Number of co-authors:20
Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:Michael G. Lamming:3Abigail Sellen:2Kenton P. O'Hara:2
William M. Newman's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:Abigail Sellen:81Roy Want:41Chris Schmandt:40
Computer programs emerge as the outcome of complex human processes of cognition, communication and negotiation, which serve to establish the meaningful embedding of the computer system in its intended use context.
-- Floyd, 1992, p. 24
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The Social Design of Technical Systems: Building technologies for communities
by Brian Whitworth and Adnan Ahmad
The Encyclopedia of Human-Computer Interaction, 2nd Ed.
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William M. Newman
Has also published under the name of:
Publications by William M. Newman (bibliography)
Newman, William M. (2006): Must electronic gadgets disrupt our face-to-face conversations?. In Interactions, 13 (6) pp. 18-19.
Newman, William M., Jeffries, Robin and Schraefel, M. C. (2005): Do CHI papers work for you?: addressing concerns of authors, audiences and reviewers. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 2045-2046.
CHI papers serve unique and vital purposes within the HCI community. Their ability to serve these purposes is of particular concern to authors, audiences (both attendees at conference sessions and readers of proceedings) and reviewers. However, these stakeholders rarely have an opportunity to state their concerns and influence how they are addressed. This SIG will offer such an opportunity. It has been organized by members of the CHI Papers Support Team, who will lead discussions of major issues. The outcome will be a set of recommended further actions by the Support Team and future papers co-chairs.
© All rights reserved Newman et al. and/or ACM Press
O'Hara, Kenton P., Taylor, Alex, Newman, William M. and Sellen, Abigail (2002): Understanding the materiality of writing from multiple sources. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 56 (3) pp. 269-305.
Writing research has typically focussed on the text production elements of
writing. Many everyday writing tasks, however, cannot be characterized simply
in terms of text production since they often involve the use of source
materials to support the composition process. As such, these tasks are better
thought of as hybrid tasks. Such hybrid tasks have been given relatively little
attention in the literature and what little work has been done has taken a
purely cognitive approach that downplays the material context within which the
task takes place. Following Haas' critique of mainstream writing research which
advocated the need to consider the material tools and artefacts in theories of
writing, this paper takes a similar approach in relation to the hybrid tasks of
writing while reading from multiple sources. A study is presented that explores
a range of everyday writing from multiple sources in their real-world contexts.
The study highlights a number of important characteristics of the interaction
with the material artefacts used during these tasks and the impact that these
have on the underlying cognitive processes. The hope is that these will begin
to offer some grounding on which future theoretical understanding of these
hybrid tasks can build, as well as providing useful insights into the design of
technologies to support these tasks.
© All rights reserved O'Hara et al. and/or Academic Press
Newman, William M., Taylor, Alex S., Dance, Christopher R. and Taylor, Stuart A. (2000): Performance Targets, Models and Innovation in Interactive System Design. In: Proceedings of DIS00: Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, & Techniques 2000. pp. 381-387.
This paper presents an approach to designing interactive systems that enables critical performance parameters to be identified and models of performance to be constructed. The methods described are intended to enable designers to improve the performance of systems, and the provision of performance targets is expected to encourage innovation in design. An example is quoted in which digital camera technology was applied to the support of authors using paper source documents, to enable them to capture source text more rapidly and thus increase their productivity, measured in terms of words per hour. A model of the capture task was constructed, and was used to set a target time for capturing short text segments. This target was presented to a design team, who responded with an innovative interface incorporating auto-completion. A prototype auto-completion tool demonstrated that the performance target could be met.
© All rights reserved Newman et al. and/or ACM Press
O'Hara, Kenton P., Smith, Fiona, Newman, William M. and Sellen, Abigail (1998): Student Readers' Use of Library Documents: Implications for Library Technologies. In: Karat, Clare-Marie, Lund, Arnold, Coutaz, Joëlle and Karat, John (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 98 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 18-23, 1998, Los Angeles, California. pp. 233-240.
We report on a study of graduate students conducting research in libraries, focusing on how they extract and record information as they read. By examining their information recording activities within the context of their work as a whole, it is possible to highlight why students choose particular strategies and styles of recording for what these activities provide both at the time of reading and at subsequent points in time. The implications of these findings for digital library technologies are discussed.
© All rights reserved O'Hara et al. and/or ACM Press
Newman, William M. and Lamming, Michael G. (1995): Interactive System Design. Wokingham, England, Addison-Wesley Publishing
Newman, William M. (1994): A Preliminary Analysis of the Products of HCI Research, Using Pro Forma Abstracts. In: Adelson, Beth, Dumais, Susan and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 94 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 24-28, 1994, Boston, Massachusetts. pp. 278-284.
A classification scheme for the products of engineering research is described, involving three principal categories of product: improved modelling techniques, solutions and tools. These categories can be linked to the contributions they make to engineering design. A set of pro forma abstracts are proposed as a reliable means of identifying the three categories. A preliminary sample of published engineering papers indicates that normally at least 90 percent of the papers fall into these three categories. For recent CHI and InterCHI conferences, however, only about 30 percent of papers can be thus categorized. The remainder appear mostly to describe radical solutions (solutions not derived from incremental improvements to solutions to the same problem), and experience and/or heuristics gained mostly from studies of radical solutions. Some comments are made about the reasons for these departures from normal engineering research practice.
© All rights reserved Newman and/or ACM Press
Newman, William M. and Wellner, Pierre D. (1992): A Desk Supporting Computer-Based Interaction with Paper Documents. In: Bauersfeld, Penny, Bennett, John and Lynch, Gene (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 92 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference June 3-7, 1992, Monterey, California. pp. 587-592.
Before the advent of the personal workstation, office work practice revolved around the paper document. Today the electronic medium offers a number of advantages over paper, but it has not eradicated paper from the office. A growing problem for those who work primarily with paper is lack of direct access to the wide variety of interactive functions available on personal workstations. This paper describes a desk with a computer-controlled projector and camera above it. The result is a system that enables people to interact with ordinary paper documents in ways normally possible only with electronic documents on workstation screens. After discussing the motivation for this work, this paper describes the system and two sample applications that can benefit from this style of interaction: a desk calculator and a French to English translation system. We describe the design and implementation of the system, report on some user tests, and conclude with some general reflections on interacting with computers in this way.
© All rights reserved Newman and and/or ACM Press
Harper, Richard H. R., Lamming, Michael G. and Newman, William M. (1992): Locating Systems at Work: Implications for the Development of Active Badge Applications. In Interacting with Computers, 4 (3) pp. 343-363.
The paper reports findings from a sociological examination of the use of 'active badge' location information systems in two research laboratories. The use, distribution and control of location information is examined in reference to the social roles individuals have in what will be called the 'moral order' of workplaces. Suggestions for subsequent versions of location systems are made, and the use of sociological methods in design remarked.
© All rights reserved Harper et al. and/or Elsevier Science
Newman, William M., Eldridge, Margery and Lamming, Michael G. (1991): PEPYS: Generating Autobiographies by Automatic Tracking. In: Bannon, Liam, Robinson, Mike and Schmidt, Kjeld (eds.) ECSCW 91 - Proceedings of the Second European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 1991. .
Pier, Ken, Newman, William M., Redell, David, Schmandt, Chris, Theimer, Marvin M. and Want, Roy (1991): Locator Technology in Distributed Systems: The Active Badge. In: Jong, Peter de (ed.) Proceedings of the Conference on Organizational Computing Systems 1991 November 6-8, 1991, Atlanta, Georgia, USA. pp. 285-287.
Experiments with technology for locating and tracking people and things are occurring in computer science research centers in Europe and the United States. Although in its early stages, this location capability is viewed as an enabler for next-generation distributed computing systems in offices, universities, and perhaps the wider world. Such systems will no longer shackle users to their desktop PC or leave them stranded, unconnected, when using portable and notebook systems. Instead, ubiquitous wireless networks will track users and machines, delivering information and services as needed to people on the go [SciAm91]. The first of these locator technologies is called the Active Badge. Originated by Dr. Roy Want at the Olivetti Cambridge Research Lab, active badge networks are now installed at six sites [Sites]. These badges, worn in the workplace much like common corporate ID badges, use infrared technology to broadcast unique IDs to a simple network of sensors installed in laboratory spaces. The sensor network elements are polled by a central location service. Clients of that service can correlate sensor number with physical location and, for example, frequently update a location data base that is available to still other client programs. Locator technology raises a number of important questions, some of which are addressed by this panel. From the technology side, one might ask how these systems work, what other implementations are possible, and how should locator technology evolve and interact with other technologies in coming systems. Perhaps even more important are the sociological and ethical questions raised by locator capability. Will "Big Brother" monitor your every move? Must you wear an active badge to get your work done? Can you drop-in and drop-out of the location system as you wish? Can we architect systems that provide desirable services without actually revealing any individual's location and trail unless given permission by that individual? Some of these issues and some systems already in place will be discussed by our panelists.
© All rights reserved Pier et al. and/or ACM Press
Newman, William M. (1988): The Representation of User Interface Style. In: Jones, Dylan M. and Winder, R. (eds.) Proceedings of the Fourth Conference of the British Computer Society Human Computer Interaction Specialist Group - People and Computers IV August 5-9, 1988, University of Manchester, UK. pp. 123-143.
This paper identifies the need for representations of styles of user interface, particularly as a basis for choosing an application style or porting an application to a new environment. It identifies the requirements that a style representation should meet, and then proceeds to develop a representation based on the use of points of style. It shows how this representation is capable of relating style to user requirements, how it helps construct the style's underlying argument, and how it exposes stylistic weaknesses. Several worked examples are included.
© All rights reserved Newman and/or Cambridge University Press
Newman, William M., Stephens, Nigel and Sweetman, Dominic (1985): A Window Manager with a Modular User Interface. In: Johnson, Peter and Cook, Stephen (eds.) Proceedings of the Conference of the British Computer Society Human Computer Interaction Specialist Group - People and Computers I August 17-20, 1985, University of East Anglia. pp. 415-426.
Modern graphics systems need to support multiple independent areas for graphic interaction on a single screen. Software packages (Window Managers) to support this are becoming more common on personal computers and workstations. It remains a challenge to construct a window manager which provides an effective front-end to UNIX The paper describes how we have approached this problem by dividing the system into a flexible but low-bandwidth manager and a less flexible but high-performance screen driver. The division is based upon our understanding of the general user interface requirements of window systems.
© All rights reserved Newman et al. and/or Cambridge University Press
Newman, William M. (1971): Display Procedures. In Communications of the ACM, 14 (10) pp. 651-660.
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