Publication statistics

Pub. period:1986-2010
Pub. count:31
Number of co-authors:40



Co-authors

Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

John Bowers:5
Sarah Pennington:4
Andy Boucher:3

 

 

Productive colleagues

William W. Gaver's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Steve Benford:121
Paul Dourish:96
Abigail Sellen:81
 
 
 

Upcoming Courses

go to course
Emotional Design: How to make products people will love
Starts the day after tomorrow !
go to course
UI Design Patterns for Successful Software
85% booked. Starts in 10 days
 
 

Featured chapter

Marc Hassenzahl explains the fascinating concept of User Experience and Experience Design. Commentaries by Don Norman, Eric Reiss, Mark Blythe, and Whitney Hess

User Experience and Experience Design !

 
 

Our Latest Books

 
 
The Social Design of Technical Systems: Building technologies for communities. 2nd Edition
by Brian Whitworth and Adnan Ahmad
start reading
 
 
 
 
Gamification at Work: Designing Engaging Business Software
by Janaki Mythily Kumar and Mario Herger
start reading
 
 
 
 
The Social Design of Technical Systems: Building technologies for communities
by Brian Whitworth and Adnan Ahmad
start reading
 
 
 
 
The Encyclopedia of Human-Computer Interaction, 2nd Ed.
by Mads Soegaard and Rikke Friis Dam
start reading
 
 

William W. Gaver

Picture of William W. Gaver.
Update pic
Has also published under the name of:
"Bill Gaver"

Personal Homepage:
gold.ac.uk/design/staff/gaver/

Gaver's research concerns the design of interactive technologies for everyday life. As computation has moved beyond the workplace, we need to look beyond traditional concerns with problem-solving, efficiency, utility and usability to consider the wider range of values and motivations it might embody. As head of the Interaction Research Studio, Gaver pursues practice-based research on new roles for interactive technology. Recent work has focused on the home, exploring electronic furniture and fittings that provoke curiosity and allow exploration of new views within and outside the domestic setting. A committed focus to making has also produced methodological and conceptual innovations. A series of methods for engaging with users, from early explorations of the context for design all the way to the assessment of long-term field trials, stress the value of multiple, unresolved narratives in understanding the meanings of technology. This is complemented by conceptual work that explores topics such as play, ambiguity and interpretation in design.

 

Publications by William W. Gaver (bibliography)

 what's this?
2010
 
Edit | Del

Blythe, Mark, Wright, Peter, Bowers, John, Boucher, Andy, Jarvis, Nadine, Reynolds, Phil and Gaver, William W. (2010): Age and experience: ludic engagement in a residential care setting. In: Proceedings of DIS10 Designing Interactive Systems 2010. pp. 161-170. Available online

The "older old" (people over eighty) are a largely invisible group for those not directly involved in their lives; this project explores the ways that technology might strengthen links between different generations. This paper describes findings from a two-year study of a residential care home and develops the notion of cross-generational engagement through ludic systems which encourage curiosity and playfulness. It outlines innovative ways of engaging the older old through "digital curios" such as Bloom, the Tenori On and Google Earth. The use of these curios was supplemented with portraiture by three local artists, nine school children and the field researcher. The paper describes four technological interventions: "video window", "projected portraiture", "blank canvas", and "soundscape radio". These interventions attempt to reposition "off the shelf technologies to provide a space for cross-generational engagement The notion of inter-passivity (the obverse of interaction) is explored in relation to each intervention.

© All rights reserved Blythe et al. and/or their publisher

 
Edit | Del

Gaver, William W. (2010): Interaction research studio: Goldsmiths, University of London. In Interactions, 17 (6) pp. 84-87. Available online

2008
 
Edit | Del

Gaver, William W., Boucher, Andy, Law, Andy, Pennington, Sarah, Bowers, John, Beaver, Jacob, Humble, Jan, Kerridge, Tobie, Villar, Nicholas and Wilkie, Alex (2008): Threshold devices: looking out from the home. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2008 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 5-10, 2008. pp. 1429-1438. Available online

Threshold devices present information gathered from the home's surroundings to give new views on the domestic situation. We built two prototypes of different threshold devices and studied them in field trials with participant households. The Local Barometer displays online text and images related to the home's locality depending on the local wind conditions to give an impression of the sociocultural surroundings. The Plane Tracker tracks aircraft passing overhead and imagines their flights onscreen to resource an understanding of the home's global links. Our studies indicated that the experiences they provided were compelling, that participants could and did interpret the devices in various ways, that their form designs were appropriate for domestic environments, that using ready-made information contributed to the richness of the experiences, and that situating the information they provided with respect to the home and its locality was important for the ways people engaged with them.

© All rights reserved Gaver et al. and/or ACM Press

 Cited in the following chapter:

Usability Evaluation: [/encyclopedia/usability_evaluation.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

Usability Evaluation: [/encyclopedia/usability_evaluation.html]


 
2007
 
Edit | Del

Gaver, William W., Sengers, Phoebe, Kerridge, Tobie, Kaye, Joseph Jofish and Bowers, John (2007): Enhancing ubiquitous computing with user interpretation: field testing the home health horoscope. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2007 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2007. pp. 537-546. Available online

Domestic ubiquitous computing systems often rely on inferences about activities in the home, but the open-ended, dynamic and heterogeneous nature of the home poses serious problems for such systems. In this paper, we propose that by shifting the responsibility for interpretation from the system to the user, we can build systems that interact with people at humanly meaningful levels, preserve privacy, and encourage engagement with suggested topics. We describe a system that embodies this hypothesis, using sensors and inferencing software to assess 'domestic wellbeing' and presenting the results to inhabitants through an output chosen for its ambiguity. In a three-month field study of the system, customised for a particular volunteer household, users engaged extensively with the system, discussing and challenging its outputs and responding to the particular topics it raised.

© All rights reserved Gaver et al. and/or ACM Press

 
Edit | Del

Gaver, William W., Bowers, John, Boucher, Andrew, Law, Andy, Pennington, Sarah and Walker, Brendan (2007): Electronic Furniture for the Curious Home: Assessing Ludic Designs in the Field. In International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 22 (1) pp. 119-152. Available online

This article describes field trials of 3 electronic furniture prototypes designed to encourage ludic engagement in the home. The Drift Table shows slowly scrolling aerial photography controlled by the weight of the objects on its surface. The History Tablecloth creates slowly growing "halos" around things left on it. The Key Table measures the force with which people put things on it and tilts a picture frame to indicate their mood. The pieces were loaned to different households for periods of 1 to 3 months. Because they were designed for user appropriation, a hypothesis-testing paradigm is inappropriate for evaluating their success. The focus instead was on gathering rich, multilayered accounts of people's experience through ethnographic observations and documentary videos. The results helped assess the particular designs, draw lessons for ludic design more generally, and reflect on field methods for evaluating open-ended designs.

© All rights reserved Gaver et al. and/or Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

 
Edit | Del

Gaver, William W. (2007): Cultural commentators: Non-native interpretations as resources for polyphonic assessment. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 65 (4) pp. 292-305. Available online

Designs for everyday life must be considered in terms of the many facets of experience they affect, including their aesthetics, emotional effects, genre, social niche, and cultural connotations. In this paper, I discuss the use of cultural commentators, people whose profession it is to inform and shape public opinion, as resources for multi-layered assessments of designs for everyday life. I describe our work with a team of movie screenwriters to help interpret the results of a Cultural Probe study, and with film-makers to document the experiences of people living with prototype designs in their homes. The value of employing cultural commentators is that they work outside our usual community of discourse, and are often accustomed to reflecting issues of aesthetics, emotions, social fit or cultural implication that are difficult to address from traditional HCI perspectives. They help to focus and articulate people's accounts of their experiences, extrapolating narratives from incomplete information, and dramatising relationships to create powerful and provocative stories. In so doing, they create the grounds for a polyphonic assessment of prototypes, in which a multiplicity of perspectives encourages a multi-layered assessment.

© All rights reserved Gaver and/or Academic Press

2006
 
Edit | Del

Gaver, William W., Bowers, John, Boucher, Andy, Law, Andy, Pennington, Sarah and Villar, Nicholas (2006): The history tablecloth: illuminating domestic activity. In: Proceedings of DIS06: Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, & Techniques 2006. pp. 199-208. Available online

The History Tablecloth is a flexible substrate screen-printed with electroluminescent material forming a grid of lace-like elements. When objects are left on the table, cells beneath them light to form a halo that grows over a period of hours, highlighting the flow of objects in the home. The Tablecloth explores an approach to design that emphasises engaging, open-ended situations over defined utilitarian purposes. Long-term deployment of the History Tablecloth in a volunteer household revealed complex ways that people experienced and interacted with the Tablecloth. Beyond evoking reflection on the flow of objects over a particular table, the Tablecloth served as a ground for interpretative reflection about technology, an asset for social interaction, and an aesthetic object. Even behaviours we saw as system errors were interpreted by the users as interactively rich. Their experience highlights the subtlety of domestic ubiquitous computing, illustrating alternatives to traditional views of technology's domestic role.

© All rights reserved Gaver et al. and/or ACM Press

 
Edit | Del

Raijmakers, Bas, Gaver, William W. and Bishay, Jon (2006): Design documentaries: inspiring design research through documentary film. In: Proceedings of DIS06: Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, & Techniques 2006. pp. 229-238. Available online

This paper shows how we can take inspiration and use techniques from documentary film in pursuing user research. Documentary filmmaking has a long history of portraying everyday life in ways that leave the erratic, elusive fabric of the everyday intact. This may be valuable as interaction design currently embraces issues of engagement, expression and aesthetics. We discuss key documentary formats, and suggest that a purely observational approach may not be most valuable for design research. Three design documentaries are discussed to show how different documentary approaches can be used in practice to inform the early stages of design. We suggest that, for design research in HCI, film can be much more than a note-taking tool; we can use it as a means to explore, understand and present the everyday, and benefit from film's capabilities to preserve ambiguities and paradoxes instead of resolving them into univocal conclusions.

© All rights reserved Raijmakers et al. and/or ACM Press

 
Edit | Del

Boucher, Andrew and Gaver, William W. (2006): Developing the drift table. In Interactions, 13 (1) pp. 24-27.

 
Edit | Del

Gaver, William W. (2006): Designing for our (sur)real lives. In: Kjeldskov, Jesper and Paay, Jane (eds.) Proceedings of OZCHI06, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2006. p. 5. Available online

In this talk, I present an overview of design-led research that I have been pursuing with a multidisciplinary team to produce prototypes, methods and concepts appropriate to technologies for our everyday lives.

© All rights reserved Gaver and/or his/her publisher

 
Edit | Del

Gaver, William W. (2006): The video window: my life with a ludic system. In Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, 10 (2) pp. 60-65. Available online

2004
 
Edit | Del

Gaver, William W., Boucher, Andrew, Pennington, Sarah and Walker, Brendan (2004): Cultural probes and the value of uncertainty. In Interactions, 11 (5) pp. 53-56. Available online

When reason is away, smiles will play. -- Paul Eluard and Benjamin Peret

© All rights reserved Gaver et al. and/or Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

2003
 
Edit | Del

Gaver, William W., Beaver, Jacob and Benford, Steve (2003): Ambiguity as a resource for design. In: Cockton, Gilbert and Korhonen, Panu (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2003 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 5-10, 2003, Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, USA. pp. 233-240.

 
Edit | Del

Gaver, William W., Boucher, A. and Martin, H. (2003): Evaluating the Double-Deck Desk. In: Stephanidis, Constantine (ed.) Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction June 22-27, 2003, Crete, Greece. pp. 369-373.

2000
 
Edit | Del

Djajadiningrat, J. P., Gaver, William W. and Fres, J. W. (2000): Interaction Relabelling and Extreme Characters: Methods for Exploring Aesthetic Interactions. In: Proceedings of DIS00: Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, & Techniques 2000. pp. 66-71. Available online

Aesthetics and interaction are interwoven concepts, rather than separate entities. An aesthetics of interaction must consider richness in appearance, actions, and role. Moving beyond a narrow focus on usability in this way requires new methods for understanding design possibilities. Here we describe two: interaction relabelling, in which possible interactions with a known mechanical device are mapped to the functions of an electronic device to be designed; and extreme characters, in which fictional users with exaggerated emotional attitudes are taken as the basis of design to highlight cultural issues. These methods may help designers in considering physical interactions with products on the one hand, and the sociocultural role their products will take on the other.

© All rights reserved Djajadiningrat et al. and/or ACM Press

 Cited in the following chapters:

Requirements Engineering: [/encyclopedia/requirements_engineering.html]

Personas: [/encyclopedia/personas.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapters:

Requirements Engineering: [/encyclopedia/requirements_engineering.html]

Personas: [/encyclopedia/personas.html]


 
1999
 
Edit | Del

Gaver, William W. and Dunne, Anthony (1999): Projected Realities: Conceptual Design for Cultural Effect. In: Altom, Mark W. and Williams, Marian G. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 99 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference May 15-20, 1999, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. pp. 600-607. Available online

As a part of a European Union sponsored project, we have proposed a system which aggregates people's expressions over a widening network of public electronic displays in a massive Dutch housing development. Reflecting ideas from contemporary arts as well as from research on media spaces, this is an example of a conceptual design intended to produce meaningful effects on a local culture. In this paper, we describe the methods and ideas that led to this proposal, as an example of research on technologies from the traditions of artist-designers.

© All rights reserved Gaver and Dunne and/or ACM Press

 Cited in the following chapter:

Semi-structured qualitative studies: [/encyclopedia/semi-structured_qualitative_studies.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

Semi-structured qualitative studies: [/encyclopedia/semi-structured_qualitative_studies.html]


 
1996
 
Edit | Del

Gaver, William W. (1996): Affordances for interaction: The social is material for design. In Ecological psychology, 8 (2) pp. 111-129. Available online

In this article, I explore an ecological approach to social interaction, using the concept of affordances to describe material properties of the environment that affect how people interact. My examples come mainly from the design of technologies that support collaboration. The physical properties of paper and electronic media—for instance electronic mail or video communication system—affects how they can be used and how people can use them to interact. Many of these effects are due to differences in the degree to which the media afford prediction and exploration. Because they are based on material properties, these affordances run deep, and trying to design against their grain is not easy. Difficulties of design, however, can shed light on subtleties of interaction that might otherwise be overlooked. Thus design is both guided by, and can guide, an ecological approach to social interaction. Nonetheless, design is only one example of the wide range of issues an ecological approach to social behaviour might address. Such an approach may provide as fundamental a challenge to existing perspectives on social interaction as it has to traditional theories of perception.

© All rights reserved Gaver and/or Taylor and Francis

 Cited in the following chapter:

Affordances: [/encyclopedia/affordances_and_design.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

Affordances: [/encyclopedia/affordances_and_design.html]


 
1995
 
Edit | Del

Gaver, William W., Smets, Gerda and Overbeeke, Kees (1995): A Virtual Window on Media Space. In: Katz, Irvin R., Mack, Robert L., Marks, Linn, Rosson, Mary Beth and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 95 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference May 7-11, 1995, Denver, Colorado. pp. 257-264. Available online

The Virtual Window system uses head movements in a local office to control camera movement in a remote office. The result is like a window allowing exploration of remote scenes rather than a flat screen showing moving pictures. Our analysis of the system, experience implementing a prototype, and observations of people using it, combine to suggest that it may help overcome the limitations of typical media space configurations. In particular, it seems useful in offering an expanded field of view, reducing visual discontinuities, allowing mutual negotiation of orientation, providing depth information, and supporting camera awareness. The prototype we built is too large, noisy, slow and inaccurate for extended use, but it is valuable in opening a space of possibilities for the design of systems that allow richer access to remote colleagues.

© All rights reserved Gaver et al. and/or ACM Press

1994
 
Edit | Del

Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel and Gaver, William W. (1994): ENO: Synthesizing Structured Sound Spaces. In: Szekely, Pedro (ed.) Proceedings of the 7th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 02 - 04, 1994, Marina del Rey, California, United States. pp. 49-57. Available online

ENO is an audio server designed to make it easy for applications in the Unix environment to incorporate non-speech audio cues. At the physical level, ENO manages a shared resource, namely the audio hardware. At the logical level, it manages a sound space that is shared by various client applications. Instead of dealing with sound in terms of its physical description (i.e., sampled sounds), ENO allows sounds to be represented and controlled in terms of higher-level descriptions of sources, interactions, attributes, and sound space. Using this structure, ENO can facilitate the creation of consistent, rich systems of audio cues. In this paper, we discuss the justification, design, and implementation of ENO.

© All rights reserved Beaudouin-Lafon and Gaver and/or ACM Press

1993
 
Edit | Del

Gaver, William W. (1993): Synthesizing Auditory Icons. In: Ashlund, Stacey, Mullet, Kevin, Henderson, Austin, Hollnagel, Erik and White, Ted (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 93 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 24-29, 1993, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. pp. 228-235. Available online

Auditory icons add valuable functionality to computer interfaces, particularly when they are parameterized to convey dimensional information. They are difficult to create and manipulate, however, because they usually rely on digital sampling techniques. This paper suggests that new synthesis algorithms, controlled along dimensions of events rather than those of the sounds themselves, may solve this problem. Several algorithms, developed from research on auditory event perception, are described in enough detail here to permit their implementation. They produce a variety of impact, bouncing, breaking, scraping, and machine sounds. By controlling them with attributes of relevant computer events, a wide range of parameterized auditory icons may be created.

© All rights reserved Gaver and/or ACM Press

 
Edit | Del

Gaver, William W., Sellen, Abigail, Heath, Christian and Luff, Paul (1993): One is Not Enough: Multiple Views in a Media Space. In: Ashlund, Stacey, Mullet, Kevin, Henderson, Austin, Hollnagel, Erik and White, Ted (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 93 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 24-29, 1993, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. pp. 335-341. Available online

Media spaces support collaboration, but the limited access they provide to remote colleagues' activities can undermine their utility. To address this limitation, we built an experimental system in which four switchable cameras were deployed in each of two remote offices, and observed participants using the system to collaborate on two tasks. The new views allowed increased access to task-related artifacts; indeed, users preferred these views to more typical "face-to-face" ones. However, problems of establishing a joint frame of reference were exacerbated by the additional complexity, leading us to speculate about more effective ways to expand access to remote sites.

© All rights reserved Gaver et al. and/or ACM Press

1992
 
Edit | Del

Gaver, William W., Moran, Thomas P., MacLean, Allan, Lovstrand, Lennart, Dourish, Paul, Carter, Kathleen and Buxton, Bill (1992): Realizing a Video Environment: EuroPARC's RAVE System. In: Bauersfeld, Penny, Bennett, John and Lynch, Gene (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 92 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference June 3-7, 1992, Monterey, California. pp. 27-35. Available online

At EuroPARC, we have been exploring ways to allow physically separated colleagues to work together effectively and naturally. In this paper, we briefly discuss several examples of our work in the context of three themes that have emerged: the need to support the full range of shared work; the desire to ensure privacy without giving up unobtrusive awareness; and the possibility of creating systems which blur the boundaries between people, technologies and the everyday world.

© All rights reserved Gaver et al. and/or ACM Press

 Cited in the following chapter:

Computer Supported Cooperative Work: [/encyclopedia/cscw_computer_supported_cooperative_work.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

Computer Supported Cooperative Work: [/encyclopedia/cscw_computer_supported_cooperative_work.html]


 
 
Edit | Del

Gaver, William W. (1992): The Affordances of Media Spaces for Collaboration. In: Proceedings of the 1992 ACM conference on Computer-supported cooperative work November 01 - 04, 1992, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. pp. 17-24. Available online

In this paper, I discuss the affordances offered by media spaces for collaboration, contrasting their properties with those of the everyday medium and exploring the implications for perception and interaction. Collaboration is situated in a physical environment which supports or constrains the various forms social interactions might take. An analysis of the affordances of the environment -- the properties that offer actions and interactions to those within it -- thus complements analyses which emphasize social and cultural factors. Examining the "physics" of media space systems is helpful both in understanding how people use them to collaborate and in suggesting possibilities for design.

© All rights reserved Gaver and/or ACM Press

 Cited in the following chapter:

Affordances: [/encyclopedia/affordances_and_design.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

Affordances: [/encyclopedia/affordances_and_design.html]


 
1991
 
Edit | Del

Gaver, William W. (1991): Technology Affordances. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 79-84.

 Cited in the following chapters:

Affordances: [/encyclopedia/affordances.html]

Industrial Design: [/encyclopedia/industrial_design.html]

Affordances: [/encyclopedia/affordances_and_design.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapters:

Affordances: [/encyclopedia/affordances.html]

Industrial Design: [/encyclopedia/industrial_design.html]

Affordances: [/encyclopedia/affordances_and_design.html]


 
 
Edit | Del

Gaver, William W., Smith, Raoul N. and O'Shea, Tim (1991): Effective Sounds in Complex Systems: The ARKola Simulation. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 85-90. Available online

We designed an ecology of auditory icons which worked together to convey information about a complex, demanding simulation task, and observed users collaborating on it with and without sound. Our observations suggest that audio cues can provide useful information about processes and problems, and support the perceptual integration of a number of separate processes into one complex one. In addition, they can smooth the transition between division of labour and collaboration by providing a new dimension of reference. These results suggest that auditory icons can play a significant role in future multiprocessing and collaborative systems.

© All rights reserved Gaver et al. and/or ACM Press

 
Edit | Del

Gaver, William W. (1991): Sound Support for Collaboration. In: Bannon, Liam, Robinson, Mike and Schmidt, Kjeld (eds.) ECSCW 91 - Proceedings of the Second European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work September 24-27, 1991, Amsterdam, Netherlands. .

 
Edit | Del

Gaver, William W. and Smith, Randall B. (1991): Auditory Icons in Large-Scale Collaborative Environments. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 23 (1) p. 96.

We discuss the potential for auditory icons to address several common problems in large-scale, multiprocessing, and collaborative systems. These problems include those of confirming user-initiated actions, providing information about ongoing processes or system states, providing adequate navigational information, and signalling the existence and activity of other users who may be working in a part of the system that is not visible. We provide several examples of useful auditory icons drawn from a large, shared, multitasking environment called SharedARK, and discuss their implications for other systems.

© All rights reserved Gaver and Smith and/or ACM Press

 
Edit | Del

Gaver, William W., Smith, Randall B. and O'Shea, Tim (1991): Effective Sounds in Complex Systems: The Arkola Simulation. In , . Available online

We designed an ecology of auditory icons which worked together to convey information about a complex, demanding simulation task, and observed users collaborating on it with and without sound. Our observations suggest that audio cues can provide useful information about processes and problems, and support the perceptual integration of a number of separate processes into one complex one. In addition, they can smooth the transition between division of labour and collaboration by providing a new dimension of reference. These results suggest that auditory icons can play a significant role in future multiprocessing and collaborative systems.

© All rights reserved Gaver et al. and/or their publisher

1990
 
Edit | Del

Gaver, William W. and Smith, Randall B. (1990): Auditory Icons in Large-Scale Collaborative Environments. In: Diaper, Dan, Gilmore, David J., Cockton, Gilbert and Shackel, Brian (eds.) INTERACT 90 - 3rd IFIP International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction August 27-31, 1990, Cambridge, UK. pp. 735-740.

We discuss the potential for auditory icons to address several common problems in large-scale, multiprocessing, and collaborative systems. These problems include those of confirming user-initiated actions, providing information about ongoing processes or system states, providing adequate navigational information, and signalling the existence and activity of other users who may be working in a part of the system that is not visible. We provide several examples of useful auditory icons drawn from a large, shared, multitasking environment called SharedARK, and discuss their implications for other systems.

© All rights reserved Gaver and Smith and/or North-Holland

1989
 
Edit | Del

Gaver, William W. (1989): The Sonic Finder: An Interface that Uses Auditory Icons. In Human-Computer Interaction, 4 (1) pp. 67-94.

The appropriate use of non-speech sounds has the potential to add a great deal to the functionality of computer interfaces. Sound is a largely unexploited medium of output, even though it plays an integral role in our everyday encounters with the world, a role that is complementary to vision. Sound should be used in computers as it is in the world, where it conveys information about the nature of sound-producing events. Such a strategy leads to auditory icons, which are everyday sounds meant to convey information about computer events by analogy with everyday events. Auditory icons are an intuitively accessible way to use sound to provide multidimensional, organized information to users. These ideas are instantiated in the SonicFinder, which is an auditory interface I developed at Apple Computer, Inc. In this interface, information is conveyed using auditory icons as well as standard graphical feedback. I discuss how events are mapped to auditory icons in the SonicFinder and illustrate how sound is used by describing a typical interaction with this interface. Two major gains are associated with using sound in this interface: an increase in direct engagement with the model world of the computer and an added flexibility for users in getting information about that world. These advantages seem to be due to the iconic nature of the mappings used between sound and the information it is to convey. I discuss sound effects and source metaphors as methods of extending auditory icons beyond the limitations implied by literal mappings, and I speculate on future directions for such interfaces.

© All rights reserved Gaver and/or Taylor and Francis

1986
 
Edit | Del

Gaver, William W. (1986): Auditory Icons: Using Sound in Computer Interfaces. In Human-Computer Interaction, 2 (2) pp. 167-177.

There is growing interest in the use of sound to convey information in computer interfaces. The strategies employed thus far have been based on an understanding of sound that leads to either an arbitrary or metaphorical relation between the sounds used and the data to be represented. In this article, an alternative approach to the use of sound in computer interfaces is outlined, one that emphasizes the role of sound in conveying information about the world to the listener. According to this approach, auditory icons, caricatures of naturally occurring sounds, could be used to provide information about sources of data. Auditory icons provide a natural way to represent dimensional data as well as conceptual objects in a computer system. They allow categorization of data into distinct families, using a single sound. Perhaps the most important advantage of this strategy is that it is based on the way people listen to the world in their everyday lives.

© All rights reserved Gaver and/or Taylor and Francis

 Cited in the following chapter:

Affordances: [/encyclopedia/affordances_and_design.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

Affordances: [/encyclopedia/affordances_and_design.html]


 
 
Add publication
Show list on your website
 
 

Join our community and advance:

Your
Skills

Your
Network

Your
Career

 
Join our community!
 
 
 

Page Information

Page maintainer: The Editorial Team
URL: http://www.interaction-design.org/references/authors/william_w__gaver.html