Publication statistics

Pub. period:1988-2011
Pub. count:61
Number of co-authors:82



Co-authors

Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Michel Beaudouin-Lafon:8
Panos Markopoulos:4
Boris de Ruyter:4

 

 

Productive colleagues

Wendy E. Mackay's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Paul Dourish:96
Elizabeth Dykstra-..:83
Panos Markopoulos:81
 
 
 
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Wendy E. Mackay

Has also published under the name of:
"Wendy Mackay" and "W. E. Mackay"

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Publications by Wendy E. Mackay (bibliography)

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2011
 
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Eagan, James R., Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel and Mackay, Wendy E. (2011): Cracking the cocoa nut: user interface programming at runtime. In: Proceedings of the 2011 ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology 2011. pp. 225-234.

This article introduces runtime toolkit overloading, a novel approach to help third-party developers modify the interaction and behavior of existing software applications without access to their underlying source code. We describe the abstractions provided by this approach as well as the mechanisms for implementing them in existing environments. We describe Scotty, a prototype implementation for Mac OS X Cocoa that enables developers to modify existing applications at runtime, and we demonstrate a collection of interaction and functional transformations on existing off-the-shelf applications. We show how Scotty helps a developer make sense of unfamiliar software, even without access to its source code. We further discuss what features of future environments would facilitate this kind of runtime software development.

© All rights reserved Eagan et al. and/or ACM Press

2010
 
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Riche, Yann and Mackay, Wendy E. (2010): PeerCare: Supporting Awareness of Rhythms and Routines for Better Aging in Place. In Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW), .

Caring for the elderly is becoming a key challenge for society, given the shortage of trained personnel and the increased age of the population. Innovative approaches are needed to help the elderly remain at home longer and more safely, that is, to age in place. One popular strategy is to monitor the activity of the elderly: this focuses on obtaining information for caregivers rather than supporting the elderly directly. We propose an alternative, i.e. to enhance their inter-personal communication. We report the results of a user study with 14 independent elderly women and discuss the existing role that communication plays in maintaining their independence and well-being. We highlight the importance of peer support relationships, which we call PeerCare, and how awareness of each other's rhythms and routines helps them to stay in touch. We then describe the deployment of a technology probe, called markerClock, which a pair of elderly friends used to improve their awareness of each other's rhythms and routines. We conclude with a discussion of how such communication appliances enhance the awareness of rhythms and routines among elderly peers and can improve their quality of life and provide safer and more satisfying aging in place.

© All rights reserved Riche and Mackay and/or their publisher

 
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Tsandilas, Theophanis and Mackay, Wendy E. (2010): Knotty gestures: subtle traces to support interactive use of paper. In: Proceedings of the 2010 International Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces 2010. pp. 147-154.

We introduce the knotty gesture, a simple yet powerful technique for interacting with paper. Knots are tiny circles that can be added to any gesture. Users can leave subtle marks that permit both immediate interaction in the flow of writing and create rich opportunities for future interaction. We identify diverse applications of knotty gestures and explore alternative techniques for interacting with their traces. We conducted two experiments to evaluate the design and recognition heuristics and demonstrated that people can successfully execute knotty gestures, even without feedback. Knotty gestures provide users with a subtle, in-the-flow-of-writing technique for tagging information and subsequently interacting with the paper.

© All rights reserved Tsandilas and Mackay and/or their publisher

 
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Wagner, Julie and Mackay, Wendy E. (2010): Exploring sustainable design with reusable paper. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2010. pp. 1871-1874.

This paper explores the need for sustainable design with paper: how people really print and how we can take advantage of novel, reusable paper technology. We conducted two studies to investigate user's printing behavior. A key finding of the first study was that users often need an intermediate state between the electronic and physical forms of their documents. The second study examined users' predictions of which types of documents required this intermediate state. We formulate these findings into design guidelines that take into account: examination phase, transitions, cognitive and emotional reasons, and task- and event-relevant documents. Finally, we discuss how the different physical characteristics of reusable paper affect the user interface and could effectively support sustainable design.

© All rights reserved Wagner and Mackay and/or their publisher

2009
 
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Tsandilas, Theophanis, Letondal, Catherine and Mackay, Wendy E. (2009): Musink: composing music through augmented drawing. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2009. pp. 819-828.

We focus on the creative use of paper in the music composition process, particularly the interaction between paper and end-user programming. When expressing musical ideas, composers draw in a precise way, not just sketch. Working in close collaboration with composers, we designed Musink to provide them with a smooth transition between paper drawings and OpenMusic, a flexible music composition tool. Musink's built-in recognizers handle common needs, such as scoping and annotation. Users can also define new gestures and associate them with their own or predefined software functions. Musink supports semi-structured, delayed interpretation and serves as a customizable gesture browser, giving composers significant freedom to create their own, individualized composition languages and to experiment with music, on-paper and on-line.

© All rights reserved Tsandilas et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Lottridge, Danielle, Masson, Nicolas and Mackay, Wendy E. (2009): Sharing empty moments: design for remote couples. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2009. pp. 2329-2338.

Many couples are forced to live apart, for work, school or other reasons. This paper describes our study of 13 such couples and what they lack from existing communication technologies. We explored what they wanted to share (presence, mood, environment, daily events and activities), how they wanted to share (simple, lightweight, playful, pleasant interaction), and when they wanted to share ('empty moments' such as waiting, walking, taking a break, waking up, eating, and going to sleep). 'Empty moments' provide a compelling new opportunity for design, requiring subtlety and flexibility to enable participants to share connection without explicit messages. We designed MissU as a technology probe to study empty moments in situ. Similar to a private radio station, MissU shares music and background sounds. Field studies produced results relevant to social science, technology and design: couples with established routines were comforted; characteristics such as ambiguity and 'movable' technology (situated in the home yet portable) provide support. These insights suggest a design space for supporting the sharing of empty moments.

© All rights reserved Lottridge et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Bau, Olivier, Petrevski, Uros and Mackay, Wendy E. (2009): BubbleWrap: a textile-based electromagnetic haptic display. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2009. pp. 3607-3612.

We are investigating actuators that are able to provide different types of haptic sensations and that can be wrapped around a wide range of surfaces and objects. Our first prototype, BubbleWrap, consists of a matrix of electromagnetic actuators, enclosed in fabric, with individually controllable cells that expand and contract. It provides both active haptic feedback, using vibration, as well passive haptic feedback, using shape and firmness. An initial experiment demonstrated that users could reliably discriminate among the three firmness levels displayed on our prototype.

© All rights reserved Bau et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Mackay, Wendy E., Kleek, Max G. Van and Tabard, Aurélien (2009): Interacting with temporal data. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2009. pp. 4783-4786.

Time serves as a basis for measuring the occurrence and evolution of natural phenomena, and governs the coordination of many of our everyday life activities. As the capacities of our digital tools have grown, they have begun to make readily available to us unprecedented quantities of new, rich, structured temporal information about the people and things in our lives. This abundance of information has laid open avenues for new tools and applications -- applications which, in turn, introduce new demands on interface mechanisms used to display, represent and interact with temporal data. This workshop, the second in a series on Capturing, Interacting with and Visualizing Temporal Data, will focus on such demands, examining interaction challenges emerging across new application domains.

© All rights reserved Mackay et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Lottridge, Danielle and Mackay, Wendy E. (2009): Generative walkthroughs: to support creative redesign. In: Proceedings of the 2009 Conference on Creativity and Cognition 2009. pp. 175-184.

Generative Walkthoughs support the redesign phase of an iterative design process, helping designers generate new design alternatives informed by social science principles. Designers first analyze their own scenarios or storyboards with respect to concrete examples drawn from five socio-technical principles: situated action, rhythms&routines, co-adaptive systems, peripheral awareness and distributed cognition. They then walk through the scenario and brainstorm new design alternatives that reflect the design principle in question. This combination of structured walkthroughs with focused brainstorming helps designers, particularly those with little social science background, to generate concrete, actionable ideas that reflect key findings from the social science literature. We taught Generative Walkthroughs in ten courses with over 220 students and found that technically-trained students not only learned these socio-technical principles, but were able to apply them in innovative ways in a variety of design settings.

© All rights reserved Lottridge and Mackay and/or their publisher

2008
 
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Tabard, Aurélien, Mackay, Wendy E. and Eastmond, Evelyn (2008): From individual to collaborative: the evolution of prism, a hybrid laboratory notebook. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW08 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2008. pp. 569-578.

We report on our studies of the evolving work practices of biologists and the role paper and electronic lab notebooks play in supporting their individual and collaborative activity. We describe the participatory design and longitudinal field testing of Prism, a hybrid laboratory notebook that lets biologists capture, visualize and interact with cross-linked streams of physical and electronic data. We used Prism as a technology probe that users could adapt to integrate additional activity streams and share information from other biologists. Our key findings include the use of master notebooks, whether paper or electronic, which act as a reference point for handling and organizing the diverse strands of personal activity, and the importance of redundancy, which biologists use to make sense of their data. Prism provides a flexible, extensible tool that supports individual and collaborative reflection in creative work.

© All rights reserved Tabard et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Bau, Olivier and Mackay, Wendy E. (2008): OctoPocus: a dynamic guide for learning gesture-based command sets. In: Cousins, Steve B. and Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel (eds.) Proceedings of the 21st Annual ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology October 19-22, 2008, Monterey, CA, USA. pp. 37-46.

2007
 
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Tabard, Aurélien, Mackay, Wendy E., Roussel, Nicolas and Letondal, Catherine (2007): PageLinker: integrating contextual bookmarks within a browser. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2007 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2007. pp. 337-346.

PageLinker is a browser extension that allows to contextualise navigation by linking web pages together and to navigate through a network of related web pages without prior planning. The design is based on extensive interviews with biologists, which highlighted their difficulties finding previously visited web pages. They found current browser tools inadequate, resulting in poorly organised bookmarks and rarely used history lists. In a four-week controlled field experiment, PageLinker significantly reduced time, page loads and mouse clicks. By presenting links in context, PageLinker facilitates web page revisitation, is less prone to bookmark overload and is highly robust to change.

© All rights reserved Tabard et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Mackay, Wendy E., Appert, Caroline, Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel, Chapuis, Olivier, Du, Yangzhou, Fekete, Jean-Daniel and Guiard, Yves (2007): Touchstone: exploratory design of experiments. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2007 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2007. pp. 1425-1434.

Touchstone is an open-source experiment design platform designed to help establish a solid research foundation for HCI in the area of novel interaction techniques. Touchstone includes a design platform for exploring alternative designs of controlled laboratory experiments, a run platform for running subjects and a limited analysis platform for advice and access to on-line statistics packages. Designed for HCI researchers and their students, Touchstone facilitates the process of creating new experiments, as well as replicating and extending experiments in the research literature. We tested Touchstone by designing two controlled experiments. One illustrates how to create a new experiment from scratch. The other replicates and extends a previous study of multiscale pointing interaction techniques: OrthoZoom was fastest, followed by bi-manual Pan&Zoom; SDAZ and traditional Pan&Zoom were consistently slower.

© All rights reserved Mackay et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Markopoulos, Panos, Ruyter, Boris de and Mackay, Wendy E. (2007): Introduction to this Special Issue on Awareness Systems Design. In Human Computer Interaction, 22 (1) pp. 1-6.

 
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Markopoulos, Panos, Ruyter, Boris de and Mackay, Wendy E. (2007): Introduction to this Special Issue on Awareness Systems Design. In Human-Computer Interaction, 22 (1) pp. 1-6.

 
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Markopoulos, Panos, Ruyter, Boris de and Mackay, Wendy E. (2007): Introduction to this Special Issue on Awareness Systems Design. In Human-Computer Interaction, 22 (1) pp. 1-6.

 
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Riche, Yann and Mackay, Wendy E. (2007): MarkerClock: A Communicating Augmented Clock for Elderly. In: Baranauskas, Maria Cecília Calani, Palanque, Philippe A., Abascal, Julio and Barbosa, Simone Diniz Junqueira (eds.) DEGAS 2007 - Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Design and Evaluation of e-Government Applications and Services September 11th, 2007, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. pp. 408-411.

2006
 
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Eisenstein, Jacob and Mackay, Wendy E. (2006): Interacting with communication appliances: an evaluation of two computer vision-based selection techniques. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2006 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2006. pp. 1111-1114.

Communication appliances, intended for home settings, require intuitive forms of interaction. Computer vision offers a potential solution, but is not yet sufficiently accurate. As interaction designers, we need to know more than the absolute accuracy of such techniques: we must also be able to compare how they will work in our design settings, especially if we allow users to collaborate in the interpretation of their actions. We conducted a 2x4 within-subjects experiment to compare two interaction techniques based on computer vision: motion sensing, with EyeToy-like feedback, and object tracking. Both techniques were 100% accurate with 2 or 5 choices. With 21 choices, object-tracking had significantly fewer errors and took less time for an accurate selection. Participants' subjective preferences were divided equally between the two techniques. This study compares these techniques as they would be used in real-world applications, with integrated user feedback, allowing interface designers to choose the one that best suits the specific user requirements for their particular application.

© All rights reserved Eisenstein and Mackay and/or ACM Press

 
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Labrune, Jean-Baptiste and Mackay, Wendy E. (2006): Telebeads: social network mnemonics for teenagers. In: Proceedings of ACM IDC06: Interaction Design and Children 2006. pp. 57-64.

This article presents the design of Telebeads, a conceptual exploration of mobile mnemonic artefacts. Developed together with five 10-14 year olds across two participatory design sessions, we address the problem of social network massification by allowing teenagers to link individuals or groups with wearable objects such as handmade jewelery. We propose different concepts and scenarios using mixed-reality mobile interactions to augment crafted artefacts and describe a working prototype of a bluetooth luminous ring. We also discuss what such communication appliances may offer in the future with respect to interperception, experience networks and creativity analysis.

© All rights reserved Labrune and Mackay and/or ACM Press

 
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Masson, Nicolas and Mackay, Wendy E. (2006): Qui est connecté avec qui?: personnalisation et séparation dans les communication appliances. In: Proceedings of the 2006 Conference of the Association Francophone dInteraction Homme-Machine 2006. pp. 191-194.

Communication Appliances offer peripheral awareness among remotely located pairs or small groups of participants. Various media (image, sound, video) may be exchanged over a continuously-connected communication channel. We are interested in the problem of what happens when multiple communication appliances are connected, with multiple groups. What characteristics of Communication Appliances affect how users keep track of who is connected to whom? We developed the Com-Bar, a simple communication appliance, to act as a test-bed for comparing the effect of personalisation of exchanged images and separation across groups. Users made significantly more errors and took longer in the non-personalised and non-separated groups. However, adding either personalisation or separating the groups improved performance significantly, with optimal performance for non-personalised, separated groups.

© All rights reserved Masson and Mackay and/or ACM Press

2005
 
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Labrune, Jean-Baptiste and Mackay, Wendy E. (2005): Tangicam: exploring observation tools for children. In: Proceedings of ACM IDC05: Interaction Design and Children 2005. pp. 95-102.

This paper describes the design and early evaluation of the Tangicam, or tangible camera, a mobile device for children to capture and edit realistic pictures and videos. Our first experimental results show that the affordances of the Tangicam allow imitation learning and free playing in a context of tangible and augmented reality. Our goal is to create a simple and robust observation system that lets children produce narratives based on situated [51] video, audio and sensor data. We also want to explore how these temporal structures may allow children to describe themselves, other children or natural phenomena and how such situated time series may help develop new forms of synaesthetic and intersubjective constructions.

© All rights reserved Labrune and Mackay and/or ACM Press

 
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Markopoulos, Panos, Ruyter, Boris de and Mackay, Wendy E. (2005): Awareness systems: known results, theory, concepts and future challenges. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 2128-2129.

 
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Gellersen, Hans-Werner, Schmidt, Kjeld, Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel and Mackay, Wendy E. (eds.) Proceedings of the Ninth European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work 18-22 September , 2005, Paris, France.

2004
 
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Mackay, Wendy E. (2004): The interactive thread: exploring methods for multi-disciplinary design. In: Proceedings of DIS04: Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, & Techniques 2004. pp. 103-112.

The Interactive Thread is a design method that helps us gather detailed, contextualised data from a large user population while sharing interaction design methods with professional designers from different disciplines. We developed a set of 10-15 minute exercises drawn from design, social and computer science and presented them as a series woven throughout two interaction design conferences. Our goals were to provide an entertaining, interactive conference activity, to teach and share multi-disciplinary design methods, and to gather information that would otherwise be too labour-intensive for us as designers. This paper reflects on our experiences, including what worked and what did not. We discuss how others may reuse this strategy in other settings, including workshops, conferences and corporate retreats and we include an appendix with the specific interactive thread exercises.

© All rights reserved Mackay and/or ACM Press

 
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Appert, C., Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel and Mackay, Wendy E. (2004): Context matters: Evaluating Interaction Techniques with the CIS Model. In: Proceedings of the HCI04 Conference on People and Computers XVIII 2004. pp. 279-296.

 
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Letondal, Catherine and Mackay, Wendy E. (2004): Participatory programming and the scope of mutual responsibility: balancing scientific, design and software commitment. In: Clement, Andrew and Besselaar, Peter Van den (eds.) PDC 2004 - Proceedings of the Eighth Conference on Participatory Design July 27-31, 2004, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. pp. 31-41.

Over the past seven years, we have been conducting a variety of participatory design activities with research biologists, programmers, and bioinformaticians at the Institut Pasteur in Paris. We first describe the history of these activities and how they have created the beginnings of a participatory design culture. We introduce participatory programming, which integrates participatory design and end-user programming, and examine how it acts as a medium for forging scientific ideas. Finally, we reflect on three poles of activity: the computational medium, scientific hypotheses and participatory design.

© All rights reserved Letondal and Mackay and/or ACM Press

2003
 
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Hutchinson, Hilary, Mackay, Wendy E., Westerlund, Bosse, Bederson, Benjamin B., Druin, Allison, Plaisant, Catherine, Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel, Conversy, Stephane and Eiderback, Bjorn (2003): Technology probes: inspiring design for and with families. In: Cockton, Gilbert and Korhonen, Panu (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2003 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 5-10, 2003, Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, USA. pp. 17-24.

 
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Mackay, Wendy E. (2003): The missing link: integrating paper and electronic documents. In: Proceedings of the 2003 Conference of the Association Francophone dInteraction Homme-Machine 2003. pp. 1-8.

Despite the prevalence of computers and on-line documents, paper persists. As physical objects, paper documents are easy to use, flexible, portable and have proven extremely difficult to replace. Even though they all use computers, engineers still annotate large paper engineering drawings, video producers still sketch and rearrange paper storyboards, air traffic controllers still plan traffic flows with paper flight strips, and biologists still record experiments and organise multimedia data in paper notebooks. In this article, I argue that we should seriously reconsider the urge to replace all paper documents with on-line ones, accessible only with a mouse and keyboard and viewable only a screen. Instead, we should begin to think about "interactive paper": which maintains the ease-of-use of physical paper, while enabling us to benefit from the full spectrum of interactive computing.

© All rights reserved Mackay and/or ACM Press

 
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Conversy, Stephane, Roussel, Nicolas, Hansen, Heiko, Evans, Helen, Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel and Mackay, Wendy E. (2003): Sharing daily-life images with videoProbe. In: Proceedings of the 2003 Conference of the Association Francophone dInteraction Homme-Machine 2003. pp. 228-231.

videoProbe is a device that takes pictures of everyday family life and shares them among multiple households. By providing family members with a new means of lightweight and informal communication, videoProbe allows unusual picture sharing and is likely to modify interactions within families. From a research perspective, videoProbe is an instance of a new class of device built to inspire ideas for the design of new communication technologies and to gather data about life in family.

© All rights reserved Conversy et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Costa-Cunha, Pascal and Mackay, Wendy E. (2003): Augmented paper and Anoto stylus. In: Proceedings of the 2003 Conference of the Association Francophone dInteraction Homme-Machine 2003. pp. 232-235.

As part of the design of an augmented laboratory notebook, we are creating a system that combines the advantages of both paper and the computer. We have implemented several prototypes; here we describe one that uses the Anoto pen allowing for a completely autonomous augmented paper notebook. We explain its two basic interaction techniques: triggering functions and selecting areas to which a function applies.

© All rights reserved Costa-Cunha and Mackay and/or ACM Press

2002
 
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Mackay, Wendy E., Pothier, Guillaume, Letondal, Catherine, Boegh, Kaare and Sorensen, Hans Erik (2002): The missing link: augmenting biology laboratory notebooks. In: Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel (ed.) Proceedings of the 15th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology October 27-30, 2002, Paris, France. pp. 41-50.

Using a participatory design process, we created three prototype augmented laboratory notebooks that provide the missing link between paper, physical artifacts and on-line data. The final a-book combines a graphics tablet and a PDA. The tablet captures writing on the paper notebook and the PDA acts as an "interaction lens" or window between physical and electronic documents. Our approach is document-centered, with a software architecture based on layers of physical and electronic information.

© All rights reserved Mackay et al. and/or ACM Press

2001
 
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Dykstra-Erickson, Elizabeth, Mackay, Wendy E. and Arnowitz, Jonathan (2001): Perspectives: trialogue on design (of). In Interactions, 8 (2) pp. 109-117.

2000
 
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Mackay, Wendy E., Ratzer, Anne V. and Janecek, Paul (2000): Video Artifacts for Design: Bridging the Gap between Abstraction and Detail. In: Proceedings of DIS00: Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, & Techniques 2000. pp. 72-82.

Video artifacts help bridge the gap between abstraction and detail in the design process. This paper describes how our use and re-use of video artifacts affected the re-design of a graphical editor for building, simulating, and analyzing Coloured Petri Nets. The two primary goals of the project were to create design abstractions that integrate recent advances in graphical interaction techniques and to explicitly support specific patterns of use of Petri nets in real-world settings. Using a participatory design process, we organized a series of video-based design activities that helped us manage the tension between finding useful design abstractions and specifying the details of the user interface. Video artifacts resulting from one activity became the basis for the next, facilitating communication among members of the multi-disciplinary design team. The video artifacts provided an efficient way of capturing and incorporating subtle aspects of Petri Nets In Use into our design and ensured that the implementation of our design principles was grounded in real-world work practices.

© All rights reserved Mackay et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel and Mackay, Wendy E. (2000): Reification, Polymorphism and Reuse: Three Principles for Designing Visual Interfaces. In: Advanced Visual Interfaces 2000 2000. pp. 102-109.

 
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Mackay, Wendy E. (2000): Augmented reality: dangerous liaisons or the best of both worlds?. In: Designing Augmented Reality Environments 2000 2000. pp. 170-171.

1999
 
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Mackay, Wendy E. (1999): Is Paper Safer? The Role of Paper Flight Strips in Air Traffic Control. In ACM Computing Surveys (CSUR), 6 (4) pp. 311-340.

Air traffic control is a complex, safety-critical activity, with well-established and successful work practices. Yet many attempts to automate the existing system have failed because controllers remain attached to a key work artifact: the paper flight strip. This article describes a four-month intensive study of a team of Paris en-route controllers in order to understand their use of paper flight strips. The article also describes a comparison study of eight different control rooms in France and the Netherlands. Our observations have convinced us that we do not know enough to simply get rid of paper strips, nor can we easily replace the physical interaction between controllers and paper strips. These observations highlight the benefits of strips, including qualities difficult to quantify and replicate in new computer systems. Current thinking offers two basic alternatives: maintaining the existing strips without computer support and bearing the financial cost of limiting the air traffic, or replacing the strips with automated versions, which offer potential benefits in terms of increased efficiency through automation, but unknown risks through radical change of work practices. We conclude with a suggestion for a third alternative: to maintain the physical strips, but turn them into the interface to the computer. This would allow controllers to build directly upon their existing, safe work practices with paper strips, while offering them a gradual path for incorporating new computer-based functions. Augmented paper flight strips allow us to take advantage of uniquely human skills in the physical world, and allows us to leave the user interface and its subsequent evolution in the hands of the people most responsible, the air traffic controllers themselves.

© All rights reserved Mackay and/or ACM Press

 Cited in the following chapter:

Semi-structured qualitative studies: [/encyclopedia/semi-structured_qualitative_studies.html]


 
 
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Tremaine, Marilyn M. and Mackay, Wendy E. (1999): Web Weaving. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 31 (4) p. 3.

1998
 
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Mackay, Wendy E. and Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel (1998): DIVA: Exploratory Data Analysis with Multimedia Streams. In: Karat, Clare-Marie, Lund, Arnold, Coutaz, Joëlle and Karat, John (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 98 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 18-23, 1998, Los Angeles, California. pp. 416-423.

DIVA supports exploratory data analysis of multimedia streams, enabling users to visualize, explore and evaluate patterns in data that change over time. The underlying stream algebra provides the mathematical basis for operating on diverse kinds of streams. The streamer visualization technique provides a smooth transition between spatial and temporal views of the data. Mapping source and presentation streams into a two-dimensional space provides users with a direct manipulation, nontemporal interface for viewing and editing streams. DIVA was developed to help us analyze both qualitative and quantitative data collected in our research with French air traffic controllers, including video of controllers at work, audio records of telephone, radio and other conversations, output from tools such as RADAR, and coded logs based on our observations. Although our emphasis is on exploratory data analysis, DIVA's stream architecture should prove useful for a wide variety of multimedia applications.

© All rights reserved Mackay and Beaudouin-Lafon and/or ACM Press

 
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Mackay, Wendy E., Fayard, Anne-Laure, Frobert, Laurent and Medini, Lionel (1998): Reinventing the Familiar: Exploring an Augmented Reality Design Space for Air Traffic Control. In: Karat, Clare-Marie, Lund, Arnold, Coutaz, Joëlle and Karat, John (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 98 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 18-23, 1998, Los Angeles, California. pp. 558-565.

This paper describes our exploration of a design space for an augmented reality prototype. We began by observing air traffic controllers and their interactions with paper flight strips. We then worked with a multi-disciplinary team of researchers and controllers over a period of a year to brainstorm and prototype ideas for enhancing paper flight strips. We argue that augmented reality is more promising (and simpler to implement) than the current strategies that seek to replace flight strips with keyboard/monitor interfaces. We also argue that an exploration of the design space, with active participation from the controllers, is essential not only for designing particular artifacts, but also for understanding the strengths and limitations of augmented reality in general.

© All rights reserved Mackay et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Mackay, Wendy E. (1998): Augmented reality: linking real and virtual worlds: a new paradigm for interacting with computers. In: Catarci, Tiziana, Costabile, Maria Francesca, Santucci, Giuseppe and Tarantino, Laura (eds.) AVI 1998 - Proceedings of the working conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces May 24 - 27, 1998, LAquila, Italy. pp. 13-21.

1997
 
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Mackay, Wendy E. and Fayard, Anne-Laure (1997): HCI, Natural Science and Design: A Framework for Triangulation Across Disciplines. In: Proceedings of DIS97: Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, & Techniques 1997. pp. 223-234.

Human-computer interaction is multidisciplinary, drawing paradigms and techniques from both the natural sciences and the design disciplines. HCI cannot be considered a pure natural science because it studies the interaction between people and artificially-created artifacts, rather than naturally-occurring phenomena, which violates several basic assumptions of natural science. Similarly, HCI cannot be considered a pure design discipline because it strives to independently verify design decisions and processes, and borrows many values from scientists. The purpose of this paper is to provide a simple framework that describes how the research and design models underlying HCI can be integrated. We explore the relationships among these approaches in the context of a particular research site, CENA, the Centre d'Etudes de la Navigation Aerienne, and illustrate how the various disciplines can contribute to a complex design problem: improving the interface to the French air traffic control system. The framework provides one perspective for understanding the various research approaches, and, more importantly, suggests new research directions. The resulting cross-disciplinary triangulation can increase the effectiveness of the individual research and design approaches.

© All rights reserved Mackay and Fayard and/or ACM Press

 Cited in the following chapter:

Semi-structured qualitative studies: [/encyclopedia/semi-structured_qualitative_studies.html]


 
1995
 
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Mackay, Wendy E. (1995): Ethics, Lies and Videotape.... In: Katz, Irvin R., Mack, Robert L., Marks, Linn, Rosson, Mary Beth and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 95 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference May 7-11, 1995, Denver, Colorado. pp. 138-145.

Videotape has become one of the CHI community's most useful technologies: it allows us to analyze users' interactions with computers, prototype new interfaces, and present the results of our research and technical innovations to others. But video is a double-edged sword. It is often misused, however unintentionally. How can we use it well, without compromising our integrity? This paper presents actual examples of questionable videotaping practices. Next, it explains why we cannot simply borrow ethical guidelines from other professions. It concludes with a proposal for developing usable ethical guidelines for the capture, analysis and presentation of video.

© All rights reserved Mackay and/or ACM Press

1994
 
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Mackay, Wendy E. and Pagani, Daniele (1994): Video Mosaic: Laying Out Time in a Physical Space. In: ACM Multimedia 1994 1994. pp. 165-172.

1993
 
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Pagani, Daniele S. and Mackay, Wendy E. (1993): Bringing Media Spaces into the Real World. In: Michelis, Giorgio De, Simone, Carla and Schmidt, Kjeld (eds.) ECSCW 93 - Proceedings of the Third European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work 1993. pp. 341-356.

This paper describes a field study to evaluate the use of audio and video connections in a "real world" setting, that is a distributed product development organization within a large multinational corporation. We installed two types of media space connections: a focused dial-up video-phone for engineering problem solving between designers in England and the shop floor of a factory in the Netherlands and an unfocused "office share" to support administrative tasks. We observed that users quickly integrated the new video links into their existing media space of telephone, beepers, answering machines, video conference, fax, e-mail, etc. Users easily learnt how to shift from one medium to another. This suggests that "real world" media spaces should be designed to allow a user-driven smooth transition from one medium to another according to the task at hand and the bandwidth available: from live video to stored video, from moving video to still frames, from multimedia spaces to shared computing spaces for synchronous sketching and asynchronous message posting, and from two user conversation to multi-user conference calls.

© All rights reserved Pagani and Mackay and/or Kluwer

 
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Dourish, Paul, Bellotti, Victoria, Mackay, Wendy E. and Ma, Chao-Ying (1993): Information and Context: Lessons from the Study of Two Shared Information Systems. In: Kaplan, Simon M. (ed.) Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Organizational Computing Systems 1993 November 1-4, 1993, Milpitas, California, USA. pp. 42-51.

With the increasing ease and power of computer networking technologies, many organisations are taking information which was previously managed and distributed on paper and making it available electronically. Such shared information systems are the basis of much organisational collaboration, and electronic distribution holds great promise. However, a primary focus of such systems is on the ease of information retrieval. We believe that an equally important component is the problem of information interpretation, and that this interpretation is guided by a context which many electronic systems do not fully acknowledge. We report on a study of two systems, one paper-based and one electronic, managing similar information within the same organisation. We describe the ways in which information retrieved from these systems is interpreted subjectively by individuals, and point to some of the factors contributing to this interpretation. These factors, together making up the context of the information, are of critical importance in the design of successful electronic shared information systems.

© All rights reserved Dourish et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Mackay, Wendy E., Velay, Gilles, Carter, Kathy, Ma, Chaoying and Pagani, Daniele (1993): Augmenting Reality: Adding Computational Dimensions to Paper. In Communications of the ACM, 36 (7) pp. 96-97.

 
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Wellner, Pierre, Mackay, Wendy E. and Gold, Rich (1993): Computer-Augmented Environments: Back to the Real World - Introduction to the Special Issue. In Communications of the ACM, 36 (7) pp. 24-26.

 Cited in the following chapter:

Tangible Interaction: [/encyclopedia/tangible_interaction.html]


 
1992
 
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Sanger, Colston, Gilbert, Nigel, Wastell, David, Mackay, Wendy E. and Easterbrook, Steve M. (1992): CSCW: Power, Control, Conflict. In: Monk, Andrew, Diaper, Dan and Harrison, Michael D. (eds.) Proceedings of the Seventh Conference of the British Computer Society Human Computer Interaction Specialist Group - People and Computers VII August 15-18, 1992, University of York, UK. pp. 481-483.

1991
 
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Mackay, Wendy E. (1991): Triggers and Barriers to Customizing Software. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 153-160.

One of the properties of a user interface is that it both guides and constrains the patterns of interaction between the user and the software application. Application software is increasingly designed to be "customizable" by the end user, providing specific mechanisms by which users may specify individual preferences about the software and how they will interact with it over multiple sessions. Users may thus encode and preserve their preferred patterns of use. These customizations, together with choices about which applications to use, make up the unique "software environment" for each individual. While it is theoretically possible for each user to carefully evaluate and optimize each possible customization option, this study suggests that most people do not. In fact, since time spent customizing is time spent not working, many people do not take advantage of the customization features at all. I studied the customization behavior of 51 users of a Unix software environment, over a period of four months. This paper describes the process by which users decide to customize and examines the factors that influence when and how users make those decisions. These findings have implications for both the design of software and the integration of new software into an organization.

© All rights reserved Mackay and/or ACM Press

 
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Mackay, Wendy E. (1991): Ethical Issues in the Use of Video: Is it Time to Establish Guidelines? (SIGCHI Discussion Forum). In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 403-405.

Researchers and designers increasingly use video to obtain information about how people interact with technology. This session provides a forum for discussion: to identify ethical issues, learn from invited guests about existing practice in other fields, and determine whether or not the Human-Computer Interaction community should develop its own set of guidelines for the ethical use of video.

© All rights reserved Mackay and/or ACM Press

1990
 
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Mackay, Wendy E. (1990): Patterns of Sharing Customizable Software. In: Halasz, Frank (ed.) Proceedings of the 1990 ACM conference on Computer-supported cooperative work October 07 - 10, 1990, Los Angeles, California, United States. pp. 209-221.

The act of customizing software is generally viewed as a solitary activity that allows users to express individual preferences. In this study, users at two different research sites, working with two different kinds of customizable software, were found to actively share their customization files with each other. This sharing allowed the members of each organization to establish and perpetuate informally-defined norms of behavior. A small percentage of people within the organization were responsible for most of the sharing. One group of these were highly-skilled software engineers, who were usually the first to try new software. They used customization as a way to experiment with and learn about the software and made their files available to others through various broadcast mechanisms. This group did not try to determine whether their customizations were useful to other users. The second group were less skilled technically but much more interested in interpreting the needs of their colleagues and creating customization files tailored to those needs. They acted as translators between the highly technical group and the rest of the organization. The spontaneous sharing of customization files within an organization has implications for both organizations and for software designers. Managers should 1) recognize and support the role of translators, 2) recognize that not all sharing is beneficial, and 3) provide opportunities for the exchange of customization files and innovations among members of the organization. Software designers should 1) provide tools that allow users to evaluate the effectiveness of their customizations through reflective software, 2) provide well-tested examples of customization files with the first release of the software, 3) explicitly support sharing of customizations, and 4) p

© All rights reserved Mackay and/or ACM Press

 Cited in the following chapter:

End-User Development: [/encyclopedia/end-user_development.html]


 
 
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Bennett, John, Conklin, Peter, Guevara, Karmen, Mackay, Wendy E. and Sancha, Tom (1990): HCI Seen from the Perspective of Software Developers. In: Diaper, Dan, Gilmore, David J., Cockton, Gilbert and Shackel, Brian (eds.) INTERACT 90 - 3rd IFIP International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction August 27-31, 1990, Cambridge, UK. pp. 1039-1042.

1989
 
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Mackay, Wendy E., Malone, Thomas W., Crowston, Kevin, Rao, Ramana, Rosenblitt, David and Card, Stuart K. (1989): How Do Experienced Information Lens Users Use Rules?. In: Bice, Ken and Lewis, Clayton H. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 89 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 30 - June 4, 1989, Austin, Texas. pp. 211-216.

The Information Lens provides electronic mail users with the ability to write rules that automatically sort, select, and filter their messages. This paper describes preliminary results from an eighteen-month investigation of the use of this system at a corporate test site. We report the experiences of 13 voluntary users who have each had at least three months experience with the most recent version of the system. We found that: 1. People without significant computer experience are able to create and use rules effectively. 2. Useful rules can be created based on the fields present in all messages (e.g., searching for distribution lists or one's own name in the address fields or for character strings in the subject field), even without any special message templates. 3. People use rules both to prioritize messages before reading them and to sort messages into folders for storage after reading them. 4. People use delete rules primarily to filter out messages from low-priority distribution lists, not to delete personal messages to themselves.

© All rights reserved Mackay et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Ehrlich, Sheryl M., Bikson, T. K., Mackay, Wendy E. and Tang, John C. (1989): Tools for Supporting Cooperative Work Near and Far: Highlights from the CSCW Conference. In: Bice, Ken and Lewis, Clayton H. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 89 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 30 - June 4, 1989, Austin, Texas. pp. 353-356.

The second conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work has provided focus on use of computers for supporting workers that are at various levels of geographic dispersion. The participants in this panel reported case studies at that conference on group work (1) in face-to-face meetings, (2) in the same building, and (3) distributed across a number of sites. Each panelist therefore brings insight about the communication needs of their research subjects and both the value and limitations of particular technologies for supporting the communication that ties the members of the groups together as geographic distance varies.

© All rights reserved Ehrlich et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Mackay, Wendy E. and Tatar, Deborah G. (1989): Introduction to the Special Issue on Video as a Research and Design Tool. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 21 (2) pp. 48-50.

 
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Mackay, Wendy E. (1989): EVA: An Experimental Video Annotator for Symbolic Analysis of Video Data. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 21 (2) pp. 68-71.

 
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Mackay, Wendy E. and Davenport, Glorianna (1989): Virtual Video Editing in Interactive Multimedia Applications. In Communications of the ACM, 32 (7) pp. 802-810.

1988
 
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Mackay, Wendy E. (1988): More than Just a Communication System: Diversity in the Use of Electronic Mail. In: Greif, Irene (ed.) Proceedings of the 1988 ACM conference on Computer-supported cooperative work September 26 - 28, 1988, Portland, Oregon, United States. pp. 344-353.

This paper describes a series of interviews that focus on the ways that professional office workers use electronic mail to manage their daily work. A number of implications for the design of flexible mail systems are discussed. Two principal claims are made. First, electronic mail is more than just a communication system. In addition to supporting information management, it provides a mechanism for supporting a variety of time management and task management activities. Some people are prioritizers, concentrating on the problem of managing incoming messages. Others are archivers, concentrating on how to archive information for subsequent use. Similarly, some people use mail to delegate tasks, while others perform tasks delegated to them by others electronically. The second claim is that use of electronic mail is strikingly diverse, although not infinitely so. Individuals vary in their preferences, both in their general willingness to manage their work electronically and in their specific preferences along the dimensions described above. This diversity implies that one's own experiences with electronic mail are unlikely to provide sufficient understanding of other's uses of mail. Mail designers should thus seek flexible primitives that capture the important dimensions and provide flexibility for a wide range of users.

© All rights reserved Mackay and/or ACM Press

 
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Mackay, Wendy E., Guindon, Raymonde, Mantei, Marilyn, Suchman, Lucy A. and Tatar, Deborah G. (1988): Video: Data for Studying Human-Computer Interaction. In: Soloway, Elliot, Frye, Douglas and Sheppard, Sylvia B. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 88 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference June 15-19, 1988, Washington, DC, USA. pp. 133-137.

 
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Mackay, Wendy E. (1988): Diversity in the Use of Electronic Mail: A Preliminary Inquiry. In ACM Transactions on Information Systems, 6 (4) pp. 380-397.

This paper describes a series of interviews that examine the ways that professional office workers use electronic mail to manage their daily work. The purpose is to generate hypotheses for future research. A number of implications for the design of flexible mail systems are discussed. Two principal claims are made. First, the use of electronic mail is strikingly diverse, although not infinitely so. Individuals vary both in objective measures of mail use and in preferred strategies for managing work electronically. Feelings of control are similarly diverse and related to the size of the user's inbox, numbers of folders, and subscriptions to distribution lists. This diversity implies that one's own experiences with electronic mail are unlikely to provide sufficient understanding of other's uses of mail. Mail designers should thus seek flexible primitives that capture the important dimensions of use and provide flexibility for a wide range of users. The second claim is that electronic mail is more than just a communication system. Users archive messages for subject retrieval, prioritize messages to sequence work activities, and delegate tasks via mail. A taxonomy of work management is proposed in which mail is used for information management, time management, and task management activities. Directions for future research are suggested.

© All rights reserved Mackay and/or ACM Press

 
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Root, Robert W., Grantham, Charles, Landauer, Thomas K., Mackay, Wendy E. and McNinch, Robert (1988): Telecommunications in the 1990s: Human Factors Issues for the Information Age. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 32nd Annual Meeting 1988. pp. 252-253.

Advances in technology are revolutionizing the communications industry. Optical fiber, computer-controlled switches, software-defined services, digital communications, and integrated services networks will soon deliver high-speed broadband communications and information services to individual homes and businesses. The next decade will bring impressive changes in the power, complexity and range of services offered through what we think of as the "telephone system". The technology is inexorably advancing, with or without the blessing and guidance of the human factors community. The main purpose of this panel is to call attention to the human factors implications of the "network of the future". A major aspect of this future network will be a blurring of the distinction between computation and communications due to the integration of voice and data networks (as in ISDN). This integration will have several important consequences. First, the notion of "communications" activities will be broadened to include not only synchronous human-human interaction but also asynchronous (e.g., electronic mail), multiparty, and human-machine interaction (as in information retrieval). Second, personal computers will increasingly be used and viewed as communications devices as well as computational machines. Third, "intelligent" networks will play an increasingly important role as mediators of human-human and human-machine interaction rather than acting simply as passive transport systems. These developments may be important for the practice of human factors. At the very least, they imply a merging of the concerns of telecommunications with human-computer interaction research. For example, designing interfaces for ISDN applications may require understanding how the interaction between users and communications services is affected by the representation of the application in the interface. In addition, they may call into question the role of human factors practitioners and researchers and the goals they should serve. Should we be content to design and evaluate interfaces to advanced services networks, or should we be using our knowledge of human needs and capabilities to drive the development of new applications to support.

© All rights reserved Root et al. and/or Human Factors Society

 
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URL: http://www.interaction-design.org/references/authors/wendy_e__mackay.html

Publication statistics

Pub. period:1988-2011
Pub. count:61
Number of co-authors:82



Co-authors

Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Michel Beaudouin-Lafon:8
Panos Markopoulos:4
Boris de Ruyter:4

 

 

Productive colleagues

Wendy E. Mackay's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Paul Dourish:96
Elizabeth Dykstra-..:83
Panos Markopoulos:81
 
 
 
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