development of a conceptual framework and the understanding of the influence of human factors and design principles on patients' lifestyle management will be of great benefit to the development and improvement of self-management systems.
Pellegrin, Liliane, Gaudin, Charlotte, Texier, Gaetan, Meynard, Jean-Baptiste and Chaudet, Hervé (2010): Near real-time outbreak surveillance system for early warning as a JCS. In: Proceedings of the 2010 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2010. pp. 33-40. Available online
Motivation -- This presentation introduces a near-real time outbreak surveillance system, ASTER, which assists physicians in the resolution the management of the outbreak early warning in French military deployment. Research approach. Our approach is to show that ASTER could be described as a joint cognitive system between actors belonging to a specific socio-technical network, a surveillance network and an artificial decision-supported system. Findings/Design -- Two simulations of an outbreak management have been set up. Observations of epidemiologists (analysis network) were conducted during simulated scenarii involving natural and intentional outbreaks within French Forces deployed for the first scenario, in Djibouti, and for the second one, in Tchad. Originality/Value -- The results of these studies highlight the central role of the building of a shared problem representation. This representation appears mainly to result from cooperative activities during decision making processes which are strongly supported by the main system, ASTER, but also by a panel of other decision-support systems and non-computerized and more classical artefacts.
Wardt, Veronika van der, Bandelow, Stephan and Hogervorst, Eef (2010): The relationship between cognitive abilities, well-being and use of new technologies in older people. In: Proceedings of the 2010 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2010. pp. 333-334. Available online
Motivation -- The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between cognitive abilities, well-being and use of new technologies in order to support the development of systems to sustain digital engagement of older people. Research approach -- A literature review analysed scientific articles regarding the relationship between cognitive abilities, well-being and use of new technologies for older people. Findings/Design -- The results showed that cognition has a significant effect on use of new technologies, but only one study looked at the reverse relationship and did not find a clear result. The relationship between well-being and technology use needs to be clarified in further research; however, there is strong evidence that well-being affects cognitive abilities. Research limitations/Implications -- The relationship might have an interactive, reciprocal dynamic, but needs further investigation, as not all factors in this relationship have been equally well explored. Take away message -- The results highlight the need to include well-being and health into the investigation of the relationship between cognitive abilities and use of new technologies.
Brons, Lisanne, Greef, Tjerk de and Kleij, Rick van der (2010): The influence of an activity awareness display on distributed multi-team systems. In: Proceedings of the 2010 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2010. pp. 335-336. Available online
Motivation -- Both multi-team systems and awareness displays have been studied more often in the past years, but there hasn't been much focus on the combination of these two subjects. Apart from doing so, we are particularly interested in the difficulties encountered when multi-team systems are distributed among different locations and how interface technology plays a role in overcoming these. We hypothesise that an activity awareness display will positively effect the performance of teams that are collaborating at a distance. Research approach -- During an experiment we look at two teams of two persons each working together on a complex task. In total 20 multi-teams are tested. Half of them is provided with a display containing information about the other team in order to raise their activity awareness. Performance, time, communication and back-up behaviour are measured. After the task participants are questioned about their perceived performance, workload and inter-team coordination. Design -- An activity awareness display should communicate the current activity being executed, the status of that activity, and the workload of the remote team. Originality/Value -- The goal of this project is to lay out a theoretical base for designing tools to improve the performance of remotely collaborating teams such as Urban Search And Rescue teams missions. Take away message -- An awareness display hypothetically improves multi-team performance through more back-up behaviour and less communication.
Qu, Chao, Brinkman, Willem-Paul, Wiggers, Pascal and Heynderickx, Ingrid (2010): Visual priming to improve keyword detection in free speech dialogue. In: Proceedings of the 2010 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2010. pp. 337-338. Available online
Motivation -- Talking out loud with synthetic characters in a virtual world is currently considered as a treatment for social phobic patients. The use of keyword detection, instead of full speech recognition will make the system more robust. Important therefore is the need to increase the chance that users use specific keywords during their conversation. Research approach -- A two by two experiment, in which participants (n = 20) were asked to answer a number of open questions. Prior to the session participants watched priming videos or unrelated videos. Furthermore, during the session they could see priming pictures or unrelated pictures on a whiteboard behind the person who asked the questions. Findings/Design -- Initial results suggest that participants more often mention specific keywords in their answers when they see priming pictures or videos instead of unrelated pictures or videos. Research limitations/Implications -- If visual priming in the background can increase the chance that people use specific keywords in their discussion with a dialogue partner, it might be possible to create dialogues in a virtual environment which users perceive as natural. Take away message -- Visual priming might be able to steer people's answers in a dialogue.
Colonius, Immo, Budde, Sandra and Annicchiarico, Roberta (2010): Participatory design for challenging user groups: a case study. In: Proceedings of the 2010 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2010. pp. 339-340. Available online
Motivation -- To develop the interaction design of an intelligent assistive device and environment for elderly people suffering from disease-related cognitive deficits within an interdisciplinary and international development team. Research approach -- Combining two different participatory development methods in order to involve both the development team and the real end-user. Findings/Design -- Scenarios were used to develop an idea of interaction design which were later adapted involving the real end-users in a operational prototyping phase. Research limitations/Implications -- Operational prototyping is done involving 21 end-users. Evaluation with a larger group is an open issue. Originality/Value -- The research makes a contribution of how to involve both application domain experts and cognitively impaired end-users in the development process of interactive systems. The value added consists of a successful field study and experience how to create an efficient workflow. Take away message -- Participatory design for people suffering from cognitive deficits is challenging but possible.
Prost, Magali, Cahour, Beatrice and Detienne, Francoise (2010): Analysing online social support between professionals. In: Proceedings of the 2010 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2010. pp. 341-342. Available online
Online forum give people new opportunities to interact with each other. It is a new mean of coping with problems at work. This paper reports an investigation of interaction structures within two forums on the web (general and specialized), examining different ways to expose a problem and different manifestations of social support. Results reveal two structures: << centralized >> and << distributed >>. Authors of discussions may use different processes, using more or less expressions of their emotions. Helpers can show their support by sharing similar experiences, or providing opinion-advice and opinion-analysis on the situation or the solution, with or without emotional support. The analytical method was tested on seven conversations and it will be extended to further conversations. This research will contribute to propose recommendations to improve social support forums for professionals and to know if this type of support is satisfying for the participants.
Vosbergen, Sandra, Colkesen, Ersen B., Lacroix, Joyca, Mosis, Georgio, Stappers, Pieter Jan, Kraaijenhagen, Roderik A. and Peek, Niels (2010): Assessment of user needs for self-management services in coronary heart disease: a designerly approach. In: Proceedings of the 2010 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2010. pp. 343-344. Available online
Motivation -- Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a chronic condition with a high prevalence in Western countries. Unless properly managed it leads to life-threatening events, increasing disabilities, and death. Due to the essential role of lifestyle in the development of CHD, patients are in a large part able to self-manage their disease. Internet-based self-management tools and services hold the promise to support patients and their caregivers in this task. Research approach -- This study aims to identify the needs and preferences of CHD patients in daily self-management challenges. An exploratory qualitative research method, originating from the field of product design, will be used to explore self-management needs of CHD patients. As a preparation to this study a literature study, four interviews and a pilot study were executed. Findings/Design -- Based on the literature study and the interviews, two different research tools were designed. These tools were tested in a pilot study. From August to October inclusive the research tools will be adjusted and the study will be executed, resulting in a description of health related self-management needs for patients with CHD. Take away message -- New opportunities for prevention of disease and health self-management arise through internet-based applications. Qualitative research methods involving patients, originating from the field of product design can contribute to the optimal development of such applications.
Melguizo, Mari Carmen Puerta, Dignum, Frank and Dignum, Virginia (2010): Coping with learning styles during organizational changes. In: Proceedings of the 2010 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2010. pp. 345-346. Available online
Motivation -- For organizational changes to be successful, adaptation and employees' collaboration are frequently needed and, often implies to learn new skills and perform new tasks. Organizational changes occur in phases from the analysis of the current problems to the creation and implementation of solutions. Furthermore, people with different learning styles seem to adapt better to these different phases. The main goal of our project is to develop a system that allows for collaboration through the organizational phases in an adaptive way as a function of the learning style. Research approach -- After a pilot study that establishes the exact connection between learning styles and performance in organizational phases, an initial prototype of the adaptive system is described. Findings/Design -- The main goals of our research project are to explore the relationships between learning styles and organizational changes and to design an adaptive system for learning styles during the different phases of organizational changes. Research limitations/Implications -- Research on this line has been scarce and the need of considering collaboration and communication adds complexity to the task at hand. Originality/Value -- The relevance of this research is theoretical and practical. Theoretically this research will help to understand the connection between the organizational lifecycles and learning styles. In practice, the development of an adaptive system for learning skills and procedures, and not only content, will help organizations in the process of adapting successfully to changes. Take away message -- An adaptive system that motivates employees to learn the proper skills needed and guide them during organizational changes can decrease rejections to change in organizations and increase success.
Chuang, Lewis L., Bieg, Hans-Joachim, Bülthoff, Heinrich H. and Fleming, Roland W. (2010): Measuring unrestrained gaze on wall-sized displays. In: Proceedings of the 2010 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2010. pp. 347-348. Available online
Mehdi, Syed Atif and Berns, Karsten (2010): Behaviour based searching of human using MDP. In: Proceedings of the 2010 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2010. pp. 349-350. Available online
Motivation -- To develop a methodology for cognitive search of elderly person in home environment that will help in reaching the inhabitant to determine health situations. Research approach -- A behaviour based Markov decision process (MDP) has been developed to build up cognitive information of the human at home. A simulated environment was also created to simulate the presence of human and prove the validity of the approach implemented. Design -- The idea is to enable the robot to comprehend when it is required to find the human being on its own. To achieve this task, behaviour based approach has been adapted where behaviour represents the desire to find the human and the policy for finding human is determined using MDP. Research limitations -- A simulated environment has been developed for the generation of dataset and afterwards verification of the implemented methodology. This simulated environment also gives the liberty of observing the human being as many times as is required which in real scenario is difficult to accomplish. Originality/Value -- The research promotes the need of developing behaviour based cognitive approach for finding human being in the environment. Take away message -- Using learning methodology along with behaviour based architecture might help in developing better cognitive robots.
Niculescu, Andreea, Dijk, Betsy van, Nijholt, Anton, Swee, See Lan and Li, Haizhou (2010): How humans behave and evaluate a social robot in real-environment settings. In: Proceedings of the 2010 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2010. pp. 351-352. Available online
Behavioral analysis has proven to be an important method to study human-robot interaction in real-life environments providing highly relevant insights for developing new theoretical and practical models of appropriate social robot design. In this paper we describe our approach to study human-robot interaction by combining human behavioral analysis with robot evaluation results. The approach is exemplified by a case study performed with a social robot receptionist in real-life settings. Our preliminary results are encouraging, as many behavior categories could be successfully related to certain evaluation patterns. With our analysis we hope to add a useful contribution to social-robotic design concerning user modeling issues and evaluation predictions.
Pol, David van der, Cuijpers, Raymond H. and Juola, James F. (2010): Head pose estimation for real-time low-resolution video. In: Proceedings of the 2010 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2010. pp. 353-354. Available online
Gaze direction is an important communicative cue. In order to use this cue for human-robot interaction, software needs to be developed that enables the estimation of head pose. We began by designing an application that is be able to make a good estimate of the head pose, and, contrary to earlier neural network approaches, that works for non-optimal lighting conditions. Initial results show that the approach using multiple networks trained with differing datasets, gives a good estimate of head pose, and it works well in poor lighting conditions. The solution is not optimal yet. Smart selection rules taking into account different lighting conditions would enable us to select the neural networks trained with images with similar lighting conditions. This research will allow us to use head orientation cues in Human-Robot interaction with low-resolution cameras and in poor lighting conditions. The software allows the robot to give a timely reaction to the dynamical communicative cues used by humans.
The CareRabbit (ZorgKonijn) is an e-health device that can be used to play messages (e.g. text, MP3) sent through the Internet. It is used in children's departments in hospitals. Its aim is to make children feel comfortable and make their stay more pleasant. Research approach -- During the study, we will conduct a pilot study in five hospital paediatrics departments. We will administer questionnaires about quality of life to admitted children and their parents with a CareRabbit and a control group without a CareRabbit (N = 200). Also, we will develop a business case to gain insight in the organization and funding of the CareRabbit. This business case will be based on a practice oriented design research with literature research, interviews, and the STOF-model. Findings/Design -- The research is currently in its first phase and this paper presents preliminary results. Our experiences are that the stakeholders are enthusiastic. Moreover, children with the CareRabbit feel more at ease and connected to home and experience their hospital stay as more pleasant. In turn, this could lead to shorter hospital stays. Research limitations/Implications -- The average stay of children in a hospital in the Netherlands is four to five days. Therefore two different groups are compared, instead of measuring the effect of the CareRabbit per child. Because the pilots will only last two to three months, long-term results cannot be elicited from the research findings. Motivation -- Our goal is to investigate the added value of the CareRabbit for children and other stakeholders (e.g. relatives of the child, hospitals, insurance companies) and give advice on how to further develop and implement the CareRabbit (e.g. functionalities, support, organization and distribution).
Torta, Elena, Cuijpers, Raymond H. and Juola, James F. (2010): A Bayesian model for approaching a human. In: Proceedings of the 2010 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2010. pp. 357-358. Available online
With the growing need for elder care, research is focusing on robotic assistance at home. Thus, robots must navigate in cluttered, domestic, indoor environments with the purpose of interacting with a person. Here we present a behaviour based navigation model enhanced with a low level decision making process that allows the robot to approach a human in such an environment. The model has been tested on simulation and the first results show the effectiveness of the Bayesian decision making process.
Conci, Mario, Pianesi, Fabio, Zancanaro, Massimo, Capasso, Rita, Monti, Alessia and Miceli, Gabriele (2010): Towards remote handwriting deficits therapy: a study on the use of a touch-screen in replacing paper. In: Proceedings of the 2010 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2010. pp. 359-361. Available online
Motivation -- This pilot study wants to explore the effect of a touch-screen on the rehabilitation of acquired dysgraphia. The outcomes of the study might be useful for the design of a tele-rehabilitation system for handwriting disorders. Research approach -- The touch-screen is compared with the more traditional, pencil-and-paper approach. A specific software application was designed, based on a User Centered Design (UCD) approach and involving patients and therapists. Findings/Design -- Two patients with moderate aphasia agreed to participate in testing the application. The results showed no negative effects on the treatment and revealed a positive attitude towards the touch-screen from both patients and therapists. Take away message -- This preliminary study shows a substantial effectiveness of the touch-screen used as a device in the rehabilitation of handwriting deficits, and brings out issues relevant to the development of a tele-rehabilitation system.
The past four years a unique robot platform 'Probo' is developed to study cognitive Human-Robot Interaction (HRI). The robot Probo (Saldien, 2009) is designed to act as a social interface, providing a natural interaction while employing human-like social cues and communication modalities. The robot has a fully actuated head, with 20 degrees of freedom, capable of showing facial expressions. Probo embodies a stuffed imaginary animal, providing a soft touch and a huggable appearance. A Robot Control Centre (RCC) enables the operator to control the robot in shared autonomy with the cognitive control of the robot. These cognitive control systems include the simulation of attention, homeostasis, emotional state and the generation of lifelike motions. This project aims to study HRI and Robotic Assisted Therapy (RAT) with a special focus on hospitalized children, a field with growing attention in the robotics community.
Evers, Vanessa and Kröse, Ben (2010): Toward an ambient empathic health companion for self care in the intelligent home. In: Proceedings of the 2010 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2010. pp. 365-366. Available online
Motivation -- This paper describes our work in progress to develop a personal monitoring system that can monitor the physical and emotional condition of a patient by using contextual information from a sensor network, provide the patient with feedback concerning their health status and motivate the patient to adopt behavior with a positive health impact (such as exercising or taking medication at the right moment). Research approach -- We will extend the capabilities of an existing robotic health buddy with a (DBN based) sensor network. Then we will carry out a series of controlled, long-term field experiments where we identify and evaluate the effects of various agent social communicative behaviours on the user's adoption of health improving lifestyle patterns. Findings/Design -- The findings of the experiments will inform the final design of the health buddy and it's behaviours. We will also realise system adaptivity of the data processing and data fusion methods as well as the health buddy adaptivity to the user's emotional state. Research limitations/Implications -- The project will limit itself to monitoring and motivating people who suffer from cardiovascular chronic conditions and to the home environment. Originality/Value -- The research makes a contribution to the needs of health monitoring for a specific user group. The health buddy will use social behaviours to motivate users over a long-term time period. Take away message -- Home health monitoring and self care can be more enjoyable and easier through motivating smart health buddies.
Neerincx, Mark A., Kallen, Victor L., Brouwer, Anne-Marie, Leer, Leslie van der and Brinke, Michiel ten (2010): Virtual reality exposure and neuro-bio feedback to help coping with traumatic events. In: Proceedings of the 2010 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2010. pp. 367-369. Available online
Recent research shows that Virtual Reality (VR) exposure or bio-neuro feedback can help professionals to cope with possibly traumatic events. This paper presents a neuro-bio VR system that combines both methods in order to further improve the prevention and therapy of trauma-related disorders. This system can harmonize the VR exposure to user's personal experiences by systematically showing scenes and stressors, and monitoring the corresponding EEG, heart rate and skin conductance responses. The paper describes the set-up of a first experiment that is being conducted to test the effects of the VR stressors on bio-neuro markers and their dependency on the specific scene (do scene-specific effects appear?). The results of this experiment will be included in the poster.
Arendsen, Jeroen, Janssen, Joris B., Begeer, Sander and Stekelenburg, Fred C. (2010): The use of robots in social behavior tutoring for children with ASD. In: Proceedings of the 2010 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2010. pp. 371-372. Available online
Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) may benefit from 'self care' solutions which use social robotics principles. Specifically, the authors propose to use robots in various ways to help such children with the acquisition and training of important pragmatic social behaviors, for example greetings. In order to create such a learning environment, knowledge about 'typical social behavior' and 'ASD deviations in social behavior' will be modelled. The main propositions, for which some evidence already exists, are that (1) interaction with (robotic) technology is free of social tension for children with ASD and (2) this can therefore, by removing inhibitions, aid the acquisition and training of social skills, and, moreover (3), that these skills can be transferred and used productively in social interaction with other humans.
Gillesen, Jan, Boere, Stijn and Barakova, Emilia (2010): WikiTherapist. In: Proceedings of the 2010 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2010. pp. 373-374. Available online
Motivation -- This paper describes a platform that can be used by therapists to easily create treatment programs for ASD patients based on robotic systems. Research approach -- Through extensive collaboration with treatment clinics, the needs and requirements of therapists are analysed and implemented in several design stages. Design -- The basis of the platform is a combination of the humanoid mobile robot NAO (Figure 1) with a visual programming environment TiViPE. The end-user qualities of TiViPE extended with learning by imitation programming techniques allows therapists to create therapy programs without the need for extensive programming skills. Take away message -- The successful introduction of autistic treatment programs involving robotics requires the ability of therapists to create and adapt the therapy to patient specific needs.
Ven, Antoine A. J. van de, Sponselee, Anne-mie A. G. and Schouten, Ben A. M. (2010): Robo M.D.: a home care robot for monitoring and detection of critical situations. In: Proceedings of the 2010 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2010. pp. 375-376. Available online
Motivation -- The use of a Home Care Robot combined with a sensor network could possibly improve or replace current home Tele-healthcare systems that monitor elderly people or other people with health problems. Using robot for this is a new and we want to find out what the advantages or disadvantages could be. Research approach -- By using non-invasive wireless sensors the health of the person can be monitored. In case of a possible problem, like when the person has fallen, a robot can autonomously go to the person and ask or check whether help from care-providers would be needed. This check could avoid many false alarms. The robot can call a care-provider by itself. The control of the robot can also be taken over by a care-provider to enable telepresence. By communicating with the person though the robot and seeing through the camera of the robot, the care-provider can then better evaluate the situation and help remotely or send help directly. Findings/Design -- The sensors, the robot and the interaction will be designed and evaluated by doing user-tests. Privacy-issues will be investigated too. Take away message -- The use of such a Home Care Robot can be very cost-effective because it enables people to live longer in their own home, it can prevent many false alarms for the care-provider and compared to systems that need cameras everywhere it can offer more privacy.
Haan, Geert de, Mulder, Ingrid and Marseille, Justien (2010): Friend or fiend: prototyping for social cohesion. In: Proceedings of the 2010 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2010. pp. 377-378. Available online
Motivation -- Communication technologies providing location-based and social applications may stimulate social cohesion and community building in deprived neighbourhoods. This study investigates the expertise required to develop mobile, social and context-sensitive applications. Research approach -- Advanced students in Media Technology were instructed to create a mobile, social and context-sensitive application using a concept and programming tools of their own choosing. The students' progress was observed and the results were assessed in terms of technical soundness and social success. Findings/Design -- This study shows that it is not necessary to rely on computer experts or social experts to successfully create applications to increase the social cohesion within communities. Research limitations/Implications -- This study was limited by allowing participants to use themselves and their friends as the target community instead of an external community which is different from themselves. The success of the social computing apps was not investigated with an external community, this remains to be done in a subsequent studies. Originality/Value -- The study concerns an applied study into the use of communication technologies for community building. Take away message -- The results of a programming exercise indicate that applied science students are very well able to develop mobile, social and context-sensitive applications.
Gunawan, Lucy, Alers, Hani, Brinkman, Willem-Paul and Neerincx, Mark (2010): Effect of map sharing and confidence information in situation-map making. In: Proceedings of the 2010 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2010. pp. 41-48. Available online
Motivation -- A situation map that shows the overview of a disaster situation serves as a valuable tool for disaster response teams. It helps them orientate their location and make disaster response decisions. It is, however, a quite complicated task to rapidly generate a comprehensive situation map of a disaster area. In this paper, we report on an investigation of how two persons can collaborate to make a situation map. Research approach -- We performed a controlled laboratory experiment, in which 32 participants (grouped into 16 pairs) made a situation map of incidents. The experiment was set up as a two-way repeated-measures design with the type of collaboration and the availability of confidence level information as within-subject factors. Findings/Design -- The results suggest that the collaboration type can affect the quality of the situation map. Additionally, the results also suggest that the availability of confidence information influences the discussion process during collaboration. The participants perceived the availability of confidence level information as being positive. Research limitations/Implications -- The order of using the types of collaboration might have caused a learning effect by participants. Furthermore, the lack of a practice session might have had an influence on participants' object recognition during the first session of the experiment. Originality/Value -- The study takes the position that the affected population in a disaster can actively participate in the situation-map making process. Take away message -- Situation map-making might benefit from a simple collaborative action such as sharing a map including confidence information.
Norros, Leena, Liinasuo, Marja and Hutton, Rob (2010): Designing tools for emergency operations: new method of parallel augmented exercise. In: Proceedings of the 2010 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2010. pp. 49-56. Available online
Motivation -- To improve Emergency Response activity by designing technical support to maintain a common operational picture (COP) of the emergency situation. Research approach -- A design experiment was conducted to test solutions to support identification of hazardous gases in an accident. A new method was proposed to tackle the known design problem labelled the "task-artefact-cycle" and to identify promisingness of technologies in a future context of use. Findings/Design -- The results reveal decision making demands in a fire situation, how they are tackled in the present practice, and what added value the tested new technology might bring. Research limitations/Implications -- The study was a first case in which the proposed method was used. Originality/Value -- The research proposes a theoretically based new method for analysis of user activity in the design context. Take away message -- The "task-artefact cycle" can be tackled by creating conceptually oriented formative methods of activity analysis.
Wiederhold, Brenda (2010): 15 years of virtual reality for training and therapy: a brief review with an emphasis on PTSD and SIT. In: Proceedings of the 2010 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2010. p. 5. Available online
Groups from around the world have proven the value of adding advanced technologies as an adjunct to traditional cognitive-behavioral protocols in treating a multitude of disorders. Originally most virtual reality applications were developed on silicon graphics work stations and cost millions of dollars. As the power of technology has increased and costs have decreased, groups have continued to push the envelope and look at how various simulations may be ported to a variety of platforms, including mobile phones. The push to mobile platforms will allow these technologies to become more widespread and accessible, easier to disseminate to the population at large. In addition, groups have continued to expand the list of disorders that may be treated with these technologies. Also, many groups are now adding objective physiological measures to quantify results. This should help with acceptance of mental health treatments by more traditional medical disciplines. A brief overview of the history of VR in therapy and training will be given, and then a more in-depth look at Post traumatic Stress Disorder and Stress Inoculation Training supplemented with VR and advanced technologies will be presented.
Turner, Phil (2010): The anatomy of engagement. In: Proceedings of the 2010 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2010. pp. 59-66. Available online
Motivation -- Definitions and theories of user experience are vague and conflicting. This paper suggests that an account based on engagement is a more useful approach. Research approach -- An account of engagement is presented which is based on an ontological description of everyday experience. Findings/Design -- The account has three distinct but closely related components. Firstly we see engagement as being positive (we characterize interaction as being re-active) and exploratory: it is this exploration which creates a 'space' in which engagement occurs. What we reveal in this space are the affordances of the artefact which we subsequently exploit. We engage with something and continue to do so because we enjoy doing so -- thus affect has an important role in engagement. Finally, we engage with technology because it allows us to achieve our purposes and these purposes are a reciprocal expression of ourselves. Research limitations/Implications -- Future work will add empirical support to the theoretically-based account. Originality/Value -- The work contributes to the understanding of how to design engaging user experiences. Take away message -- An ontologically-based account of engagement may be more tractable than the many more expansive accounts of user experience.
May, Michael (2010): The semantic level in HMS design: constraints, scale types and representational forms. In: Proceedings of the 2010 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2010. pp. 67-74. Available online
Motivation -- A conceptual analysis of the semantic level in Human-Machine Systems (HMS) design is suggested and a revision of the approach of Cognitive Systems Engineering (CSE) is outlined. Specifically the role of scales and representational forms in Ecological Interface Design (EID) as well as the principles of information integration should be reconsidered. Research approach -- Conceptual analysis of theoretical and methodological issues in CSE and EID. Findings/Design -- Although EID is justifiably seen as the most advanced theory and methodology within CSE, it has a limited focus on direct perception of affordances and constraints in the work domain -- leaving aside other issues such as e.g. representational forms in general and the role of scale types and scale transformations. Research limitations/Implications -- The semiotic framework for analysing the semantic level in Human Machine Systems design needs to show its impact on actual design methodologies, i.e. through cases on integrated design of processes, automation, and HMS. Originality/Value -- Clarification of conceptual issues in CSE-based HMS design is attempted and it is sketched how a semiotics of representation design could be an addition to the conceptual foundation of CSE. Take away message -- A shift in conceptual orientation of design for safety can be obtained by elaborating the implicit semiotics of CSE and EID into an explicit semiotics of representation design.
Markopoulos, Panos (2010): Embodiment in games: designing for children's well being. In: Proceedings of the 2010 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2010. p. 7. Available online
This talk will present a series of design explorations into tangible and pervasive games for children. The applications explored very different types of games and form factors for the devices used, but they share the intention to support well being of children either through supporting learning, rehabilitation or simply making children more physically and socially active. The research vision driving these efforts will be described introducing the concepts of head-up games and meta-design for children's game will be introduced.
Wojtczuk, Alicja and Bonnardel, Nathalie (2010): Externalisation in design: impact of different tools on designers' activities and on the assessment of final design. In: Proceedings of the 2010 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2010. pp. 75-82. Available online
This study contributes to a better understanding of how the use of different tools influences both the design process and the way that final designs are assessed. Unlike previous research comparing computer aided design (CAD) and freehand sketching, we compared CAD and manual modelling. CAD systems and manual modelling both tend to be used after the early design stage, which is mainly involves sketching. Our study would therefore be useful for determining which of the two is more appropriate, depending on the designer's priorities and the intended purpose of the object being developed. Our study was conducted in two phases. First the activities of 20 designers were recorded in two different experimental conditions: 1) using a CAD system 2) using manual modelling. Secondly, 20 other participants (judges) were asked to assess the end results of these activities. According to the experimental condition, we observed differences in both the design activities and the assessments of the final designs. More specifically, items designed using a CAD system were scored higher on aesthetics, originality and marketing. However, no difference was observed for the functionality criterion. Use of a CAD system would appear to be most appropriate for highlighting aesthetic and marketing features, but manual modelling remains a suitable tool for designing functional objects.
Chellali, Amine, Dumas, Cedric and Milleville, Isabelle (2010): Haptic communication to enhance collaboration in virtual environments. In: Proceedings of the 2010 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2010. pp. 83-90. Available online
Motivation -- To study haptic communication in collaborative virtual environments. Research approach -- An experimental study was conducted, in which 60 students were asked to perform in dyads a shared manual task after a training period. Findings/Design -- The results show that haptic communication can influence the common frame of reference development in a shared manual task. Research limitations/Implications -- Deeper verbalization analyses are needed to evaluate the common frame of reference development. Originality/Value -- This study highlights haptic interactions importance when designing virtual environment that support shared manual tasks. Take away message -- Haptic communication, combined with visual and verbal communication, enriches interactions in collaborative virtual environments.
Fréard, Dominique, Denis, Alexandre, Detienne, Francoise, Baker, Michael, Quignard, Matthieu and Barcellini, Flore (2010): The role of argumentation in online epistemic communities: the anatomy of a conflict in Wikipedia. In: Proceedings of the 2010 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2010. pp. 91-98. Available online
Motivation -- This research aims to investigate the processes by which knowledge objects -- in this case Wikipedia pages on astronomy -- are elaborated, in online communities, focussing on the role of argumentative interactions. Research approach -- We articulate qualitative multidimensional analysis of online discussions, in relation to elaboration of Wikipedia pages, with automatic semantic and syntactic Natural Language Processing (NLP) analysis focussed on identifying the roles of dialogical argumentation processes. Findings/Design -- Knowledge objects in online communities are jointly shaped by socio-relational and epistemic processes. Research limitations/Implications -- Our analysis method, based on previous research, is presently restricted to in-depth analysis of a small number of discussions. In ongoing work, our objective is to apply the method to the whole corpus of the Wikipedia astronomy online epistemic community. Originality/Value -- Our qualitative analysis approach distinguishes multiple functions of dialogue applying to diverse contents (task, interlocutor-related), in relation to automatic NLP analysis. Take away message -- The way that online epistemic communities function goes beyond knowledge-based discussion and argumentation, to involve negotiation of competencies of so-called 'experts' and 'amateurs'.
Streefkerk, Jan Willem, Esch-Bussemakers, Myra van and Neerincx, Mark (2010): Balancing costs and benefits of automated task allocation in mobile surveillance. In: Proceedings of the 2010 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2010. pp. 99-106. Available online
Motivation -- Automated task allocation systems are prone to errors (e.g. incorrect advice) due to context events. Empirical assessment is needed of how the costs of incorrect task allocation advice relate to the benefits. Research approach -- Claims regarding benefits and costs are tested in a team surveillance task in a synthetic task environment. Eighteen teams of three trained students handled incidents while using a mobile support prototype providing task allocation advice. For half of the incidents, context events caused this advice to be incorrect. To assess the costs and benefits of using this prototype, task performance, situation awareness and trust were compared between two conditions; with and without task allocation advice. Findings -- Incorrect advice slows response time and handling time and causes more misunderstanding, but not more decision errors or team communication, compared to no advice. No effects of incorrect advice were found on situation awareness and trust. Research Limitations and Implications -- This study shows that costs in time are higher than the benefits of accurate allocation. Professional end-users would perform better on the surveillance task. Originality/Value -- This research is a first step to help designers balance costs and benefits of context-aware systems in critical domains. Take away message -- When time-pressure is high, automated support could be worse than no support.