Number of co-authors:43
Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:Paul Gorman:3Pascale Carayon:2Paul Milgram:2
Yan Xiao's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:Sara Kiesler:59Susan R. Fussell:46Pascale Carayon:42
Design can be art. Design can be aesthetics. Design is so simple, that's why it is so complicated.
-- Paul Rand, 1997
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Publications by Yan Xiao (bibliography)
Bisantz, Ann M., Carayon, Pascale, Miller, Anne, Khunlertkit, Adjhaporn, Arbaje, Alicia and Xiao, Yan (2012): Using Human Factors And Systems Engineering To Improve Care Coordination. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 2012 Annual Meeting 2012. pp. 855-859.
The Institute of Medicine (IOM) describes care coordination as one of the six dimensions of health care to overcome barriers and accomplish improvements in the quality of care (IOM, 2001). Care coordination has received more research attention because of its potential to improve the quality and safety of care. Despite numerous efforts to improve care coordination, there is limited evidence regarding their effectiveness and the benefits described vary widely among studies. Moreover, we know little about the specific characteristics of care coordination. In this panel, the speakers will share their experiences regarding (1) barriers to and strategies for effective care coordination, (2) different care coordination mechanisms that affect quality and safety of care, and (3) the use of a human factors engineering approach to understand and improve care coordination. The panel members will use their research experiences and the existing literature to provide a better understanding of different aspects of care coordination and to identify future research directions.
© All rights reserved Bisantz et al. and/or Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Fairbanks, Rollin J. (Terry), Xiao, Yan, Wolf, Laurie, Doyle, Peter, St-Cyr, Olivier and Kumagai, Jason (2012): Human Factors in the Wild: dilemmas and solutions from human factors engineers working in healthcare. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 2012 Annual Meeting 2012. pp. 897-900.
The session will focus on the solution side of human factors contribution into real world problems in healthcare. Five practitioners who work within systems will present real world challenges which were discovered by HF methods, or which have heavy HF implications, but wheredirect HF influence on design lead to the ultimate effective solution. The session will be designed to lead to a discussion about how HF professionals can highlight the success of their science. Five practitioners, each with extensive experience working from within a healthcare organization, will present real world challenges which were discovered by HF methods, or which have heavy HF implications, but where direct HF influence on design lead to the ultimate effective solution. Thesession will be designed to lead to a discussion about how HF professionals can focus their impact, and how they can highlight the success of their science.
© All rights reserved Fairbanks et al. and/or Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Probst, C. Adam, Russ, Alissa L., Carayon, Pascale, Wolf, Laurie, Parker, Sarah H., Dierks, Meghan M. and Xiao, Yan (2012): Learning about Healthcare: Preparing Human Factors Professionals for a Career in Healthcare. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 2012 Annual Meeting 2012. pp. 931-935.
Formally trained human factors professionals are in increasing demand from medical device companies, health care systems, and electronic health record (EHR) vendors to ensure successful device design, EHR deployment, and overall usability and quality improvement initiatives. Most members of this panel have extensive experience working in the healthcare domain, while one is starting a career in healthcare. The panelists will exchange their views on the challenges and rewards of learning about healthcare in order to be effective in making contributions to health care. Specific initiatives human factors professionals can take to learn about healthcare will be introduced and discussed. Human factors professionals and students should expect steep a learning curve, as well as strong support from clinicians and other health care workers, which will be discussed.
© All rights reserved Probst et al. and/or Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Gurses, Ayse P., Pennathur, Priyadarshini R., Collins, Sarah, Flin, Rhona, Gorman, Paul and Xiao, Yan (2011): Studying Clinical Communication to Inform Health Information Technology Design. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 55th Annual Meeting 2011. pp. 646-649.
Information technology has the potential to significantly improve communication and coordination in health care. However, current technologies frequently impede clinical communication. A major reason for this discrepancy is due to lack of consideration of how clinical communication and coordination of care occur, which requires studying "in the wild", such as using a human factors engineering approach. In this panel, the speakers will share their experiences regarding (1) how to study clinical communication and (2) what we can learn from studying clinical communication studies to inform future information technology design for health care. The panel members will address these questions based on their research studies and literature.
© All rights reserved Gurses et al. and/or HFES
Scupelli, Peter G., Xiao, Yan, Fussell, Susan R., Kiesler, Sara and Gross, Mark D. (2010): Supporting coordination in surgical suites: physical aspects of common information spaces. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2010. pp. 1777-1786.
To accommodate frequent emergencies, interruptions, and delays, hospital staff continually make and coordinate changes to the surgery schedule. The technical and social aspects of coordination in surgical suites have been described by prior studies. This paper addresses an understudied aspect of coordination: the physical environment. Based on a field study of four surgical suites in two large academic centers, we show how the physical layout of hallways and rooms, and barriers and spaces around displays and key coordinators, support or fail to support the common information spaces used for coordination. We use the concept "information hotspots" to represent how physical places and their characteristics facilitate coordination. We developed design principles based on the concept of information hotspots that should guide architectural considerations for coordination in dynamic environments such as hospitals.
© All rights reserved Scupelli et al. and/or their publisher
Gorman, Paul N., Richardson, Joshua, Russ, Alissa, Militello, Laura G. and Xiao, Yan (2010): Supporting cognition and decision making in clinical work. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 54th Annual Meeting 2010. pp. 821-825.
Clinical decision support systems and other health information technologies are being implemented in healthcare organizations to enhance clinician performance by helping to overcome the limits of human cognition. In spite of gains achieved with these systems, significant problems remain, including unexpected complexity and sometimes harmful effects, and persistent use of paper-based cognitive artifacts. This panel will explore current research that is meant to help us better understand the implications of clinical decision support and cognitive support, and develop novel approaches that are intended to take better advantage of the complementary capabilities of human and machine cognition.
© All rights reserved Gorman et al. and/or HFES
Seagull, F. Jacob, Xiao, Yan, Eibling, David and Gorman, Paul (2010): Debate: Is There Low Hanging Fruit in Healthcare Human Factors. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 54th Annual Meeting 2010. p. 1905.
Does Human Factors and Ergonomics have anything to contribute to patient safety and healthcare practices? Most people would say yes. However, there is great controversy as to the form the contribution can take. Can this contribution be made in the form of standards, recommended practices, and principles of human factors? Or must our contribution consist of the dedication of human factors professionals within the domain of healthcare? Some assert that healthcare is so complex that simple guidelines and best practices will not solve any significant problems; all worthwhile problems require the in-depth, sophisticated techniques performed by human factors professionals. This session will present a debate that examines these issues. The results of the debate may help focus healthcare human factors toward the most productive approaches for influencing healthcare and patient safety.
© All rights reserved Seagull et al. and/or HFES
Xiao, Yan, Fairbanks, Rollin J., Gurses, Ayse P., Nemeth, Christopher, Roth, Emilie, Wears, Robert L. and Gorman, Paul (2009): User Created Cognitive Artifacts: What Can They Teach Us About Design of Information Technology?. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 53rd Annual Meeting 2009. pp. 694-698.
Cognitive artifacts are created and used to support task performance in many domains. These artifacts may be essential components designed into a process, they may have been created by users as work-arounds to system shortcomings, or they may be extensions to systems that add functionalities to meet evolving needs. Examination of cognitive artifacts may provide insights that complement other cognitive engineering methods such as task analysis. This panel will present findings from study of cognitive artifacts used in high risk domains such as healthcare. Panelists will address questions relating to research methodologies, theoretical frameworks, and design implications, such as: What are the roles of user-designed artifacts for care coordination and patient safety? What can designers learn from artifacts? How can we use artifact analysis to design better health information technologies? Can vendor-designed information tools and user-designed artifacts work in harmony to provide safe care? Panel members will address these questions based on their research studies and experiences within as well as outside the health care area.
© All rights reserved Xiao et al. and/or their publisher
Ho, Danny, Xiao, Yan, Hu, Peter F., Vaidya, Vinay U., Straumanis, John P., Cardarelli, Marcelo G., Norcio, Anthony F. and Gurses, Ayse P. P. (2008): "Front-stage" and "back-stage" information. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2008 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 5-10, 2008. pp. 3033-3038.
This paper presents an ongoing observational study to explore a "front-stage-back-stage" model of information processes during group discussions (multidisciplinary rounds) in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) of an academic medical center. Participants were observed to collaborate on "front-stage" processes of case presentation, discussion of issues, and treatment planning, while in parallel they performed "back-stage" information activities. The front-stage and backstage information processes were interdependent to address the need for fluid, highly time-pressured discourse with potential life-and-death consequences. We believe the front-stage-back-stage model adds to our understanding of collaborative information exchange and holds implications for computer supported cooperative work (CSCW) systems. For example, computing support may increase the efficiency and reliability of information transfer by enhancing the ability to "choreograph" front-stage and back-stage information processes during critical discourse such as medical rounds.
© All rights reserved Ho et al. and/or ACM Press
Kobayashi, Marina, Fussell, Susan R., Xiao, Yan and Seagull, F. Jacob (2005): Work coordination, workflow, and workarounds in a medical context. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 1561-1564.
In this paper we report an ethnographic study of workarounds-informal temporary practices for handling exceptions to normal workflow-in a hospital environment. Workarounds are a common technique for dealing with the inherent uncertainty of dynamic work environments. Workarounds can help coordinate work, especially under conditions of high time pressure, but they may result in information or work protocols that are unstable, unavailable, or unreliable. We investigated workarounds and their effects through observation and interviews in a major teaching medical center. Our results suggest 4 key features of workarounds that technologies might help address: (a) workarounds differ as a function of people's role; (b) workarounds draw on tacit knowledge of others' abilities and willingness to help; (c) workarounds can have a cascading effect, causing other workarounds down the line; (d) workarounds often rely on principles of fairness and who owes whom a favor. We provide recommendations for designing systems to better support workarounds in dynamic environments.
© All rights reserved Kobayashi et al. and/or ACM Press
Xiao, Yan, Milgram, Paul and Doyle, D. John (1993): Two Classes of Problem Solving Situations in Managing Complex Systems. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 37th Annual Meeting 1993. pp. 529-533.
Previous studies in complex domains such as power plants and air traffic control have described a wide range of behaviours not addressed by traditional psychological studies. This led to a field study of problem solving in anaesthesiology, using various methods of collecting behavioural data directly from the field while anaesthesiologists were doing their job. The methods used include direct observation, interviewing, and on-line verbal protocol recording with thinking aloud verbalisation. This paper describes findings from the field study and presents an analysis of how problem solving situations arise during the management of anesthesia, a task similar to process control. Two classes of problem solving situations are identified: (1) managing the patient during non-critical but stressful and long lasting incidents -- problem solving is characterised by competing goals and multiple hypotheses, and the memory load while keeping track of what is in the 'pipeline'; (2) deploying preventive and preparatory strategies -- the problem solving is characterised by feedforward control of system (patient) status in the face of anticipated inputs to the patient, preparation of preconditions of necessary and contingency procedures, and anticipation of troublesome situations to be avoided. A categorisation scheme is proposed to classify problem solving situations according to how they arise: incident-induced and strategy-induced.
© All rights reserved Xiao et al. and/or Human Factors Society
Xiao, Yan, Milgram, Paul and Doyle, D. John (1992): Incident Evolution and Task Demands: An Analysis and a Field Study of 'Going Sour' Incidents. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 36th Annual Meeting 1992. pp. 1279-1283.
When managing complex systems, cognitive demands or problem-solving situations can appear in different ways. In some situations, problems surface gradually while being recognised, identified and treated. This category of situations has been labelled as 'going sour' incidents. Within these incidents, there are a number of interesting and unique features warranting special attention. The present research project attempts to depict the task demands associated with going sour incidents. After initial analysis of complexity and some field observations, initial hypotheses were generated. Subsequent field study has provided support for the hypotheses. Major findings on going sour incidents include (1) problem-solving spans a long period of time and requires synthesis of information over this period; (2) trouble spots have to be checked repeatedly as the environment is likely to change over time; (3) interventions are required before obtaining sufficient number of signs; and (4) multiple hypotheses must be maintained and examined as the underlying problem changes appearance slowly from one form to another.
© All rights reserved Xiao et al. and/or Human Factors Society
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