Publication statistics

Pub. period:1985-2014
Pub. count:99
Number of co-authors:142



Co-authors

Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Paul Marshall:15
Helen Sharp:10
Tom Rodden:8

 

 

Productive colleagues

Yvonne Rogers's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Albrecht Schmidt:111
Tom Rodden:106
Abigail Sellen:81
 
 
 

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Yvonne Rogers

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Has also published under the name of:
"Y. Rogers"

Personal Homepage:
ucl.ac.uk/uclic/people/y_rogers

Yvonne Rogers is Professor of Informatics at Indiana. My research focuses on augmenting and extending everyday, learning and work activities with interactive technologies that move "beyond the desktop". This involves designing enhanced user experiences through appropriating and assembling a diversity of technologies including mobile, wireless, handheld and pervasive computing. A main focus is not the technology per se but the design and integration of the digital representations that are presented via them to support social and cognitive activities in ways that extend our current capabilities. A continuing thread running throughout my research has been to theorize how we interact with external representations -- be they diagrams, sketches, animations, multimedia, virtual environments, visualizations or other. In particular, my research is concerned with developing a theoretical account of the 'external cognition' that occurs when we create, interact with and use different and multiple representations for various kinds of activities (e.g. learning, problem-solving). A recent interest has been to explore how the notions of 'physicality', 'embodiment' and 'tangibility' can be taken into account in the design of external representations. This line of research focuses on how physical artifacts and the environment can be augmented in novel ways with computation, digital representations and, even, intelligence. I came to IU in the summer of 2003 from the School of Cognitive and Computing Sciences (now the dept of Informatics) at Sussex University, UK, where I retain my position as Professor of Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence. While at Sussex, I co-founded the Interact Lab, an internationally known interdisciplinary research center concerned with possible interactions between people, technologies and representations. Prior to this, I was an assistant professor at the Open University, a senior researcher at Alcatel telecommunications company, a visiting scholar at UCSD, and a visiting professor at Stanford University, Apple Research Labs, and the University of Queensland.

 

Publications by Yvonne Rogers (bibliography)

 what's this?
2014
 
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Rogers, Yvonne and Sharp, Helen (2014): Interaction Design: Beyond Human-Computer Interaction. In: INC, JOHN WILEY & SONS (ed.). "INTERACTION DESIGN: BEYOND HUMAN-COMPUTER INTERACTION - 3 ED". JOHN WILEY and SONS INCpp. 317-351

Chapter 9: What is involved in IxD? Some Practical Issues

© All rights reserved Rogers and Sharp and/or JOHN WILEY and SONS INC

 
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Rogers, Yvonne, Preece, Jennifer and Sharp, Helen (2014). Interaction Design: Case Studies. Retrieved 9 February 2014 from http://www.id-book.com/secondedition/casestudy_index.htm

2012
 
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Chamberlain, Alan, Crabtree, Andy, Rodden, Tom, Jones, Matt and Rogers, Yvonne (2012): Research in the wild: understanding 'in the wild' approaches to design and development. In: Proceedings of DIS12 Designing Interactive Systems 2012. pp. 795-796. Available online

We are starting to see a paradigm shift within the field of HCI. We are witnessing researchers leaving the safety and security of their controlled, lab-based environments and moving their research out into 'the wild'. Their studies are carrying out in-situ development and extended engagement, sampling experiences and working with communities in their homes and on the streets. This research has initially focused upon understanding the impacts that technological intervention has upon our day-to-day life and is leading us to explore the ways in which in-situ design, development and evaluation can be used to understand and explore these technological interventions. Is it the case that lab-based studies, taking people out of their natural environment and designing in the lab without long term user engagement are no longer appropriate to properly understand the impacts of technology in the real world?

© All rights reserved Chamberlain et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Rogers, Yvonne (2012): HCI Theory: Classical, Modern, and Contemporary. In Synthesis Lectures on Human-Centered Informatics, 5 (2) pp. 1-129. Available online

Theory is the bedrock of many sciences, providing a rigorous method to advance knowledge, through testing and falsifying hypotheses about observable phenomena. To begin with, the nascent field of HCI followed the scientific method borrowing theories from cognitive science to test theories about user performance at the interface. But HCI has emerged as an eclectic interdiscipline rather than a well-defined science. It now covers all aspects of human life, from birth to bereavement, through all manner of computing, from device ecologies to nano-technology. It comes as no surprise that the role of theory in HCI has also greatly expanded from the early days of scientific testing to include other functions such as describing, explaining, critiquing, and as the basis for generating new designs. The book charts the theoretical developments in HCI, both past and present, reflecting on how they have shaped the field. It explores both the rhetoric and the reality: how theories have been conceptualized, what was promised, how they have been used and which has made the most impact in the field -- and the reasons for this. Finally, it looks to the future and asks whether theory will continue to have a role, and, if so, what this might be.

© All rights reserved Rogers and/or Morgan and Claypool Publishers

 
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Rogers, Yvonne (2012): HCI Theory: Classical, Modern, and Contemporary. Morgan and Claypool

Theory is the bedrock of many sciences, providing a rigorous method to advance knowledge, through testing and falsifying hypotheses about observable phenomena. To begin with, the nascent field of HCI followed the scientific method borrowing theories from cognitive science to test theories about user performance at the interface. But HCI has emerged as an eclectic interdiscipline rather than a well-defined science. It now covers all aspects of human life, from birth to bereavement, through all manner of computing, from device ecologies to nano-technology. It comes as no surprise that the role of theory in HCI has also greatly expanded from the early days of scientific testing to include other functions such as describing, explaining, critiquing, and as the basis for generating new designs. The book charts the theoretical developments in HCI, both past and present, reflecting on how they have shaped the field. It explores both the rhetoric and the reality: how theories have been conceptualized, what was promised, how they have been used and which has made the most impact in the field -- and the reasons for this. Finally, it looks to the future and asks whether theory will continue to have a role, and, if so, what this might be.

© All rights reserved Rogers and/or Morgan and Claypool

2011
 
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Marshall, Paul, Rogers, Yvonne and Pantidi, Nadia (2011): Using F-formations to analyse spatial patterns of interaction in physical environments. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW11 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2011. pp. 445-454. Available online

There are few conceptual tools available to analyse physical spaces in terms of their support for social interactions and their potential for technological augmentation. In this paper, we describe how we used Adam Kendon's characterisation of the F-formation system of spatial organisation as a conceptual lens to analyse the social interactions between visitors and staff in a tourist information centre. We describe how the physical structures in the space encouraged and discouraged particular kinds of interactions and discuss how F-formations might be used to think about augmenting physical spaces.

© All rights reserved Marshall et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Coughlan, Tim, Adams, Anne, Collins, Trevor, Davies, Sarah, Lea, John and Rogers, Yvonne (2011): Working with 'mission control' in scientific fieldwork: supporting interactions between in situ and distanced collaborators. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW11 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2011. pp. 617-620. Available online

Interaction between in situ and distanced collaborators focused on the physical environment is an under-explored research area, where there is potential for novel mobile and indoor technologies to enhance activities. This paper describes research in progress to explore how new forms of collaborative learning in scientific fieldwork can be supported. We describe field trials of a prototype system designed to connect higher education students engaged in earth science fieldwork with peers based in a 'mission control' type environment. We discuss how analysis of these trials is leading us to identify new requirements to support effective collaboration between users based across contrasting locations, including issues of spatial coherence, deictic communication and reflection.

© All rights reserved Coughlan et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Linden, Janet van der, Johnson, Rose, Bird, Jon, Rogers, Yvonne and Schoonderwaldt, Erwin (2011): Buzzing to play: lessons learned from an in the wild study of real-time vibrotactile feedback. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 533-542. Available online

Vibrotactile feedback offers much potential for facilitating and accelerating how people learn sensory-motor skills that typically take hundreds of hours to learn, such as learning to play a musical instrument, skiing or swimming. However, there is little evidence of this benefit materializing outside of research lab settings. We describe the findings of an in-the-wild study that explored how to integrate vibrotactile feedback into a real-world teaching setting. The focus of the study was on exploring how children of different ages, learning to play the violin, can use real-time vibrotactile feedback. Many of the findings were unexpected, showing how students and their teachers appropriated the technology in creative ways. We present some 'lessons learned' that are also applicable to other training settings, emphasizing the need to understand how vibrotactile feedback can switch between being foregrounded and backgrounded depending on the demands of the task, the teacher's role in making it work and when feedback is most relevant and useful. Finally, we discuss how vibrotactile feedback can provide a new language for talking about the skill being learned that may also play an instrumental role in enhancing learning.

© All rights reserved Linden et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Mancini, Clara, Rogers, Yvonne, Thomas, Keerthi, Joinson, Adam N., Price, Blaine A., Bandara, Arosha K., Jedrzejczyk, Lukasz and Nuseibeh, Bashar (2011): In the best families: tracking and relationships. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 2419-2428. Available online

A growing body of research has been exploring the use of control mechanisms to address the privacy concerns raised by location-tracking technology. We report on a qualitative study of two family groups who used a custom-built tracking application for an extended period of time. Akin to sociological breaching experiments, the study focuses on the interferences between location tracking and relationship management. We analyze the tensions that can arise between affordances of the technology and uses that the contracts between family members legitimize. We describe how, by fostering misperceptions and 'nudging' behaviors, location-tracking technology can generate anxieties and conflicts even in close relationships. We discuss their vulnerability to the overreaching effects of tracking, against which the use of mechanisms such as location-sharing preferences and feedback may not be socially viable.

© All rights reserved Mancini et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Marshall, Paul, Morris, Richard, Rogers, Yvonne, Kreitmayer, Stefan and Davies, Matt (2011): Rethinking 'multi-user': an in-the-wild study of how groups approach a walk-up-and-use tabletop interface. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 3033-3042. Available online

Multi-touch tabletops have been much heralded as an innovative technology that can facilitate new ways of group working. However, there is little evidence of these materialising outside of research lab settings. We present the findings of a 5-week in-the-wild study examining how a shared planning application -- designed to run on a walk-up-and-use tabletop -- was used when placed in a tourist information centre. We describe how groups approached, congregated and interacted with it and the social interactions that took place -- noting how they were quite different from research findings describing the ways groups work around a tabletop in lab settings. We discuss the implications of such situated group work for designing collaborative tabletop applications for use in public settings.

© All rights reserved Marshall et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Druin, Allison, Knell, Gary, Soloway, Elliot, Russell, Daniel, Mynatt, Elizabeth and Rogers, Yvonne (2011): The future of child-computer interaction. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 693-696. Available online

In this panel, academic, non-profit, and industry professionals will ask, what does the future hold for "child-computer interaction?" Panelists will explore such issues as how new mobile, social, and ubiquitous technologies change children's future patterns of searching, exploration, and expression of information; how learning environments will be ever-changing because of new technologies; and the challenges and opportunities of designing for child-computer interaction.

© All rights reserved Druin et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Tse, Edward, Schoning, Johannes, Huber, Jochen, Marentette, Lynn, Beckwith, Richard, Rogers, Yvonne and Mhlhuser, Max (2011): Child computer interaction: workshop on UI technologies and educational pedagogy. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 2445-2448. Available online

Given the growth of Child Computer Interaction research, next generation HCI technologies play an important role in the future of education. Educators rely on technology to improve and adapt learning to the pedagogical needs of learners. Hence, this community needs to understand how current technology concepts match with current pedagogical paradigms. The classroom is a high stakes environment for experimentation, thus new interaction techniques need to be validated to prove their pedagogical value in the educational setting. This workshop provides a forum to discuss key HCI issues facing next generation education. With a particular focus on child computer interaction, these issues comprise inter alia the interaction with whole class interactive whiteboards, small group interactive multi-touch tables, and individual personal response systems (e.g. mobile devices) in the classroom.

© All rights reserved Tse et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Adams, Anne, Coughlan, Tim, Lea, John, Rogers, Yvonne, Davies, Sarah and Collins, Trevor (2011): Designing interconnected distributed resources for collaborative inquiry based science education. In: JCDL11 Proceedings of the 2010 Joint International Conference on Digital Libraries 2011. pp. 395-396. Available online

This paper describes the design and evaluation of a distributed information resource system (IRS) shared between field and laboratory settings for higher education geology students. An investigation of geo-science scholarship and technical pilot studies highlighted the importance of situational specific and distributed information usage. To advance our understanding of novel resource approaches (i.e. from tabletops to tablets) and collaborative learning, two in-depth field trials evaluated 21 students' information journeys (i.e. initiating information needs, facilitating information and collaborative interpretation). Analysis identified how a designing for a varied device ecology supported information filtering and empathy between locations provoking deeper reflection and abstract understanding in the field, while live collaborative remote interaction provided an engaging yet distinct learning experience for those in the laboratory.

© All rights reserved Adams et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Mathew, Anijo, Rogers, Yvonne and Lloyd, Peter (2011): Post-it note art: evaluating public creativity at a user generated art installation. In: Proceedings of the 2011 Conference on Creativity and Cognition 2011. pp. 61-70. Available online

As computing increasingly deals with our lived experiences in complex social ecologies such as urban and public environments, designers are challenged with new methods and ways of appropriating computation and experience around public creativity. Public creativity deals with interactions in public interactive installations that are not task-based queries of information but social constructions of user generated and collaborative content. In this paper, we present an analytic framework to evaluate such interactions in public installations. We then present a study where we designed, installed and evaluated a user generated art installation through the lens of this framework.

© All rights reserved Mathew et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Kalnikait, Vaiva, Rogers, Yvonne, Bird, Jon, Villar, Nicolas, Bachour, Khaled, Payne, Stephen, Todd, Peter M., Schoning, Johannes, Krger, Antonio and Kreitmayer, Stefan (2011): How to nudge in Situ: designing lambent devices to deliver salient information in supermarkets. In: Proceedings of the 2011 International Conference on Uniquitous Computing 2011. pp. 11-20. Available online

There are a number of mobile shopping aids and recommender systems available, but none can be easily used for a weekly shop at a local supermarket. We present a minimal, mobile and fully functional lambent display that clips onto any shopping trolley handle, intended to nudge people when choosing what to buy. It provides salient information about the food miles for various scanned food items represented by varying lengths of lit LEDs on the handle and a changing emoticon comparing the average miles of all the products in the trolley against a social norm. When evaluated in situ, the lambent handle display nudged people to choose products with fewer food miles than the items they selected using their ordinary shopping strategies. People also felt guilty when the average mileage of the contents of their entire shopping trolley was above the social norm. The findings are discussed in terms of how to provide different kinds of product information that people care about, using simple lambent displays.

© All rights reserved Kalnikait et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Linden, Janet van der, Rogers, Yvonne, Oshodi, Maria, Spiers, Adam, McGoran, David, Cronin, Rafael and O'Dowd, Paul (2011): Haptic reassurance in the pitch black for an immersive theatre experience. In: Proceedings of the 2011 International Conference on Uniquitous Computing 2011. pp. 143-152. Available online

An immersive theatre experience was designed to raise awareness and question perceptions of 'blindness', through enabling both sighted and blind members to experience a similar reality. A multimodal experience was created, comprising ambient sounds and narratives -- heard through headphones -- and an assortment of themed tactile objects, intended to be felt. In addition, audience members were each provided with a novel haptic device that was designed to enhance their discovery of a pitch-black space. An in the wild study of the cultural experience showed how blind and sighted audience members had different 'felt' experiences, but that neither was a lesser one. Furthermore, the haptic device was found to encourage enactive exploration and provide reassurance of the environment for both sighted and blind people, rather than acting simply as a navigation guide. We discuss the potential of using haptic feedback to create cultural experiences for both blind and sighted people; rethinking current utilitarian framing of it as assistive technology.

© All rights reserved Linden et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Rogers, Yvonne, Sharp, Helen and Preece, Jenny (2011): Interaction Design: Beyond Human - Computer Interaction - third edition. Wiley

A revision of the #1 text in the Human Computer Interaction field, Interaction Design, the third edition is an ideal resource for learning the interdisciplinary skills needed for interaction design, human-computer interaction, information design, web design and ubiquitous computing.The authors are acknowledged leaders and educators in their field, with a strong global reputation. They bring depth of scope to the subject in this new edition, encompassing the latest technologies and devices including social networking, Web 2.0 and mobile devices. The third edition also adds, develops and updates cases, examples and questions to bring the book in line with the latest in Human Computer Interaction.Interaction Design offers a cross-disciplinary, practical and process-oriented approach to Human Computer Interaction, showing not just what principles ought to apply to Interaction Design, but crucially how they can be applied. The book focuses on how to design interactive products that enhance and extend the way people communicate, interact and work. Motivating examples are included to illustrate both technical, but also social and ethical issues, making the book approachable and adaptable for both Computer Science and non-Computer Science users. Interviews with key HCI luminaries are included and provide an insight into current and future trends.The book has an accompanying website www.id-book.com which has been updated to include resources to match the new edition.

© All rights reserved Rogers et al. and/or Wiley

 Cited in the following chapter:

Mobile Computing: [/encyclopedia/mobile_computing.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

Mobile Computing: [/encyclopedia/mobile_computing.html]


 
 
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Rogers, Yvonne, Sharp, Helen and Preece, Jenny (2011): Interaction Design: Beyond Human - Computer Interaction. Wiley

A revision of the #1 text in the Human Computer Interaction field, Interaction Design, the third edition is an ideal resource for learning the interdisciplinary skills needed for interaction design, human-computer interaction, information design, web design and ubiquitous computing.The authors are acknowledged leaders and educators in their field, with a strong global reputation. They bring depth of scope to the subject in this new edition, encompassing the latest technologies and devices including social networking, Web 2.0 and mobile devices. The third edition also adds, develops and updates cases, examples and questions to bring the book in line with the latest in Human Computer Interaction.Interaction Design offers a cross-disciplinary, practical and process-oriented approach to Human Computer Interaction, showing not just what principles ought to apply to Interaction Design, but crucially how they can be applied. The book focuses on how to design interactive products that enhance and extend the way people communicate, interact and work. Motivating examples are included to illustrate both technical, but also social and ethical issues, making the book approachable and adaptable for both Computer Science and non-Computer Science users. Interviews with key HCI luminaries are included and provide an insight into current and future trends.The book has an accompanying website www.id-book.com which has been updated to include resources to match the new edition.

© All rights reserved Rogers et al. and/or Wiley

 
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Rogers, Yvonne, Sharp, Helen and Preece, Jenny (2011): Interaction Design. Wiley

A revision of the #1 text in the Human Computer Interaction field, Interaction Design, the third edition is an ideal resource for learning the interdisciplinary skills needed for interaction design, human-computer interaction, information design, web design and ubiquitous computing. The authors are acknowledged leaders and educators in their field, with a strong global reputation. They bring depth of scope to the subject in this new edition, encompassing the latest technologies and devices including social networking, Web 2.0 and mobile devices. The third edition also adds, develops and updates cases, examples and questions to bring the book in line with the latest in Human Computer Interaction. Interaction Design offers a cross-disciplinary, practical and process-oriented approach to Human Computer Interaction, showing not just what principles ought to apply to Interaction Design, but crucially how they can be applied. The book focuses on how to design interactive products that enhance and extend the way people communicate, interact and work. Motivating examples are included to illustrate both technical, but also social and ethical issues, making the book approachable and adaptable for both Computer Science and non-Computer Science users. Interviews with key HCI luminaries are included and provide an insight into current and future trends.

© All rights reserved Rogers et al. and/or Wiley

2010
 
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Hazlewood, William R., Dalton, Nick, Marshall, Paul, Rogers, Yvonne and Hertrich, Susanna (2010): Bricolage and consultation: addressing new design challenges when building large-scale installations. In: Proceedings of DIS10 Designing Interactive Systems 2010. pp. 380-389. Available online

We describe the many challenges faced when designing, implementing and embedding large-scale installations in a physical space, such as a building. A case study is presented of a distributed ambient display system intended to inform, lure and influence people when moving through the building. We outline the wide range of technical, user, aesthetic and practical aspects that need to be addressed; pointing out how many unpredictable problems can surface when going 'big', 'physical' and 'out of the PC', We argue that a different set of 'non-user-centered' processes are required. Furthermore, we propose a new design implementation approach that includes aspects of iterative design, but with the new processes of bricolage and consultation added for progressing the design.

© All rights reserved Hazlewood et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Rogers, Yvonne, Hazlewood, William R., Marshall, Paul, Dalton, Nick and Hertrich, Susanna (2010): Ambient influence: can twinkly lights lure and abstract representations trigger behavioral change?. In: Proceedings of the 2010 International Conference on Uniquitous Computing 2010. pp. 261-270. Available online

Can ubiquitous technologies be designed to nudge people to change their behavior? If so, how? We describe an ambient installation that was intended to help people decide -- and to encourage them to reflect -- when confronted with a choice. In this particular case, it was whether to take the stairs or the elevator in their place of work. The rationale was to push people towards a desired behavior at the point of decision-making and to reflect upon theirs and others' aggregate behavior. We describe the ambient displays that were developed and the prototyping studies in which they were evaluated. The findings from an in-the-wild study are then presented. They reveal that even though people said they were not aware of changing their behavior, logged data of their actual behavior showed a significant change. We discuss these mixed findings in relation to whether ambient displays can influence at an unconscious or conscious level.

© All rights reserved Rogers et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Mancini, Clara, Rogers, Yvonne, Bandara, Arosha K., Coe, Tony, Jedrzejczyk, Lukasz, Joinson, Adam N., Price, Blaine A., Thomas, Keerthi and Nuseibeh, Bashar (2010): Contravision: exploring users' reactions to futuristic technology. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2010. pp. 153-162. Available online

How can we best explore the range of users' reactions when developing future technologies that may be controversial, such as personal healthcare systems? Our approach -- ContraVision -- uses futuristic videos, or other narrative forms, that convey either negative or positive aspects of the proposed technology for the same scenarios. We conducted a user study to investigate what range of responses the different versions elicited. Our findings show that the use of two systematically comparable representations of the same technology can elicit a wider spectrum of reactions than a single representation can. We discuss why this is so and the value of obtaining breadth in user feedback for potentially controversial technologies.

© All rights reserved Mancini et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Johnson, Rose M. G., Linden, Janet van der and Rogers, Yvonne (2010): MusicJacket: the efficacy of real-time vibrotactile feedback for learning to play the violin. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2010. pp. 3475-3480. Available online

This research investigates the potential for vibrotactile feedback to enhance motor learning in the context of playing the violin. A prototype has been built which delivers vibrotactile feedback to the arms to indicate to a novice player how to correctly hold the violin and how to bow in a straight manner. This prototype was tested in a pilot user study with four complete beginners. Observations showed improvements in three of the four players whilst receiving the feedback. We also discuss the pros and cons of using negative feedback to enhance learning.

© All rights reserved Johnson et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Tse, Edward, Schoning, Johannes, Rogers, Yvonne, Shen, Chia and Morrison, Gerald (2010): Next generation of HCI and education: workshop on UI technologies and educational pedagogy. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2010. pp. 4509-4512. Available online

Given the exponential growth of interactive whiteboards in classrooms around the world, and the recent emergence of multi-touch tables, tangible computing devices and mobile devices, there has been a need to explore how next generation HCI will impact education in the future. Educators are depending on the interaction communities to deliver technologies that will improve/adapt learning to an ever-changing world. In addition to novel UI concepts, the HCI community needs to examine how these concepts can be matched to contemporary paradigms in Educational pedagogy. The classroom is a challenging environment for evaluation, thus new interaction techniques need to be established to prove the value of new HCI interactions in the educational space. This workshop provides a forum to discuss key HCI issues facing next generation education ranging from whole class interactive whiteboards, small group interactive multi-touch tables, and individual personal response systems in the classroom.

© All rights reserved Tse et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Price, Blaine A., Mancini, Clara, Rogers, Yvonne, Bandara, Arosha K., Coe, Tony, Joinson, Adam N., Lay, Jeffrey A. and Nuseibeh, Bashar (2010): ContraVision: presenting contrasting visions of future technology. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2010. pp. 4759-4764. Available online

How can we best explore the range of users' reactions when developing future technologies that may be controversial, such as personal healthcare systems? Our approach -- ContraVision -- uses futuristic videos, or other narrative forms, that convey both negative and positive aspects of the proposed technology for the same scenarios.

© All rights reserved Price et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Coughlan, Tim, Adams, Anne and Rogers, Yvonne (2010): Designing for balance: Out There and In Here. In: Proceedings of the HCI10 Conference on People and Computers XXIV 2010. pp. 468-473. Available online

This paper describes the 'Out There and In Here' project, in which we explore the combined use of mobile technologies and static indoor technologies to support novel forms of collaborative field trip learning. We are currently developing a system to support balanced collaboration between geology students 'Out There' in the field, and their peers located in a specially designed 'In Here' laboratory. Here we explain the background to the project, and describe data collected on perceptions of field learning in geology that is directing design. In particular, we discuss bringing the 'Out There' experience 'In Here', whilst also enhancing the field experience. This requires the concurrent development of technologies and activities, and balancing the control required for effective learning with scope for user creativity.

© All rights reserved Coughlan et al. and/or BCS

2009
 
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Marshall, Paul, Fleck, Rowanne, Harris, Amanda, Rick, Jochen, Hornecker, Eva, Rogers, Yvonne, Yuill, Nicola and Dalton, Nick Sheep (2009): Fighting for control: children's embodied interactions when using physical and digital representations. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2009. pp. 2149-2152. Available online

Tabletop and tangible interfaces are often described in terms of their support for shared access to digital resources. However, it is not always the case that collaborators want to share and help one another. In this paper we detail a video-analysis of a series of prototyping sessions with children who used both cardboard objects and an interactive tabletop surface. We show how the material qualities of the digital interface and physical objects affect the kinds of bodily strategies adopted by children to stop others from accessing them. We discuss how children fight for and maintain control of physical versus digital objects in terms of embodied interaction and what this means when designing collaborative applications for shareable interfaces.

© All rights reserved Marshall et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Druin, Allison, Cavallo, David, Fabian, Christopher, Bederson, Benjamin B., Revelle, Glenda, Rogers, Yvonne and Gray, Jim (2009): Mobile technologies for the world's children. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2009. pp. 3297-3300. Available online

In this panel, academic, non-profit, and industry professionals will discuss their global perspectives on mobile technologies for the world's children. Panelists will explore such issues concerning children's access to mobile devices, the decreasing age that children have access to these technologies, mobile innovations for learning, and challenges/opportunities in diverse countries. This interactive session will begin with each panelist giving a short summary of their work-to-date with children and various mobile applications. Then the panelists will be asked questions by children from different countries via pre-recorded video. Audience members will be invited to offer their thoughts and comments as well as the panelists during the video question period. Audience members will also be able to ask further questions throughout the panel discussion.

© All rights reserved Druin et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Holland, Simon, Marshall, Paul, Bird, Jon, Dalton, Nick Sheep, Morris, Richard, Pantidi, Nadia, Rogers, Yvonne and Clark, Andy (2009): Running up Blueberry Hill: prototyping whole body interaction in harmony space. In: Villar, Nicolas, Izadi, Shahram, Fraser, Mike and Benford, Steve (eds.) TEI 2009 - Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Tangible and Embedded Interaction February 16-18, 2009, Cambridge, UK. pp. 93-98. Available online

 
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Rick, Jochen, Harris, Amanda, Marshall, Paul, Fleck, Rowanne, Yuill, Nicola and Rogers, Yvonne (2009): Children designing together on a multi-touch tabletop: an analysis of spatial orientation and user interactions. In: Proceedings of ACM IDC09 Interaction Design and Children 2009. pp. 106-114. Available online

Applications running on multi-touch tabletops are beginning to be developed to enable children to collaborate on a variety of activities, from photo sharing to playing games. However, little is know as to how children work together on such interactive surfaces. We present a study that investigated groups of children's use of a multitouch tabletop for a shared-space design task, requiring reasoning and compromise. The OurSpace application was designed to allow children to arrange the desks in their classroom and allocate students to seats around those desks. A number of findings are reported, including a comparison of single versus multiple touch, equity of participation, and an analysis of how a child's tabletop position affects where he or she touches. A main finding was that children used all of the tabletop surface, but took more responsibility for the parts of the design closer to their relative position.

© All rights reserved Rick et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Sellen, Abigail, Rogers, Yvonne, Harper, Richard and Rodden, Tom (2009): Reflecting human values in the digital age. In Communications of the ACM, 52 (3) pp. 58-66. Available online

 
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Thomas, Keerthi, Mancini, Clara, Jedrzejczyk, Lukasz, Bandara, Arosha K., Joinson, Adam, Price, Blaine A., Rogers, Yvonne and Nuseibeh, Bashar (2009): Studying location privacy in mobile applications: 'predator vs. prey' probes. In: Proceedings of the 2009 Symposium on Usable Privacy and Security 2009. p. 33. Available online

 
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Kern, Dagmar, Marshall, Paul, Hornecker, Eva, Schmidt, Albrecht and Rogers, Yvonne (2009): Enhancing Navigation Information with Tactile Output Embedded into the Steering Wheel. In: Proceedings of Pervasive 2009. pp. 42-58. Available online

 
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Fleck, Rowanne, Rogers, Yvonne, Yuill, Nicola, Marshall, Paul, Carr, Amanda, Rick, Jochen and Bonnett, Victoria (2009): Actions speak loudly with words: unpacking collaboration around the table. In: Proceedings of the 2009 ACM International Conference on Interactive Tabletops and Surfaces 2009. pp. 189-196. Available online

The potential of tabletops to enable groups of people to simultaneously touch and manipulate a shared tabletop interface provides new possibilities for supporting collaborative learning. However, findings from the few studies carried out to date have tended to show small or insignificant effects compared with other technologies. We present the Collaborative Learning Mechanisms framework used to examine the coupling of verbal interactions and physical actions in collaboration around the tabletop and reveal subtle mechanisms at play. Analysis in this way revealed that what might be considered undesirable or harmful interactions and intrusions in general collaborative settings, might be beneficial for collaborative learning. We discuss the implications of these findings for how tabletops may be used to support children's collaboration, and the value of considering verbal and physical aspects of interaction together in this way.

© All rights reserved Fleck et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Bird, Jon, Marshall, Paul and Rogers, Yvonne (2009): Low-fi skin vision: a case study in rapid prototyping a sensory substitution system. In: Proceedings of the HCI09 Conference on People and Computers XXIII 2009. pp. 55-64. Available online

We describe the design process we have used to develop a minimal, twenty vibration motor Tactile Vision Sensory Substitution (TVSS) system which enables blind-folded subjects to successfully track and bat a rolling ball and thereby experience 'skin vision'. We have employed a low-fi rapid prototyping approach to build this system and argue that this methodology is particularly effective for building embedded interactive systems. We support this argument in two ways. First, by drawing on theoretical insights from robotics, a discipline that also has to deal with the challenge of building complex embedded systems that interact with their environments; second, by using the development of our TVSS as a case study: describing the series of prototypes that led to our successful design and highlighting what we learnt at each stage.

© All rights reserved Bird et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Rogers, Yvonne, Lim, Youn-kyung, Hazlewood, William R. and Marshall, Paul (2009): Equal Opportunities: Do Shareable Interfaces Promote More Group Participation Than Single User Displays?. In Human-Computer Interaction, 24 (1) pp. 79-116. Available online

Computers designed for single use are often appropriated suboptimally when used by small colocated groups working together. Our research investigates whether shareable interfaces -- that are designed for more than one user to interact with-can facilitate more equitable participation in colocated group settings compared with single user displays. We present a conceptual framework that characterizes Shared Information Spaces (SISs) in terms of how they constrain and invite participation using different entry points. An experiment was conducted that compared three different SISs: a physical-digital set-up (least constrained), a multitouch tabletop (medium), and a laptop display (most constrained). Statistical analyses showed there to be little difference in participation levels between the three conditions other than a predictable lack of equity of control over the interface in the laptop condition. However, detailed qualitative analyses revealed more equitable participation took place in the physical-digital condition in terms of verbal utterances over time. Those who spoke the least contributed most to the physical design task. The findings are discussed in relation to the conceptual framework and, more generally, in terms of how to select, design, and combine different display technologies to support collaborative activities.

© All rights reserved Rogers et al. and/or Taylor and Francis

2008
 
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Hornecker, Eva, Marshall, Paul, Dalton, Nick Sheep and Rogers, Yvonne (2008): Collaboration and interference: awareness with mice or touch input. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW08 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2008. pp. 167-176. Available online

Multi-touch surfaces are becoming increasingly popular. An assumed benefit is that they can facilitate collaborative interactions in co-located groups. In particular, being able to see another's physical actions can enhance awareness, which in turn can support fluid interaction and coordination. However, there is a paucity of empirical evidence or measures to support these claims. We present an analysis of different aspects of awareness in an empirical study that compared two kinds of input: multi-touch and multiple mice. For our analysis, a set of awareness indices was derived from the CSCW and HCI literatures, which measures both the presence and absence of awareness in co-located settings. Our findings indicate higher levels of awareness for the multi-touch condition accompanied by significantly more actions that interfere with each other. A subsequent qualitative analysis shows that the interactions in this condition were more fluid and that interference was quickly resolved. We suggest that it is more important that resources are available to negotiate interference rather than necessarily to attempt to prevent it.

© All rights reserved Hornecker et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Rick, Jochen and Rogers, Yvonne (2008): From DigiQuilt to DigiTile: Adapting educational technology to a multi-touch table. In: Third IEEE International Workshop on Tabletops and Interactive Surfaces Tabletop 2008 October 1-3, 2008, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. pp. 73-80. Available online

 
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Marshall, Paul, Hornecker, Eva, Morris, Richard, Dalton, Nick Sheep and Rogers, Yvonne (2008): When the fingers do the talking: A study of group participation with varying constraints to a tabletop interface. In: Third IEEE International Workshop on Tabletops and Interactive Surfaces Tabletop 2008 October 1-3, 2008, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. pp. 33-40. Available online

 
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Meho, Lokman I. and Rogers, Yvonne (2008): Citation counting, citation ranking, and h-index of human-computer interaction researchers: A comparison of Scopus and Web of Science. In JASIST - Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 59 (11) pp. 1711-1726. Available online

 
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Lim, Youn-kyung and Rogers, Yvonne (2008): A Framework and an Environment for Collaborative Analysis of User Experience. In International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 24 (6) pp. 529-555. Available online

Pervasive technologies, such as shared interactive surfaces and mobile devices, are beginning to be used to support a diversity of collaborative user experiences. Compared with fixed PC applications, however, they are more difficult to evaluate. Of importance, it requires understanding the context of use through capturing and analyzing different types of data (e.g., conversations, gestures, movements) and re-representing them at different levels of abstraction. This can make the analysis complex and unwieldy, requiring teams of analysts to manage it. A new approach to managing the complexity of collaborative analysis is presented, where an integrated physical and conceptual space have been co-designed to allow design teams to readily share and transfer their interpretations of data through preserving the contextual information. A case study is described showing how a collaborative analysis approach enabled small groups of designers to work together to interpret and further analyze a variety of data.

© All rights reserved Lim and Rogers and/or Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

 
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Rogers, Yvonne (2008): 57 Varieties of Activity Theory. In Interacting with Computers, 20 (2) pp. 247-250. Available online

A commentary of Gonzlez's adaptation of Activity Theory for HCI is presented. It critiques his proposal for a new level of analysis that is called working spheres/engagements. While considered insightful it questions whether his new framework will be used by other researchers.

© All rights reserved Rogers and/or Elsevier Science

 
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Pantidi, Nadia, Robinson, Hugh and Rogers, Yvonne (2008): Can Technology-rich Spaces Support Multiple Uses?. In: Proceedings of the HCI08 Conference on People and Computers XXII 2008. pp. 135-138. Available online

A number of technology-rich spaces have been designed and created over the last few years with the purpose of supporting and enhancing learning, collaboration, community participation and a variety of everyday activities. Our research is concerned with how such spaces are used and whether they can support multiple uses. We report on an observational fieldwork study of a technology-rich multipurpose space based in a library. We examine its everyday use and discuss the tensions that were revealed in our analysis between anticipated and actual use. These are: (i) public versus private, (ii) play space versus meeting room and (iii) technology use versus non-use.

© All rights reserved Pantidi et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Harper, Richard, Rodden, Tom, Rogers, Yvonne and Sellen, Abigail (2008): Being Human: Human Computer Interaction in 2020. Microsoft Research Ltd

2007
 
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Sharp, Helen, Rogers, Yvonne and Preece, Jennifer J. (2007): Interaction Design: Beyond Human-Computer Interaction. John Wiley and Sons

 Cited in the following chapters:

Interaction Design - brief intro: [/encyclopedia/interaction_design.html]

Mobile Computing: [/encyclopedia/mobile_computing.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapters:

Interaction Design - brief intro: [/encyclopedia/interaction_design.html]

Mobile Computing: [/encyclopedia/mobile_computing.html]


 
 
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Rogers, Yvonne, Connelly, Kay, Tedesco, Lenore, Hazlewood, William R., Kurtz, Andrew, Hall, Robert E., Hursey, Josh and Toscos, Tammy (2007): Why It's Worth the Hassle: The Value of In-Situ Studies When Designing Ubicomp. In: Krumm, John, Abowd, Gregory D., Seneviratne, Aruna and Strang, Thomas (eds.) UbiComp 2007 Ubiquitous Computing - 9th International Conference September 16-19, 2007, Innsbruck, Austria. pp. 336-353. Available online

 Cited in the following chapter:

Mobile Computing: [/encyclopedia/mobile_computing.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

Mobile Computing: [/encyclopedia/mobile_computing.html]


 
 
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Hornecker, Eva, Marshall, Paul and Rogers, Yvonne (2007): From entry to access: how shareability comes about. In: Koskinen, Ilpo and Keinonen, Turkka (eds.) DPPI 2007 - Proceedings of the 2007 International Conference on Designing Pleasurable Products and Interfaces August 22-25, 2007, Helsinki, Finland. pp. 328-342. Available online

2006
 
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Siek, Katie A., Connelly, Kay H. and Rogers, Yvonne (2006): Pride and prejudice: learning how chronically ill people think about food. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2006 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2006. pp. 947-950. Available online

In this paper, we describe a formative study to learn how one chronically ill population thinks about food, mentally organizes food, and interprets consumption-level icons. We found that many participants let their pride influence their choices, resulting in preferred interfaces that they could not accurately interpret. The results indicate that participants organized food in similar ways, had difficulty reading from their preferred consumption-level icons, and wanted to combine multiple interface designs when searching for food.

© All rights reserved Siek et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Rogers, Yvonne and Muller, Henk (2006): A framework for designing sensor-based interactions to promote exploration and reflection in play. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 64 (1) pp. 1-14. Available online

Sensor-based interactions are increasingly being used in the design of user experiences, ranging from the activation of controls to the delivery of 'context-aware' information in the home. The benefits of doing so include the ability to deliver relevant information to people at appropriate times and to enable 'hands-free' control. A downside, however, is that sensor control often displaces user control, resulting in the user not knowing how to or being able to control aspects of a system. While this can be frustrating in many situations, it provides new opportunities for enhancing or augmenting various kinds of activities, where uncertainty can be exploited to good effect. We describe how we designed an adventure game for young children that incorporated a number of sensor-based interactions. We also present a preliminary conceptual framework intended to help designers and researchers develop novel user experiences using sensor-based interactions. A set of concepts are provided that characterize salient aspects of the user experience involved in sensing together with a discussion of the core properties of sensor technologies.

© All rights reserved Rogers and Muller and/or Academic Press

 
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Rogers, Yvonne, Lim, Youn-kyung and Hazlewood, William R. (2006): Extending Tabletops to Support Flexible Collaborative Interactions. In: First IEEE International Workshop on Horizontal Interactive Human-Computer Systems Tabletop 2006 5-7 January, 2006, Adelaide, Australia. pp. 71-78. Available online

 
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Rogers, Yvonne (2006): Moving on from Weiser's Vision of Calm Computing: Engaging UbiComp Experiences. In: Dourish, Paul and Friday, Adrian (eds.) UbiComp 2006 Ubiquitous Computing - 8th International Conference September 17-21, 2006, Orange County, CA, USA. pp. 404-421. Available online

2005
 
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Rogers, Yvonne (2005): Book Review: Computer-Supported Collaboration with Applications to Software Development, Fadi P. Deek and James A. M. McHugh, The Kluwer International Series in Engineering and Computer Science, 2003, 264 pp. ISBN 1-4020-7385-2. In Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 14 (3) pp. 297-299. Available online

 
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Siek, K. A., Rogers, Yvonne and Connelly, K. H. (2005): Fat Finger Worries: How Older and Younger Users Physically Interact with PDAs. In: Proceedings of IFIP INTERACT05: Human-Computer Interaction 2005. pp. 267-280. Available online

There has been a steady growth in the global population of elderly people, challenging researchers in the HCI community to design technologies to help them remain independent and preserve their quality of life. One approach has been to create assistive technology solutions using Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs). However, some have questioned whether older people can use PDAs because of age related problems with dexterity, coordination, and vision. This paper presents an initial usability study that shows there are no major differences in performance between older and younger users when physically interacting with PDAs and completing conventional (e.g. pressing buttons, viewing icons, recording messages) and non-conventional tasks (e.g. scanning bar codes).

© All rights reserved Siek et al. and/or Springer Verlag

 
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Izadi, Shahram, Fitzpatrick, Geraldine, Rodden, Tom, Brignull, Harry, Rogers, Yvonne and Lindley, Sian (2005): The iterative design and study of a large display for shared and sociable spaces. In: Proceedings of the Conference on Designing for User Experiences DUX05 2005. p. 59. Available online

We explore the design opportunities presented by situating large interactive displays outside of the workplace, within shared and sociable spaces such as common areas at universities and conferences, cafes, and hotel foyers. We seek to provide a better understanding of this design space by charting the iterative design of an interactive large display system called Dynamo. Dynamo has been designed to enable the sharing and exchange of a wide variety of digital media. We report on how the interaction metaphors were designed and refined upon in-lab and in-situ studies. We also study how an existing community uses this technology within their own established setting. Qualitative and quantitative analysis shows that the system was used extensively in a variety of ways, including sharing of photos, video clips, and websites, and for facilitating social interaction and collaboration. We conclude with recommendations for designing large display systems for shared and social spaces.

© All rights reserved Izadi et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Rogers, Yvonne, Price, Sara, Randell, Cliff, Fraser, Danae Stanton, Weal, Mark J. and Fitzpatrick, Geraldine (2005): Ubi-learning integrates indoor and outdoor experiences. In Communications of the ACM, 48 (1) pp. 55-59. Available online

2004
 
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Brignull, Harry, Izadi, Shahram, Fitzpatrick, Geraldine, Rogers, Yvonne and Rodden, Tom (2004): The introduction of a shared interactive surface into a communal space. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW04 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2004. pp. 49-58. Available online

We describe a user study of a large multi-user interactive surface deployed for an initial period within a real world setting. The surface was designed to enable the sharing and exchange of a wide variety of digital media. The setting for the study was the common room of a high school where students come together to mix, socialize, and collaborate throughout the day. We report on how the students use the new technology within their own established communal space. Findings show that the system was used extensively by the students in a variety of ways, including sharing of photos, video clips, and websites, and for facilitating social interaction. We discuss how the interactive shared surface was appropriated by the students and introduced into their everyday lives in ways that both mirrored and extended their existing practices within the communal space.

© All rights reserved Brignull et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Rogers, Yvonne, Price, S., Fitzpatrick, Geraldine, Fleck, R., Harris, E., Smith, H., Randell, C., Muller, H., O'Malley, C., Stanton, Danae, Thompson, M. and Weal, M. (2004): Ambient wood: designing new forms of digital augmentation for learning outdoors. In: Proceedings of ACM IDC04: Interaction Design and Children 2004. pp. 3-10. Available online

Ubiquitous and mobile technologies provide opportunities for designing novel learning experiences that move out of the classroom. Information can be presented and interacted with in a variety of ways while exploring a physical environment. A key issue this raises is when, where, what and how much? Our research is concerned with the design, delivery and interaction of digital information when learning about ecology outdoors. We present a framework of the different forms of digital augmentation and the different processes by which they can be accessed. Using the framework, we designed an outdoors learning experience, aimed at encouraging students to carry out contextualized scientific enquiry and to reflect on their interactions. Pairs of 11-12 year olds explored a woodland and were presented at certain times with different forms of digital augmentation. Our study showed that this kind of exploration promoted interpretation and reflection at a number of levels of abstraction.

© All rights reserved Rogers et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Rogers, Yvonne and Lindley, Sian (2004): Collaborating around vertical and horizontal large interactive displays: which way is best?. In Interacting with Computers, 16 (6) pp. 1133-1152. Available online

Large interactive displays are increasingly being placed in work and public settings. An assumption is that the shared surface they provide can facilitate collaboration among co-located groups. An exploratory study was carried out to investigate this claim, and, in particular, to examine the effects of the physical orientation of a display on group working. Two conditions were compared: vertical versus horizontal. A number of differences were found. In the horizontal condition group members switched more between roles, explored more ideas and had a greater awareness of what each other was doing. In the vertical condition groups found it more difficult to collaborate around the display. A follow-up study explored how participants, who had previous experience of using both displays, determined how to work together when provided with both kinds of display. The groups exhibited a more efficient and coordinated way of working but less collaboration in terms of the sharing and discussion of ideas.

© All rights reserved Rogers and Lindley and/or Elsevier Science

 
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Randell, Cliff, Price, Sara, Rogers, Yvonne, Harris, Eric and Fitzpatrick, Geraldine (2004): The Ambient Horn: designing a novel audio-based learning experience. In Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, 8 (3) pp. 177-183. Available online

 
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Harris, Eric, Fitzpatrick, Geraldine, Rogers, Yvonne, Price, Sara, Phelps, Ted and Randell, Cliff (2004): From Snark to Park: Lessons Learnt Moving Pervasive Experiences From Indoors to Outdoors. In: Cockburn, Andy (ed.) AUIC2004 - User Interfaces 2004 - Fifth Australasian User Interface Conference 18-22 January, 2004, Dunedin, New Zealand. pp. 39-48. Available online

 
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Rogers, Yvonne (2004): New Theoretical Approaches for HCI. In Annual Review of Information Science and Technology, (38) pp. 1-43.

The field of human-computer interaction is rapidly expanding. Alongside the extensive technological developments that are currently taking place, is the emergence of a cottage industry culture, where a polyphony of new theories, methods and concerns have been imported into the field from a diversity of disciplines and backgrounds. An extensive critique of recent theoretical developments is presented together with what practitioners currently use. A significant development of importing new theories into the field has been much insightful explication of HCI phenomena, together with extending the fields discourse. However, at the same time, the theoretically-based approaches have had a limited impact on the practice of interaction design. This chapter discusses why this is so and suggests that different kinds of mechanisms are needed that will enable both designers and researchers to better articulate and theoretically ground the hard challenges facing them today.

© All rights reserved Rogers and/or his/her publisher

2003
 
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Rodden, Tom, Rogers, Yvonne, Halloran, John and Taylor, Ian (2003): Designing novel interactional workspaces to support face to face consultations. In: Cockton, Gilbert and Korhonen, Panu (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2003 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 5-10, 2003, Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, USA. pp. 57-64.

 
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Izadi, Shahram, Brignull, Harry, Rodden, Tom, Rogers, Yvonne and Underwood, Mia (2003): Dynamo: a public interactive surface supporting the cooperative sharing and exchange of media. In: Proceedings of the 16th annural ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology November, 2-5, 2003, Vancouver, Canada. pp. 159-168. Available online

In this paper we propose a novel way of supporting occasional meetings that take place in unfamiliar public places, which promotes lightweight, visible and fluid collaboration. Our central idea is that the sharing and exchange of information occurs across public surfaces that users can easily access and interact with. To this end, we designed and implemented Dynamo, a communal multi-user interactive surface. The surface supports the cooperative sharing and exchange of a wide range of media that can be brought to the surface by users that are remote from their familiar organizational settings.

© All rights reserved Izadi et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Price, S., Rogers, Yvonne, Scaife, Mike, Stanton, Danae and Neale, Helen (2003): Using 'tangibles' to promote novel forms of playful learning. In Interacting with Computers, 15 (2) pp. 169-185.

Tangibles, in the form of physical artefacts that are electronically augmented and enhanced to trigger various digital events to happen, have the potential for providing innovative ways for children to play and learn, through novel forms of interacting and discovering. They offer, in addition, the scope for bringing playfulness back into learning. To this end, we designed an adventure game, where pairs of children have to discover as much as they can about a virtual imaginary creature called the Snark, through collaboratively interacting with a suite of tangibles. Underlying the design of the tangibles is a variety of transforms, which the children have to understand and reflect upon in order to make the Snark come alive and show itself in a variety of morphological and synaesthesic forms. The paper also reports on the findings of a study of the Snark game and discusses what it means to be engrossed in playful learning.

© All rights reserved Price et al. and/or Elsevier Science

 
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Marshall, Paul, Price, Sara and Rogers, Yvonne (2003): Conceptualising tangibles to support learning. In: Proceedings of ACM IDC03: Interaction Design and Children 2003. pp. 101-109. Available online

We present a new way of conceptualising tangibles for learning. This scheme adopts Heidegger's analysis of the ways a user can treat a tool: either as 'ready-to-hand' or 'present-at-hand'. It also proposes two types of activity a learner can engage in when using a tangible: either exploratory or expressive activity. Finally, two types of models that a user can explore are proposed: theoretical and practical models. Examples from the literature are described in terms of this framework and an example is given from our own work of an attempt to use this conceptualisation in design.

© All rights reserved Marshall et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Brignull, Harry and Rogers, Yvonne (2003): Enticing People to Interact with Large Public Displays in Public Spaces. In: Proceedings of IFIP INTERACT03: Human-Computer Interaction 2003, Zurich, Switzerland. p. 17.

 
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Halloran, John, Rogers, Yvonne, Rodden, Tom and Taylor, Ian (2003): Creating New User Experiences to Enhance Collaboration. In: Proceedings of IFIP INTERACT03: Human-Computer Interaction 2003, Zurich, Switzerland. p. 479.

 
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Smith, Hilary, Rogers, Yvonne and Brady, Mark (2003): Managing one's social network: Does age make a difference?. In: Proceedings of IFIP INTERACT03: Human-Computer Interaction 2003, Zurich, Switzerland. p. 551.

 
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Wilde, Danielle, Harris, Eric, Rogers, Yvonne and Randell, Cliff (2003): The Periscope: supporting a computer enhanced field trip for children. In Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, 7 (3) pp. 227-233. Available online

2002
 
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Rogers, Yvonne, Scaife, Mike, Harris, Eric, Phelps, Ted, Price, Sara, Smith, Hilary, Muller, Henk, Randell, Cliff, Moss, Andrew, Taylor, Ian, Stanton, Danae and O'Malley, Claire (2002): Things aren't what they seem to be: innovation through technology inspiration. In: Proceedings of DIS02: Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, & Techniques 2002. pp. 373-378. Available online

How does designing for novel experiences with largely untried technologies get its inspiration? Here we report on a project whose goal was to promote learning through novel, playful visions of technologies. To this end, we experimented with a diversity of ambient and pervasive technologies to inspire and drive our design. Working as a large multi-disciplinary group of researchers and designers we developed novel and imaginative experiences for children. To crystallise our ideas we designed, implemented and experimented with a mixed reality adventure game, where children had to hunt an elusive, virtual creature called the Snark, in a large interactive environment. We describe our experiences, reflecting on the process of design inspiration in an area where so much remains unknown.

© All rights reserved Rogers et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Preece, Jennifer J., Rogers, Yvonne and Sharp, Helen (2002): Interaction Design: Beyond Human-Computer Interaction. John Wiley and Sons

 Cited in the following chapters:

Tradition and transcendence: [/encyclopedia/tradition_and_transcendence.html]

Agile Usability Engineering: [/encyclopedia/agile_usability_engineering.html]

Mobile Computing: [/encyclopedia/mobile_computing.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapters:

Tradition and transcendence: [/encyclopedia/tradition_and_transcendence.html]

Agile Usability Engineering: [/encyclopedia/agile_usability_engineering.html]

Mobile Computing: [/encyclopedia/mobile_computing.html]


 
 
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Gabrielli, Silvia, Harris, Eric, Rogers, Yvonne, Scaife, Michael and Smith, Hilary (2002): A Conceptual Framework for Mixed Reality Environments: Designing Novel Learning Activities for Young Children. In Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 11 (6) pp. 677-687.

 
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Rogers, Yvonne, Brignull, Harry and Scaife, Michael (2002): Designing Dynamic Interactive Visualisations to Support Collaboration and Cognition. In: IV 2002 2002. pp. 39-. Available online

2001
 
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Scaife, Mike and Rogers, Yvonne (2001): Informing the design of a virtual environment to support learning in children. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 55 (2) pp. 115-143.

This paper describes how different kinds of research activities (theory building and application, exploratory and experimental studies, prototyping, user testing) are instrumental for informing the design of virtual environments. We show how general user-centred design methods can be used when dealing with specific issues concerned with the properties of virtual environments. To illustrate our approach we describe how we have designed a virtual theatre for young children to support learning through playing. We conclude with a general discussion of the core issues that need to be considered when designing virtual environments.

© All rights reserved Scaife and Rogers and/or Academic Press

 
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Otero, N., Rogers, Yvonne and Boulay, Benedict Du (2001): Is Interactivity a Good Thing? Assessing its Benefits for Learning. In: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2001. pp. 790-794.

1999
 
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Rogers, Yvonne (1999): Instilling Interdisciplinarity -- HCI from the Perspective of Cognitive Sciences. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 31 (3) pp. 4-5. Available online

 
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Light, Ann and Rogers, Yvonne (1999): Conversation as Publishing: The Role of News Forums on the Web. In: HICSS 1999 1999. . Available online

 
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Light, Ann and Rogers, Yvonne (1999): Conversation as Publishing: the Role of News Forums on the Web. In J. Computer-Mediated Communication, 4 (4) . Available online

1997
 
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Rogers, Yvonne and Bellotti, Victoria (1997): Grounding Blue-Sky Research: How Can Ethnography Help?. In Interactions, 4 (3) pp. 58-63. Available online

 
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Bellotti, Victoria and Rogers, Yvonne (1997): From Web Press to Web Pressure: Multimedia Representations and Multimedia Publishing. In: Pemberton, Steven (ed.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 97 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference March 22-27, 1997, Atlanta, Georgia. pp. 279-286. Available online

The growth of multimedia computing, followed by a recent push towards publishing on the World Wide Web, is rapidly changing the publishing industry. Editorial staff, working under pressure in printed and online publications, need to use a growing diversity of representations for planning, creating and reviewing content. We present a study of a number of publishing sites, describing how such representations are critical to ensuring quality in the editorial process. Following this, we discuss design implications for better representational tools.

© All rights reserved Bellotti and Rogers and/or ACM Press

 
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Scaife, Michael, Rogers, Yvonne, Aldrich, Frances and Davies, Matt (1997): Designing For or Designing With? Informant Design for Interactive Learning Environments. In: Pemberton, Steven (ed.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 97 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference March 22-27, 1997, Atlanta, Georgia. pp. 343-350. Available online

The value of involving people as 'users' or 'participants' in the design process is increasingly becoming a point of debate. In this paper we describe a new framework, called 'informant design', which advocates efficiency of input from different people: maximizing the value of contributions from various informants and design team members at different stages of the design process. To illustrate how this can be achieved we describe a project that uses children and teachers as informants at different stages to help us design an interactive learning environment for teaching ecology.

© All rights reserved Scaife et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Rogers, Yvonne (1997): Book review: "Cognition and Communication at Work," edited by Y. Engestrom, and D. Middleton. In Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 6 (4) pp. 400-402.

1996
 
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Scaife, Mike and Rogers, Yvonne (1996): External Cognition: How Do Graphical Representations Work?. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 45 (2) pp. 185-213.

Advances in graphical technology have now made it possible for us to interact with information in innovative ways, most notably by exploring multimedia environments and by manipulating three-dimensional virtual worlds. Many benefits have been claimed for this new kind of interactivity, a general assumption being that learning and cognitive processing are facilitated. We point out, however, that little is known about the cognitive value of any graphical representations, be they good old-fashioned (e.g. diagrams) or more advanced (e.g. animations, multimedia, virtual reality). In our paper, we critique the disparate literature on graphical representations, focusing on four representative studies. Our analysis reveals a fragmented and poorly understood account of how graphical representations work, exposing a number of assumptions and fallacies. As an alternative we propose a new agenda for graphical representation research. This builds on the nascent theoretical approach within cognitive science that analyses the role played by external representations in relation to internal mental ones. We outline some of the central properties of this relationship that are necessary for the processing of graphical representations. Finally, we consider how this analysis can inform the selection and design of both traditional and advanced forms of graphical technology.

© All rights reserved Scaife and Rogers and/or Academic Press

 
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Rogers, Yvonne and Aldrich, Frances (1996): In Search of Clickable Dons: Learning about HCI Through Interacting with Norman's CD-ROM. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 28 (3) pp. 44-47. Available online

As part of a university HCI course, masters students used and evaluated Norman's CD-ROM Defending Human Attributes in the Age of the Machine [1]. This paper reports on the advantages and disadvantages of the CD-ROM from the students' perspective, and reflects on the learning benefits of using this kind of interactive media. Problems with adapting existing books from paper to CD-ROM are discussed, and a number of suggestions are put forward of ways in which the interactivity of electronic media could be further exploited for teaching HCI and interface design.

© All rights reserved Rogers and Aldrich and/or ACM Press

1995
 
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Plowman, Lydia, Rogers, Yvonne and Ramage, Magnus (1995): What Are Workplace Studies For?. In: Marmolin, Hans, Sundblad, Yngve and Schmidt, Kjeld (eds.) ECSCW 95 - Proceedings of the Fourth European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 11-15 September, 1995, Stockholm, Sweden. pp. 309-324.

We have considered the role of workplace studies from the CSCW literature which are intended to inform system design and implementation. We present a critique of these studies, categorised according to which phase of the design process they most inform, and discuss the tensions between providing explanatory accounts and usable design recommendations, the pressures on fieldworkers to provide both, the purposes different approaches serve, and the transition from fieldwork to system design.

© All rights reserved Plowman et al. and/or Kluwer Academic Publishers

 
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Ross, Susi, Ramage, Magnus and Rogers, Yvonne (1995): PETRA: Participatory Evaluation Through Redesign and Analysis. In Interacting with Computers, 7 (4) pp. 335-360.

Compared with single user-computer interactions, evaluating multiuser-computer interactions is much more complex. We argue for multiplicity -- of theory, method and perspective -- in the evaluation of computer-supported collaborative work (CSCW). This allows us to address both theoretical concerns and practical design issues, and to incorporate the expertise and experiences of both researchers and participants. We propose the PETRA framework, incorporating a theoretically-driven evaluators' perspective to investigate the collaborative activity, and a design-based, user-focused participants' perspective to evaluate the supporting tool. Our study investigated collaborative writing, both in a face-to-face context, and supported by a computer-based group editor. In our instantiation of the PETRA framework, we used distributed cognition and a form of breakdown analysis to investigate the development of shared understanding in the two different mediating settings; and devised a rapid prototyping session (inspired by participatory design) to elicit participant reactions to and redesigns of the tool interface. Our findings show that computer-supported shared understanding develops technologically, using social coordination as a repair mechanism; and that the collaborative tool must be particularly sensitive to issues of awareness, communication, focus and ownership.

© All rights reserved Ross et al. and/or Elsevier Science

1994
 
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Preece, Jennifer J., Rogers, Yvonne, Sharp, Helen and Benyon, David (1994): Human-Computer Interaction. Essex, UK, Addison-Wesley Publishing

 Cited in the following chapter:

Interaction Styles: [/encyclopedia/interaction_styles.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

Interaction Styles: [/encyclopedia/interaction_styles.html]


 
 
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Preece, Jennifer J., Rogers, Yvonne, Sharp, Helen, Benyon, David, Holland, Simon and Carey, Tom (1994): Human-Computer Interaction. Reading, Mass., Addison-Wesley Publishing

 Cited in the following chapter:

Mobile Computing: [/encyclopedia/mobile_computing.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

Mobile Computing: [/encyclopedia/mobile_computing.html]


 
 
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Rogers, Yvonne (1994): Exploring Obstacles: Integrating CSCW in Evolving Organisations. In: Proceedings of the 1994 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work October 22 - 26, 1994, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States. pp. 67-77. Available online

Integrating CSCW systems to organisations is highly complex. This paper examines the co-evolution process involved in tailoring a CSCW system to fit in with the current organisational structure, whilst concurrently adapting the working practices to enable the system to support collaboration. A study is presented which analyses the various obstacles and inequities that ensue when a multi-user system is implemented in a company. To facilitate the management and resolution of the emergent problems, a preliminary conceptual framework is outlined. Finally, a case is presented for involving intermediaries in helping companies customise CSCW systems and adapt their work practices.

© All rights reserved Rogers and/or ACM Press

 
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Rogers, Yvonne, Bannon, Liam and Button, Graham (1994): Rethinking Theoretical Frameworks for HCI. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 26 (1) pp. 28-30.

This one-and-a-half day workshop was intended to bring together researchers concerned about the state of theory in HCI, to discuss the adequacy of current theoretical frameworks and to examine more closely a number of alternative or extended frameworks that have been proposed for HCI. A further aim was to examine the recent 'turn to the social' and its implications for design practice in HCI. A wide variety of position papers (to put it mildly) were received, from which 15 were selected for presentation and discussion at the workshop. These ranged from critiques of the role of theory in HCI, expositions of various theoretical frameworks and the importance of considering methodology in relation to theory. Several authors also described how their alternative frameworks had enabled them to 'open their eyes' to alternative design solutions when analysing particular problems in a work context. The workshop was organized around three inter-related themes with the intention of engaging in both reflective and projected thinking. These were: i) What is the problem in HCI? (ii) What does my theoretical approach have to offer HCI, and (iii) How does my theory relate to practice? The participants were asked to address these questions in relation to their position papers. A general concern that became central to all themes was what theory was being used for in HCI. Several attempts at identifying and demystifying its role were suggested and it became clear that in fact it was being used in a multitude of ways. These included a background from which to: frame the problem, pose questions, to analyse, to describe and to explain. There was a general consensus, however, that the most 'scientific' use of a theory to propose and evaluate predictions about human performance was not appropriate for the current wave of alternative theory building. The lessons learnt from attempts to apply information-processing models to user performance were taken as sufficient evidence that the field of HCI is far too rich and complex to force into a set of hypotheses that can be quantitatively tested. Furthermore, the field is too diverse and changing to be formulated as a coherent theory of HCI. Alternatively, the role of theory in HCI should be to inform and guide system analysis and design.

© All rights reserved Rogers et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Preece, Jennifer J., Rogers, Yvonne, Sharp, Helen, Benyon, David, Holland, Simon and Carey, Tom (1994): Human-Computer Interaction. Reading, Mass., Addison-Wesley Publishing

 
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Rogers, Yvonne, Bannon, Liam and Button, Graham (1994): Rethinking theoretical frameworks for HCI: A Review. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 26 (1) pp. 28-30.

This one-and-a-half day workshop was intended to bring together researchers concerned about the state of theory in HCI, to discuss the adequacy of current theoretical frameworks and to examine more closely a number of alternative or extended frameworks that have been proposed for HCI. A further aim was to examine the recent 'turn to the social' and its implications for design practice in HCI. A wide variety of position papers (to put it mildly) were received, from which 15 were selected for presentation and discussion at the workshop. These ranged from critiques of the role of theory in HCI, expositions of various theoretical frameworks and the importance of considering methodology in relation to theory. Several authors also described how their alternative frameworks had enabled them to 'open their eyes' to alternative design solutions when analysing particular problems in a work context. The workshop was organized around three inter-related themes with the intention of engaging in both reflective and projected thinking. These were: i) What is the problem in HCI? (ii) What does my theoretical approach have to offer HCI, and (iii) How does my theory relate to practice? The participants were asked to address these questions in relation to their position papers. A general concern that became central to all themes was what theory was being used for in HCI. Several attempts at identifying and demystifying its role were suggested and it became clear that in fact it was being used in a multitude of ways. These included a background from which to: frame the problem, pose questions, to analyse, to describe and to explain. There was a general consensus, however, that the most 'scientific' use of a theory to propose and evaluate predictions about human performance was not appropriate for the current wave of alternative theory building. The lessons learnt from attempts to apply information-processing models to user performance were taken as sufficient evidence that the field of HCI is far too rich and complex to force into a set of hypotheses that can be quantitatively tested. Furthermore, the field is too diverse and changing to be formulated as a coherent theory of HCI. Alternatively, the role of theory in HCI should be to inform and guide system analysis and design.

© All rights reserved Rogers et al. and/or ACM Press

1993
 
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Preece, Jennifer J., Benyon, David, Davies, Gordon, Keller, Laurie and Rogers, Yvonne (eds.) (1993): A Guide to Usability: Human Factors in Computing. Wokingham, England, Addison-Wesley Publishing

 
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Rogers, Yvonne (1993): Coordinating computer-mediated work. In Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 1 (4) pp. 295-315. Available online

Coordination of inter-dependent work activities is central to CSCW. However, little is known about how people coordinate their work activities, especially when confronted with computer systems that are intended to support collaboration. This paper examines how a close-knit group of engineers attempt to collaborate when managing a networked system whilst at the same time trying to maintain coordination of their interdependent work activities. Drawing from theoretical constructs developed in distributed cognition, an analysis is presented that contrasts the role played by common objects and mediating mechanisms in coordinating such activities with the negotiative practices that emerge when they break down. The implications of the problematic and dynamic nature of coordination is subsequently discussed in relation to CSCW design.

© All rights reserved Rogers and/or Kluwer Academic Publishers

1992
 
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Rogers, Yvonne (1992): Ghosts in the Network: Distributed Troubleshooting in a Shared Working Environment. In: Proceedings of the 1992 ACM conference on Computer-supported cooperative work November 01 - 04, 1992, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. pp. 346-355. Available online

The implementation of networking technology in work settings offers numerous opportunities for improving the transmission of information and the sharing of resources within and between organizations. Its success in integrating distributed working activities, however, rests on how well the users of a network can coordinate their activities with respect to each other. This paper examines the communicative and interactive processes that take place when a typical breakdown occurs in a networked environment. A detailed analysis is presented which interprets the events that unfold in relation to the socio-cognitive issues of shared understanding, the transmission of knowledge and distributed problem-solving.

© All rights reserved Rogers and/or ACM Press

1989
 
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Rogers, Yvonne (1989): Icons at the Interface: Their Usefulness. In Interacting with Computers, 1 (1) pp. 105-117.

Iconic interfacing is now widespread. Increasing aspects of the system functionality -- including objects, options, operations, states and messages -- are being represented at the interface in this pictorial form. Against this zeitgeist, this paper sets out to discuss how useful icons really are and whether they live up to their expectations. A classification of the function and form of icons is outlined together with a proposal of the way in which a simple grammar of icon forms which maps onto the underlying system structure can be developed. Finally theoretical issues are discussed in the way in which information from icon-based displays is used when performing a task at the interface.

© All rights reserved Rogers and/or Elsevier Science

1988
 
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Rogers, Yvonne (1988): User Requirements for Expert System Explanation: What, Why and When?. In: Jones, Dylan M. and Winder, R. (eds.) Proceedings of the Fourth Conference of the British Computer Society Human Computer Interaction Specialist Group - People and Computers IV August 5-9, 1988, University of Manchester, UK. pp. 547-564.

It is generally assumed that one of the important features of an expert system is that it provides relevant and informative explanations regarding different aspects of the system's reasoning. As yet, however, most current systems provide very poor explanation facilities. This paper reports on a study that investigated the extent and types of explanation required by novices to satisfy their needs in understanding deductions made by an expert system. Using the 'Wizard of Oz' technique where, unknown to the subject, a person provides a simulation of the system as an expert an experiment was carried out which looked at the usefulness of various types of explanation. Two types of explanation and their combination were compared. These were 1) rule-based 2) condition-based and 3) rule and condition. The results showed that all users accessed the explanation facility and that the level of user satisfaction was found to depend on the type of explanation provided. In general, the rule and condition group found the explanations to be the most satisfying and useful. A further experiment was carried out to evaluate the type of questions users ask when the dialogue was not initiated by the system. The findings from both studies are discussed in relation to the task demands and the level of user understanding.

© All rights reserved Rogers and/or Cambridge University Press

1986
 
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Rogers, Yvonne (1986): Evaluating the Meaningfulness of Icon Sets to Represent Command Operations. In: Harrison, Michael D. and Monk, Andrew (eds.) Proceedings of the Second Conference of the British Computer Society Human Computer Interaction Specialist Group - People and Computers II August 23-26, 1986, University of York, UK. pp. 586-603.

Iconic interfacing is becoming increasingly popular as a medium to present information about computer systems and their command operations. This paper considers the extent to which various icons that differ in the form of correspondence between referent and icon symbol can effectively represent a large number of abstract command operations typically used in a word processing environment. Six icon sets, depicting either abstract symbols, concrete objects operated on, concrete analogies associated with the action or combinations of these were constructed to represent 20 commands covering a range of word processing operation areas. Using a questionnaire, 60 subjects (10 for each set) were required to match the icons to the commands they thought they referred to. Significant differences were found between the icon sets. Specifically, the icon sets with the most direct mapping (i.e. those depicting concrete objects operated on) were found to have the highest number of correct matches, with over 85% of the icons being correctly identified. An interaction between icon set and type of command was also found indicating that some commands can be represented in a range of pictorial forms while for other commands the type of pictorial form is critical. The results from this experiment are discussed in relation to the demands made on the cognitive resources for the comprehension of visual symbols.

© All rights reserved Rogers and/or Cambridge University Press

1985
 
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Rogers, Yvonne and Oborne, David J. (1985): Some Psychological Attributes of Potential Computer Command Names. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 4 (4) pp. 349-365.

One of the major difficulties that users may experience when interacting with computer systems is remembering the system functions that relate to particular command names. This paper considers the problem by evaluating various semantic attributes of a set of verbs in relation to the underlying psychological processes involved in a naming task. An initial investigation carried out to obtain imagery and concrete-abstractness ratings for the verbs (most of which were also existing computer commands) showed not only a wide range of ratings for attributes of the stimuli, but also that the majority of 'command' verbs were rated as being highly abstract and low in imagery. A second experiment investigated the factors of imagery and word frequency as a function of the ease with which 'command' verbs were elicited from an appropriate verbal description. The results demonstrated a complex interaction, in so far as low frequency, high imagery verbs were elicited more easily than those which have high frequency and low imagery attributes. The findings of these two investigation were discussed in relation to the ways in which imagery associations for verbs may influence user performance in memory tasks involving computer systems.

© All rights reserved Rogers and Oborne and/or Taylor and Francis

 
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