Publication statistics

Pub. period:1992-2012
Pub. count:62
Number of co-authors:83



Co-authors

Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Elizabeth D. Mynatt:14
Mark W. Newman:11
Anthony LaMarca:10

 

 

Productive colleagues

W. Keith Edwards's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Steve Benford:121
Scott E. Hudson:113
Tom Rodden:106
 
 
 

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W. Keith Edwards

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http://www.kedwards.com/

I'm an Associate Professor of Interactive Computing at the Georgia Tech College of Computing and the Acting Director of the GVU Center. From 2008-2010 I was Coordinator of Georgia Tech's Computer Science Ph.D. program. Away from Georgia Tech, I serve on Microsoft's Trustworthy Computing Academic Advisory Board, and served as the Technical Program Chair for CHI 2010 in Atlanta, alongside Tom Rodden. My research interests focus on rethinking various aspects of computing infrastructure to enable new types of experiences and, conversely, understanding how current computing infrastructures too often show through in the user experience. I'm exploring this theme through a number of projects, which currently include investigating the social impacts of computing (including new technological systems to empower nonprofits and the urban homeless), looking at computer networking through a human-centered lens to understand how to create networking infrastructures that better support domestic use, and exploring more usable and useful approaches to computer security. Broadly, I work at the intersection of Human-Computer Interaction and systems and networking technologies, but consider myself primarily an HCI person.

 

Publications by W. Keith Edwards (bibliography)

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2012
 
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Stoll, Jennifer, Edwards, W. Keith and Foot, Kirsten A. (2012): Between us and them: building connectedness within civic networks. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW12 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2012. pp. 237-240. Available online

Civic networks of community-based organizations face significant challenges in working together to combat issues facing their community (e.g., gang violence, sex trafficking). In our research, we examined how local organizations tried to build and maintain connectedness over time as a network to fight child sex trafficking. We sought to understand how technology supports the social processes of connectedness in this context. Based on our analysis of the field data from this case study, we identify three categories of activities for building and maintaining connectedness. We also find that while different technologies are suited towards supporting different aspects of connectedness, there may be gaps in how adequately social media tools support connectedness in civic networks.

© All rights reserved Stoll et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Massey, Jonathan, Wong, Nelson, Reilly, Derek and Edwards, W. Keith (2012): Verbal coordination in first person shooter games. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW12 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2012. pp. 579-582. Available online

We explore how expert First Person Shooter (FPS) players coordinate actions using a shared voice channel. Our findings emphasize the importance of the temporality and spatiality of these tactical verbal communications ("call-outs"). From here, we outline potential designs to mitigate problems in the production/interpretation of call-outs to better support coordination.

© All rights reserved et al. and/or ACM Press

2011
 
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Dantec, Christopher A. Le, Farrell, Robert G., Christensen, Jim E., Bailey, Mark, Ellis, Jason B., Kellogg, Wendy A. and Edwards, W. Keith (2011): Publics in practice: ubiquitous computing at a shelter for homeless mothers. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 1687-1696. Available online

Today, commodity technologies like mobile phones -- once symbols of status and wealth -- have become deeply woven into social and economic participation in Western society. Despite the pervasiveness of these technologies, there remain groups who may not have extensive access to them but who are nonetheless deeply affected by their presence in everyday life. In light of this, we designed, built, and deployed a ubiquitous computing system for one such overlooked group: the staff and residents at a shelter for homeless mothers. Our system connects mobile phones, a shared display, and a Web application to help staff and residents stay connected. We report on the adoption and use of this system over the course of a 30 week deployment, discussing the substantial impact our system had on shelter life and the broader implications for such socio-technical systems that sit at the juncture of social action and organizational coordination.

© All rights reserved Dantec et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Tashman, Craig S. and Edwards, W. Keith (2011): Active reading and its discontents: the situations, problems and ideas of readers. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 2927-2936. Available online

The increasing popularity of personal reading devices raises the question of how best to support so-called active reading, which involves acts like annotation, note taking, etc. Prior research addressed this question by observing the active reading process, and identifying disparities between computers and paper as a reading medium. We extend this research by 1) investigating the problems that readers experience in their real world tasks, 2) inquiring about their requirements for an ideal reading technology, and 3) updating earlier studies of naturalistic reading behavior, which are several years old now. We present here the results of our investigation, which included a diary study, interviews, and participatory design workshops.

© All rights reserved Tashman and Edwards and/or their publisher

 
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Tashman, Craig S. and Edwards, W. Keith (2011): LiquidText: a flexible, multitouch environment to support active reading. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 3285-3294. Available online

Active reading, involving acts such as highlighting, writing notes, etc., is an important part of knowledge workers' activities. Most computer-based active reading support seeks to replicate the affordances of paper, but paper has limitations, being in many ways inflexible. In this paper we introduce LiquidText, a computer-based active reading system that takes a fundamentally different approach, offering a flexible, fluid document representation built on multitouch input, with a range of interaction techniques designed to facilitate the activities of active reading. We report here on our design for LiquidText, its interactions and gesture vocabulary, and our design process, including formative user evaluations which helped shape the final system.

© All rights reserved Tashman and Edwards and/or their publisher

2010
 
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Dantec, Christopher A. Le, Christensen, Jim E., Bailey, Mark, Farrell, Robert G., Ellis, Jason B., Danis, Catalina M., Kellogg, Wendy A. and Edwards, W. Keith (2010): A tale of two publics: democratizing design at the margins. In: Proceedings of DIS10 Designing Interactive Systems 2010. pp. 11-20. Available online

The design and use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has now evolved beyond its workplace origins to the wider public, expanding to people who live at the margins of contemporary society. Through field work and participatory co-design with homeless shelter residents and care providers we have explored design at the common boundary of these two "publics." We describe the design of the Community Resource Messenger (CRM), an ICT that supports both those in need and those attempting to provide care in a challenging environment. The CRM consists of three components: 1) a message center that pools messages to and from mobile users into a shared, persistent forum; 2) a text and voice messaging gateway linking the mobile phones of the homeless with the web-enabled computer facilities of the care providers; 3) a shared message display accessible from mobile texting, voice, e-mail, and the web, helping the two groups communicate and coordinate for mutual good. By democratizing design and use of technology at the margins of society, we aim to engage an entire "urban network," enabling shared awareness and collective action in each public.

© All rights reserved Dantec et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Dantec, Christopher A. Le and Edwards, W. Keith (2010): Across boundaries of influence and accountability: the multiple scales of public sector information systems. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2010. pp. 113-122. Available online

The use of ICTs in the public sector has long been touted for its potential to transform the institutions that govern and provide social services. The focus, however, has largely been on systems that are used within particular scales of the public sector, such as at the scale of state or national government, the scale of regional or municipal entity, or at the scale of local service providers. The work presented here takes aim at examining ICT use that crosses these scales of influence and accountability. We report on a year long ethnographic investigation conducted at a variety of social service outlets to understand how a shared information system crosses the boundaries of these very distinct organizations. We put forward that such systems are central to the work done in the public sector and represent a class of collaborative work that has gone understudied.

© All rights reserved Dantec and Edwards and/or their publisher

 
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Edwards, W. Keith, Newman, Mark W. and Poole, Erika Shehan (2010): The infrastructure problem in HCI. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2010. pp. 423-432. Available online

HCI endeavors to create human-centered computer systems, but underlying technological infrastructures often stymie these efforts. We outline three specific classes of user experience difficulties caused by underlying technical infrastructures, which we term constrained possibilities, unmediated interaction, and interjected abstractions. We explore how prior approaches in HCI have addressed these issues, and discuss new approaches that will be required for future progress. We argue that the HCI community must become more deeply involved with the creation of technical infrastructures. Doing so, however, requires a substantial expansion to the methodological toolbox of HCI.

© All rights reserved Edwards et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Stoll, Jennifer, Edwards, W. Keith and Mynatt, Elizabeth D. (2010): Informal interactions in nonprofit networks. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2010. pp. 533-536. Available online

Nonprofit organizations often need to excel in coordinating with other organizations and must do so in a variety of contexts and levels from the informal to the formal. Their ability to accomplish their mission can critically depend on their efficacy in managing dependencies on others for tasks, accessing needed resources, raising their profile in the community, and achieving their goals. Although much research has been done to understand systems for supporting formal coordination between organizations, there is a gap in understanding how informal coordination can be supported by systems. As a first step towards addressing this gap, we conducted a field study of a network of nonprofit organizations, focusing specifically on informal interactions among them. Based on this study, we characterize informal coordination between organizations and the context for such interactions. Our findings point to a need to further explore a class of interorganizational interactions that may not be adequately explored or understood by our research community.

© All rights reserved Stoll et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Stoll, Jennifer, Edwards, W. Keith and Mynatt, Elizabeth D. (2010): Interorganizational coordination and awareness in a nonprofit ecosystem. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW10 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2010. pp. 51-60. Available online

Nonprofit organizations working with high-risk vulnerable populations such as human trafficking victims often need to engage in a significant level of interorganizational collaboration. Given the importance for nonprofits to be able to work with many different organizations, and given the importance of awareness in initiating and facilitating such collaborations, we conducted a field study to explore existing practices around coordination and awareness across a specific ecosystem of nonprofit organizations. In this paper, we provide an in-depth reflection on interorganizational issues among a cross-section of nonprofits. We identify four aspects of the interorganizational context in which these nonprofits must operate, as well as challenges they may encounter. Our goal is to illuminate first steps towards finding appropriate technological solutions for supporting coordination and awareness between these organizations so they can be more effective in accomplishing their mission.

© All rights reserved Stoll et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Yang, Jeonghwa, Edwards, W. Keith and Haslem, David (2010): Eden: supporting home network management through interactive visual tools. In: Proceedings of the 2010 ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology 2010. pp. 109-118. Available online

As networking moves into the home, home users are increasingly being faced with complex network management chores. Previous research, however, has demonstrated the difficulty many users have in managing their networks. This difficulty is compounded by the fact that advanced network management tools -- such as those developed for the enterprise -- are generally too complex for home users, do not support the common tasks they face, and are not a good fit for the technical peculiarities of the home. This paper presents Eden, an interactive, direct manipulation home network management system aimed at end users. Eden supports a range of common tasks, and provides a simple conceptual model that can help users understand key aspects of networking better. The system leverages a novel home network router that acts as a "dropin" replacement for users' current router. We demonstrate that Eden not only improves the user experience of networking, but also aids users in forming workable conceptual models of how the network works.

© All rights reserved Yang et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Reilly, Derek F., Rouzati, Hafez, Wu, Andy, Hwang, Jee Yeon, Brudvik, Jeremy and Edwards, W. Keith (2010): TwinSpace: an infrastructure for cross-reality team spaces. In: Proceedings of the 2010 ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology 2010. pp. 119-128. Available online

We introduce TwinSpace, a flexible software infrastructure for combining interactive workspaces and collaborative virtual worlds. Its design is grounded in the need to support deep connectivity and flexible mappings between virtual and real spaces to effectively support collaboration. This is achieved through a robust connectivity layer linking heterogeneous collections of physical and virtual devices and services, and a centralized service to manage and control mappings between physical and virtual. In this paper we motivate and present the architecture of TwinSpace, discuss our experiences and lessons learned in building a generic framework for collaborative cross-reality, and illustrate the architecture using two implemented examples that highlight its flexibility and range, and its support for rapid prototyping.

© All rights reserved Reilly et al. and/or their publisher

2009
 
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Poole, Erika Shehan, Chetty, Marshini, Morgan, Tom, Grinter, Rebecca E. and Edwards, W. Keith (2009): Computer help at home: methods and motivations for informal technical support. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2009. pp. 739-748. Available online

Prior research suggests that people may ask their family and friends for computer help. But what influences whether and how a "helper" will provide help? To answer this question, we conducted a qualitative investigation of people who participated in computer support activities with family and friends in the past year. We describe how factors including maintenance of one's personal identity as a computer expert and accountability to one's social network determine who receives help and the quality of help provided. We also discuss the complex, fractured relationship between the numerous stakeholders involved in the upkeep of home computing infrastructures. Based on our findings, we provide implications for the design of systems to support informal help-giving in residential settings.

© All rights reserved Poole et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Goecks, Jeremy, Edwards, W. Keith and Mynatt, Elizabeth D. (2009): Challenges in supporting end-user privacy and security management with social navigation. In: Proceedings of the 2009 Symposium on Usable Privacy and Security 2009. p. 5. Available online

Social navigation is a promising approach for supporting privacy and security management. By aggregating and presenting the choices made by others, social navigation systems can provide users with easily understandable guidance on security and privacy decisions, rather than requiring that they understand low-level technical details in order to make informed decisions. We have developed two prototype systems to explore how social navigation can help users manage their privacy and security. The Acumen system employs social navigation to address a common privacy activity, managing Internet cookies, and the Bonfire system uses social navigation to help users manage their personal firewall. Our experiences with Acumen and Bonfire suggest that, despite the promise of social navigation, there are significant challenges in applying these techniques to the domains of end-user privacy and security management. Due to features of these domains, individuals may misuse community data when making decisions, leading to incorrect individual decisions, inaccurate community data, and "herding" behavior that is an example of what economists term an informational cascade. By understanding this phenomenon in these terms, we develop and present two general approaches for mitigating herding in social navigation systems that support end-user security and privacy management, mitigation via algorithms and mitigation via user interaction. Mitigation via user interaction is a novel and promising approach to mitigating cascades in social navigation systems.

© All rights reserved Goecks et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Poole, Erika Shehan, Edwards, W. Keith and Jarvis, Lawrence (2009): The Home Network as a Socio-Technical System: Understanding the Challenges of Remote Home Network Problem Diagnosis. In Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 18 (2) pp. 277-299. Available online

Research focused on the user experience of home networking repeatedly finds that householders have difficulties setting up networked equipment. No research to date, however, has studied the in the moment interactions of householders with networking technical support professionals. In this paper, we analyze 21 phone calls to a technical support call center of a home network hardware manufacturer. The phone calls focus on overcoming difficulties during one particular task: adding a wireless router to an existing home network. Our results reaffirm prior studies in remote collaboration that suggest a need to support shared understandings of the problem at hand between remote parties. Our results also suggest that technical properties of the home network and the structure of the home itself complicate the social work of remote diagnosis and repair. In response, we suggest new approaches for remote home network problem diagnosis and repair, including resources for householders to reason about their home networks prior to call placement, and improved methods of inter-organizational information sharing between stakeholders.

© All rights reserved Poole et al. and/or Kluwer Academic Publishers

 
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Edwards, W. Keith, Newman, Mark W., Sedivy, Jana Z. and Smith, Trevor F. (2009): Experiences with recombinant computing: Exploring ad hoc interoperability in evolving digital networks. In ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 16 (1) p. 3. Available online

This article describes an infrastructure that supports the creation of interoperable systems while requiring only limited prior agreements about the specific forms of communication between these systems. Conceptually, our approach uses a set of "meta-interfaces" -- agreements on how to exchange new behaviors necessary to achieve compatibility at runtime, rather than requiring that communication specifics be built in at development time -- to allow devices on the network to interact with one another. While this approach to interoperability can remove many of the system-imposed constraints that prevent fluid, ad hoc use of devices now, it imposes its own limitations on the user experience of systems that use it. Most importantly, since devices may be expected to work with peers about which they have no detailed semantic knowledge, it is impossible to achieve the sort of tight semantic integration that can be obtained using other approaches today, despite the fact that these other approaches limit interoperability. Instead, under our model, users must be tasked with performing the sense-making and semantic arbitration necessary to determine how any set of devices will be used together. This article describes the motivation and details of our infrastructure, its implications on the user experience, and our experience in creating, deploying, and using applications built with it over a period of several years.

© All rights reserved Edwards et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Grinter, Rebecca E., Edwards, W. Keith, Chetty, Marshini, Poole, Erika S., Sung, Ja-Young, Yang, Jeonghwa, Crabtree, Andy, Tolmie, Peter, Rodden, Tom, Greenhalgh, Chris and Benford, Steve (2009): The ins and outs of home networking: The case for useful and usable domestic networking. In ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 16 (2) p. 8. Available online

Householders are increasingly adopting home networking as a solution to the demands created by the presence of multiple computers, devices, and the desire to access the Internet. However, current network solutions are derived from the world of work (and initially the military) and provide poor support for the needs of the home. We present the key findings to emerge from empirical studies of home networks in the UK and US. The studies reveal two key kinds of work that effective home networking relies upon: one, the technical work of setting up and maintaining the home network, and the other, the collaborative and socially organized work of the home which the network is embedded in and supports. The two are thoroughly intertwined and rely upon one another for their realization, yet neither is adequately supported by current networking technologies and applications. Explication of the "work to make the home network work" opens up the design space for the continued integration of the home network in domestic life and elaboration of future support. Key issues for development include the development of networking facilities that do not require advanced networking knowledge, that are flexible and support the local social order of the home and the evolution of its routines, and which ultimately make the home network visible and accountable to household members.

© All rights reserved Grinter et al. and/or ACM Press

2008
 
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Dantec, Christopher A. Le and Edwards, W. Keith (2008): Designs on dignity: perceptions of technology among the homeless. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2008 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 5-10, 2008. pp. 627-636. Available online

Technology, it is argued, has the potential to improve everyone's life: from the workplace, to entertainment, to easing chores around the home. But what of people who have neither job nor home? We undertook a qualitative study of the homeless population in a metropolitan U.S. city to better understand what it means to be homeless and how technology -- from cell phones to bus passes -- affects their daily lives. The themes we identify provide an array of opportunities for technological interventions that can empower the homeless population. Our investigation also reveals the need to reexamine some of the assumptions made in HCI about the relationship people have with technology. We suggest a broader awareness of the social context of technology use as a critical component when considering design innovation for the homeless.

© All rights reserved Dantec and Edwards and/or ACM Press

 
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Stoll, Jennifer, Tashman, Craig S., Edwards, W. Keith and Spafford, Kyle (2008): Sesame: informing user security decisions with system visualization. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2008 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 5-10, 2008. pp. 1045-1054. Available online

Non-expert users face a dilemma when making security decisions. Their security often cannot be fully automated for them, yet they generally lack both the motivation and technical knowledge to make informed security decisions on their own. To help users with this dilemma, we present a novel security user interface called Sesame. Sesame uses a concrete, spatial extension of the desktop metaphor to provide users with the security-related, visualized system-level information they need to make more informed decisions. It also provides users with actionable controls to affect a system's security state. Sesame graphically facilitates users' comprehension in making these decisions, and in doing so helps to lower the bar for motivating them to participate in the security of their system. In a controlled study, users with Sesame were found to make fewer errors than a control group which suggests that our novel security interface is a viable alternative approach to helping users with their dilemma.

© All rights reserved Stoll et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Sankarpandian, Kandha, Little, Travis and Edwards, W. Keith (2008): Talc: using desktop graffiti to fight software vulnerability. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2008 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 5-10, 2008. pp. 1055-1064. Available online

With the proliferation of computer security threats on the Internet, especially threats such as worms that automatically exploit software flaws, it is becoming more and more important that home users keep their computers secure from known software vulnerabilities. Unfortunately, keeping software up-to-date is notoriously difficult for home users. This paper introduces TALC, a system to encourage and help home users patch vulnerable software. TALC increases home users' awareness of software vulnerabilities and their motivation to patch their software; it does so by detecting unpatched software and then drawing graffiti on their computer's background wallpaper image to denote potential vulnerabilities. Users can "clean up" the graffiti by applying necessary patches, which TALC makes possible by assisting in the software patching process.

© All rights reserved Sankarpandian et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Dantec, Christopher A. Le and Edwards, W. Keith (2008): The view from the trenches: organization, power, and technology at two nonprofit homeless outreach centers. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW08 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2008. pp. 589-598. Available online

Nonprofit social service organizations provide the backbone of social support infrastructure in the U.S. and around the world. As the ecology of information exchange moves evermore digital, nonprofit organizations with limited resources and expertise struggle to keep pace. We present a qualitative investigation of two nonprofit outreach centers providing service to the homeless in a U.S. metropolitan city. Despite similar goals shared by these organizations, apparent differences in levels of computerization, volunteerism, and organizational structure demonstrate the challenges in attempting to adopt technology systems when resources and technical expertise are highly constrained.

© All rights reserved Dantec and Edwards and/or ACM Press

 
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Poole, Erika Shehan, Chetty, Marshini, Grinter, Rebecca E. and Edwards, W. Keith (2008): More than meets the eye: transforming the user experience of home network management. In: Proceedings of DIS08 Designing Interactive Systems 2008. pp. 455-464. Available online

As computing migrates from the workplace to the home, householders must tackle problems of home network maintenance. Often they lack the technical knowledge or motivation to complete these tasks, making the user experience of home network maintenance frustrating. In response to these difficulties, many householders rely on handwritten reminders or interactive networking tools that are ill-suited for the home environment. In this paper, we seek to understand how to design better home network management tools through a study of sketches created by 40 people in 18 households. In our study, we obtained information about householders' knowledge, practices and needs with respect to home networking. Based on our results, we present guidelines for transforming the user experience of home network management.

© All rights reserved Poole et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Poole, Erika Shehan, Dantec, Christopher A. Le, Eagan, James R. and Edwards, W. Keith (2008): Reflecting on the invisible: understanding end-user perceptions of ubiquitous computing. In: Youn, Hee Yong and Cho, We-Duke (eds.) UbiComp 2008 Ubiquitous Computing - 10th International Conference September 21-24, 2008, Seoul, Korea. pp. 192-201. Available online

 
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Payne, Bryan D. and Edwards, W. Keith (2008): A Brief Introduction to Usable Security. In IEEE Internet Computing, 12 (3) pp. 13-21. Available online

 
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Voida, Stephen, Mynatt, Elizabeth D. and Edwards, W. Keith (2008): Re-framing the desktop interface around the activities of knowledge work. In: Cousins, Steve B. and Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel (eds.) Proceedings of the 21st Annual ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology October 19-22, 2008, Monterey, CA, USA. pp. 211-220. Available online

2007
 
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Miller, Andrew D. and Edwards, W. Keith (2007): Give and take: a study of consumer photo-sharing culture and practice. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2007 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2007. pp. 347-356. Available online

In this paper, we present initial findings from the study of a digital photo-sharing website: Flickr.com. In particular, we argue that Flickr.com appears to support-for some people-a different set of photography practices, socialization styles, and perspectives on privacy that are unlike those described in previous research on consumer and amateur photographers. Further, through our examination of digital photographers' photowork activities-organizing, finding, sharing and receiving-we suggest that privacy concerns and lack of integration with existing communication channels have the potential to prevent the 'Kodak Culture' from fully adopting current photo-sharing solutions.

© All rights reserved Miller and Edwards and/or ACM Press

 
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Shehan, Erika and Edwards, W. Keith (2007): Home networking and HCI: what hath God wrought?. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2007 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2007. pp. 547-556. Available online

For much of the industrialized world, network connectivity in the home is commonplace. Despite the large number of networked homes, even the most technically savvy people can have difficulties with home network installation and maintenance. We contend that these problems will not disappear over time as the networking industry matures, but rather are due to structural usability flaws inherent in the design of existing network infrastructure, devices, and protocols. The HCI community can offer a unique perspective to overcoming the challenges associated with home networking. This paper discusses why home networking is difficult, based on analysis of historical, social, and technical factors. It explores how the designs of existing home networking technologies have implications for usability, and examines a range of models for addressing these usability challenges. The paper concludes with a discussion of how these models may impact future research efforts in both HCI and networking.

© All rights reserved Shehan and Edwards and/or ACM Press

 
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Newman, Mark W., Ducheneaut, Nicolas, Edwards, W. Keith, Sedivy, Jana Z. and Smith, Trevor F. (2007): Supporting the unremarkable: experiences with the obje Display Mirror. In Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, 11 (7) pp. 523-536. Available online

 
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Yang, Jeonghwa and Edwards, W. Keith (2007): ICEbox: Toward Easy-to-Use Home Networking. In: Baranauskas, Maria Ceclia Calani, Palanque, Philippe A., Abascal, Julio and Barbosa, Simone Diniz Junqueira (eds.) DEGAS 2007 - Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Design and Evaluation of e-Government Applications and Services September 11th, 2007, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. pp. 197-210. Available online

2006
 
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Voida, Stephen, Edwards, W. Keith, Newman, Mark W., Grinter, Rebecca E. and Ducheneaut, Nicolas (2006): Share and share alike: exploring the user interface affordances of file sharing. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2006 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2006. pp. 221-230. Available online

With the rapid growth of personal computer networks and the Internet, sharing files has become a central activity in computer use. The ways in which users control the what, how, and with whom of sharing are dictated by the tools they use for sharing; there are a wide range of sharing practices, and hence a wide range of tools to support these practices. In practice, users' requirements for certain sharing features may dictate their choice of tool, even though the other affordances available through that tool may not be an ideal match to the desired manner of sharing. In this paper, we explore users' current practices in file sharing and examine the tools used to share files. Based on our findings, we unpack the features and affordances of these tools into a set of dimensions along which sharing tools can be characterized. Then, we present the set of user interface features we have prototyped in an interface called a sharing palette, which provides a platform for exploration and experimentation with new modalities of sharing. We briefly present the tool as a whole and then focus on the individual features of the sharing palette that support reported styles of sharing.

© All rights reserved Voida et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Edwards, W. Keith (2006): Discovery Systems in Ubiquitous Computing. In IEEE Pervasive Computing, 5 (2) pp. 70-77. Available online

2005
 
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Voida, Amy, Grinter, Rebecca E., Ducheneaut, Nicolas, Edwards, W. Keith and Newman, Mark W. (2005): Listening in: practices surrounding iTunes music sharing. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 191-200. Available online

This paper presents a descriptive account of the social practices surrounding the iTunes music sharing of 13 participants in one organizational setting. Specifically, we characterize adoption, critical mass, and privacy; impression management and access control; the musical impressions of others that are created as a result of music sharing; the ways in which participants attempted to make sense of the dynamic system; and implications of the overlaid technical, musical, and corporate topologies. We interleave design implications throughout our results and relate those results to broader themes in a music sharing design space.

© All rights reserved Voida et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Edwards, W. Keith, Newman, Mark W., Seciivy, Jana Z. and Smith, Trevor F. (2005): Bringing network effects to pervasive spaces. In IEEE Pervasive Computing, 4 (3) pp. 15-17. Available online

 
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Edwards, W. Keith (2005): Putting computing in context: An infrastructure to support extensible context-enhanced collaborative applications. In ACM Trans. Comput.-Hum. Interact., 12 (4) pp. 446-474. Available online

 Cited in the following chapter:

Mobile Computing: [/encyclopedia/mobile_computing.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

Mobile Computing: [/encyclopedia/mobile_computing.html]


 
2004
 
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Edwards, W. Keith, Newman, Mark W., Sedivy, Jana Z. and Smith, Trevor (2004): Supporting serendipitous integration in mobile computing environments. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 60 (5) pp. 666-700.

In the richly networked world of the near future, mobile computing users will be confronted with an ever-expanding array of devices and services accessible in their environments. In such a world, we cannot expect to have available to us specific applications that allow us to accomplish every conceivable combination of devices that we may wish. Instead, we believe that many of our interactions with the network will be characterized by the use of "general purpose" tools that allow us to discover, use, and integrate multiple devices around us. This paper lays out the case for why we believe that so-called "serendipitous integration" is a necessary fact that we will face in mobile computing, and explores a number of design experiments into supporting end user configuration and control of networked environments through general purpose tools. We present an iterative design approach to creating such tools and their user interfaces, discuss our observations about the challenges of designing for such a world, and then explore a number of tools that take differing design approaches to overcoming these challenges. We conclude with a set of reflections on the user experience issues that we believe are inherent in dealing with ad hoc mobile computing in richly networked environments.

© All rights reserved Edwards et al. and/or Academic Press

2003
 
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Edwards, W. Keith, Bellotti, Victoria, Dey, Anind K. and Newman, Mark W. (2003): The challenges of user-centered design and evaluation for infrastructure. In: Cockton, Gilbert and Korhonen, Panu (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2003 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 5-10, 2003, Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, USA. pp. 297-304.

2002
 
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Bellotti, Victoria, Back, Maribeth, Edwards, W. Keith, Grinter, Rebecca E., Henderson, Austin and Lopes, Cristina (2002): Making sense of sensing systems: five questions for designers and researchers. In: Terveen, Loren (ed.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2002 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 20-25, 2002, Minneapolis, Minnesota. pp. 415-422.

 
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Newman, Mark W., Izadi, Shahram, Edwards, W. Keith, Sedivy, Jana Z. and Smith, Trevor (2002): User interfaces when and where they are needed: an infrastructure for recombinant computing. In: Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel (ed.) Proceedings of the 15th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology October 27-30, 2002, Paris, France. pp. 171-180. Available online

Users in ubiquitous computing environments need to be able to make serendipitous use of resources that they did not anticipate and of which they have no prior knowledge. The Speakeasy recombinant computing framework is designed to support such ad hoc use of resources on a network. In addition to other facilities, the framework provides an infrastructure through which device and service user interfaces can be made available to users on multiple platforms. The framework enables UIs to be provided for connections involving multiple entities, allows these UIs to be delivered asynchronously, and allows them to be injected by any party participating in a connection.

© All rights reserved Newman et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Edwards, W. Keith, Newman, Mark W., Sedivy, Jana Z., Smith, Trevor, Balfanz, Dirk, Smetters, D. K., Wong, H. Chi and Izadi, Shahram (2002): Using speakeasy for ad hoc peer-to-peer collaboration. In: Churchill, Elizabeth F., McCarthy, Joe, Neuwirth, Christine and Rodden, Tom (eds.) Proceedings of the 2002 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work November 16 - 20, 2002, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. pp. 256-265. Available online

Peer-to-peer systems appear promising in terms of their ability to support ad hoc, spontaneous collaboration. However, current peer-to-peer systems suffer from several deficiencies that diminish their ability to support this domain, such as inflexibility in terms of discovery protocols, network usage, and data transports. We have developed the Speakeasy framework, which addresses these issues, and supports these types of applications. We show how Speakeasy addresses the shortcomings of current peer-to-peer systems, and describe a demonstration application, called Casca, that supports ad hoc peer-to-peer collaboration by taking advantages of the mechanisms provided by Speakeasy.

© All rights reserved Edwards et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Newman, Mark W., Sedivy, Jana Z., Neuwirth, Christine, Edwards, W. Keith, Hong, Jason I., Izadi, Shahram, Marcelo, Karen, Smith, Trevor F., Sedivy, Jana and Newman, Mark (2002): Designing for serendipity: supporting end-user configuration of ubiquitous computing environments. In: Proceedings of DIS02: Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, & Techniques 2002. pp. 147-156. Available online

The future world of ubiquitous computing is one in which we will be surrounded by an ever-richer set of networked devices and services. In such a world, we cannot expect to have available to us specific applications that allow us to accomplish every conceivable combination of devices that we might wish. Instead, we believe that many of our interactions will be through highly generic tools that allow enduser discovery, configuration, interconnection, and control of the devices around us. This paper presents a design study of such an environment, intended to support serendipitous, opportunistic use of discovered network resources. We present an examination of a generic browser-style application built on top of an infrastructure developed to support arbitrary recombination of devices and services, as well as a number of challenges we believe to be inherent in such settings.

© All rights reserved Newman et al. and/or ACM Press

2001
 
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Edwards, W. Keith and Grinter, Rebecca E. (2001): At Home with Ubiquitous Computing: Seven Challenges. In: Abowd, Gregory D., Brumitt, Barry and Shafer, Steven A. (eds.) Ubicomp 2001 Ubiquitous Computing - Third International Conference September 30 - October 2, 2001, Atlanta, Georgia, USA. pp. 256-272. Available online

2000
 
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Edwards, W. Keith, Igarashi, Takeo, LaMarca, Anthony and Mynatt, Elizabeth D. (2000): A Temporal Model for Multi-Level Undo and Redo. In: Ackerman, Mark S. and Edwards, Keith (eds.) Proceedings of the 13th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 06 - 08, 2000, San Diego, California, United States. pp. 31-40. Available online

 
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Dourish, Paul, Edwards, W. Keith, Howell, Jon, LaMarca, Anthony, Lamping, John, Petersen, Karin, Salisbury, Michael, Terry, Doug and Thornton, Jim (2000): A Programming Model for Active Documents. In: Ackerman, Mark S. and Edwards, Keith (eds.) Proceedings of the 13th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 06 - 08, 2000, San Diego, California, United States. pp. 41-50. Available online

 
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Dourish, Paul and Edwards, W. Keith (2000): A Tale of Two Toolkits: Relating Infrastructure and Use in Flexible CSCW Toolkits. In Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 9 (1) pp. 33-51.

collaboration infrastructure, collaborative toolkits, reuse, specialisation, tailorability, toolkit design

© All rights reserved Dourish and Edwards and/or Kluwer Academic Publishers

 
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Dourish, Paul, Edwards, W. Keith, LaMarca, Anthony, Lamping, John, Petersen, Karin, Salisbury, Michael, Terry, Douglas B. and Thornton, James D. (2000): Extending document management systems with user-specific active properties. In ACM Transactions on Information Systems, 18 (2) pp. 140-170. Available online

Document properties are a compelling infrastructure on which to develop document management applications. A property-based approach avoids many of the problems of traditional hierarchical storage mechanisms, reflects document organizations meaningful to user tasks, provides a means to integrate the perspectives of multiple individuals and groups, and does this all within a uniform interaction framework. Document properties can reflect not only categorizations of documents and document use, but also expressions of desired system activity, such as sharing criteria, replication management, and versioning. Augmenting property-based document management systems with active properties that carry executable code enables the provision of document-based services on a property infrastructure. The combination of document properties as a uniform mechanism for document management, and active properties as a way of delivering document services, represents a new paradigm for document management infrastructures. The Placeless Documents system is an experimental prototype developed to explore this new paradigm. It is based on the seamless integration of user-specific, active properties. We present the fundamental design approach, explore the challenges and opportunities it presents, and show our architectures deals with them.

© All rights reserved Dourish et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Igarashi, Takeo, Edwards, W. Keith, LaMarca, Anthony and Mynatt, Elizabeth D. (2000): An Architecture for Pen-based Interaction on Electronic Whiteboards. In: Advanced Visual Interfaces 2000 2000. pp. 68-75.

 
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Mynatt, Elizabeth D., Igarashi, Takeo, Edwards, W. Keith and LaMarca, Anthony (2000): Designing an Augmented Writing Surface. In IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 20 (4) pp. 55-61. Available online

1999
 
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Kaminsky, Michael, Dourish, Paul, Edwards, W. Keith, LaMarca, Anthony, Salisbury, Michael and Smith, Ian (1999): SWEETPEA: Software Tools for Programmable Embodied Agents. In: Altom, Mark W. and Williams, Marian G. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 99 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference May 15-20, 1999, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. pp. 144-151. Available online

Programmable Embodied Agents are portable, wireless, interactive devices embodying specific, differentiable, interactive characteristics. They take the form of identifiable characters who reside in the physical world and interact directly with users. They can act as an out-of-band communication channel between users, as proxies for system components or other users, or in a variety of other roles. Traditionally, research into such devices has been based on costly custom hardware. In this paper, we report on our explorations of the space of physical character-based interfaces built on recently available stock consumer hardware platforms, structured around an initial framework of applications.

© All rights reserved Kaminsky et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Mynatt, Elizabeth D., Edwards, W. Keith, LaMarca, Anthony and Igarashi, Takeo (1999): Flatland: New Dimensions in Office Whiteboards. In: Altom, Mark W. and Williams, Marian G. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 99 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference May 15-20, 1999, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. pp. 346-353. Available online

Flatland is an augmented whiteboard interface designed for informal office work. Our research investigates approaches to building an augmented whiteboard in the context of continuous, long term office use. In particular, we pursued three avenues of research based on input from user studies: techniques for the management of space on the board, the ability to flexibly apply behaviors to support varied application semantics, and mechanisms for managing history on the board. Unlike some previously reported whiteboard systems, our design choices have been influenced by a desire to support long-term, informal use in an individual office setting.

© All rights reserved Mynatt et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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LaMarca, Anthony, Edwards, W. Keith, Dourish, Paul, Lamping, John, Smith, Ian and Thornton, Jim (1999): Taking the work out of workflow: Mechanisms for document-centered collaboration. In: Boedker, Susanne, Kyng, Morten and Schmidt, Kjeld (eds.) ECSCW 99 - Proceedings of the Sixth European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work 12-16 September, 1999, Copenhagen, Denmark. p. 1.

 
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Dourish, Paul, Edwards, W. Keith, LaMarca, Anthony and Salisbury, Michael (1999): Using Properties for Uniform Interaction in the Presto Document System. In: Zanden, Brad Vander and Marks, Joe (eds.) Proceedings of the 12th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 07 - 10, 1999, Asheville, North Carolina, United States. pp. 55-64. Available online

Most document or information management systems rely on hierarchies to organise documents (e.g. files, email messages or web bookmarks). However, the rigid structures of hierarchical schemes do not mesh well with the more fluid nature of everyday document practices. This paper describes Presto, a prototype system that allows users to organise their documents entirely in terms of the properties those documents hold for users. Properties provide a uniform mechanism for managing, coding, searching, retrieving and interacting with documents. We concentrate in particular on the challenges that property-based approaches present and the architecture we have developed to tackle them.

© All rights reserved Dourish et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Dourish, Paul, Edwards, W. Keith, LaMarca, Anthony and Salisbury, Michael (1999): Presto: An Experimental Architecture for Fluid Interactive Document Spaces. In ACM Computing Surveys (CSUR), 6 (2) pp. 133-161. Available online

Traditional document systems use hierarchical filing structures as the basis for organizing, storing and retrieving documents. However, this structure is very limited in comparison with the rich and varied forms of document interaction and category management in everyday document use. Presto is a prototype document management system providing rich interaction with documents through meaningful, user-level document attributes, such as "Word file," "published paper," "shared with Jim," "about Presto", or "currently in progress." Document attributes capture the multiple different roles that a single document might play, and they allow users to rapidly reorganize their document space for the task at hand. They also provide a basis for novel document systems design and new approaches to document management and interaction. In this article, we outline the motivations behind this approach, describe the principal components of our implementation, discuss architectural consequences, and show how these support new forms of interaction with large personal document spaces.

© All rights reserved Dourish et al. and/or ACM Press

1997
 
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Edwards, W. Keith and Mynatt, Elizabeth D. (1997): Timewarp: Techniques for Autonomous Collaboration. In: Pemberton, Steven (ed.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 97 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference March 22-27, 1997, Atlanta, Georgia. pp. 218-225. Available online

This paper presents a set of techniques for supporting autonomous collaboration -- collaboration where participants work independently for periods, and then join together to integrate their efforts. This paper posits that autonomous collaboration can be well-supported by systems in which the notion of time is made both explicit and editable, so that the parallel but divergent states of a shared artifact are exposed in the interface. We have developed a system, called timewarp, that explores these ideas, and provides support for distribution, awareness, and conflict resolution in an application-independent fashion.

© All rights reserved Edwards and Mynatt and/or ACM Press

 
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Edwards, W. Keith, Mynatt, Elizabeth D., Petersen, Karin, Spreitzer, Mike J., Terry, Douglas B. and Theimer, Marvin M. (1997): Designing and Implementing Asynchronous Collaborative Applications with Bayou. In: Robertson, George G. and Schmandt, Chris (eds.) Proceedings of the 10th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology October 14 - 17, 1997, Banff, Alberta, Canada. pp. 119-128. Available online

Asynchronous collaboration is characterized by the degree of independence collaborators have from one another. In particular, collaborators working asynchronously typically have little need for frequent and fine-grained coordination with one another, and typically do not need to be notified immediately of changes made by others to any shared artifacts they are working with. We present an infrastructure, called Bayou, designed to support the construction of asynchronous collaborative applications. Bayou provides a replicated, weakly-consistent, data storage engine to application writers. The system supports a number of mechanisms for leveraging application semantics; using these mechanisms, applications can implement complex conflict detection and resolution policies, and choose the level of consistency and stability they will see in their databases. We present a number of applications we have built or are building using the Bayou system, and examine how these take advantage of the Bayou architecture.

© All rights reserved Edwards et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Edwards, W. Keith (1997): Flexible Conflict Detection and Management in Collaborative Applications. In: Robertson, George G. and Schmandt, Chris (eds.) Proceedings of the 10th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology October 14 - 17, 1997, Banff, Alberta, Canada. pp. 139-148. Available online

This paper presents a comprehensive model for dealing with semantic conflicts in applications, and the implementation of this model in a toolkit for collaborative systems. Conflicts are defined purely through application semantics -- the set of behaviors supported by the applications -- and yet can be detected and managed by the infrastructure with minimal application code. This work describes a number of novel techniques for managing conflicts, both in the area of resolution policies and user interfaces for presenting standing conflicts in application data.

© All rights reserved Edwards and/or ACM Press

 
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Edwards, W. Keith, Hudson, Scott E., Marinacci, Joshua, Rodenstein, Roy, Rodriguez, Thomas K. and Smith, Ian (1997): Systematic Output Modification in a 2D User Interface Toolkit. In: Robertson, George G. and Schmandt, Chris (eds.) Proceedings of the 10th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology October 14 - 17, 1997, Banff, Alberta, Canada. pp. 151-158. Available online

In this paper we present a simple but general set of techniques for modifying output in a 2D user interface toolkit. We use a combination of simple subclassing, wrapping, and collusion between parent and output objects to produce arbitrary sets of composable output transformations. The techniques described here allow rich output effects to be added to most, if not all, existing interactors in an application, without the knowledge of the interactors themselves. This paper explains how the approach works, discusses a number of example effects that have been built, and describes how the techniques presented here could be extended to work with other toolkits. We address issues of input by examining a number of extensions to the toolkit input subsystem to accommodate transformed graphical output. Our approach uses a set of "hooks" to undo output transformations when input is to be dispatched.

© All rights reserved Edwards et al. and/or ACM Press

1996
 
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Edwards, W. Keith (1996): Policies and Roles in Collaborative Applications. In: Olson, Gary M., Olson, Judith S. and Ackerman, Mark S. (eds.) Proceedings of the 1996 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work November 16 - 20, 1996, Boston, Massachusetts, United States. pp. 11-20. Available online

Collaborative systems provide a rich but potentially chaotic environment for their users. This paper presents a system that allows users to control collaboration by enacting policies that serve as general guidelines to restrict and define the behavior of the system in reaction to the state of the world. Policies are described in terms of access control rights on data objects, and are assigned to groups of users called roles. Roles represent not only statically-defined collections of users, but also dynamic descriptions of users that are evaluated as applications are run. This run-time aspect of roles allows them to react flexibly to the dynamism inherent in collaboration. We present a specification language for describing roles and policies, as well as a number of common "real-world" policies that can be applied to collaborative settings.

© All rights reserved Edwards and/or ACM Press

1995
 
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Edwards, W. Keith, Mynatt, Elizabeth D. and Stockton, Kathryn (1995): Access to Graphical Interfaces for Blind Users. In Interactions, 2 (1) pp. 54-67. Available online

The authors describe the ongoing development of a graphical interface which addresses usability concerns of visually-impaired users.

© All rights reserved Edwards et al. and/or Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

1994
 
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Edwards, W. Keith (1994): Session Management for Collaborative Applications. In: Proceedings of the 1994 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work October 22 - 26, 1994, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States. pp. 323-330. Available online

Session management systems for collaborative applications have required a great deal of reimplementation work by developers because they have been typically created on a case-by-case basis. Further, artifacts of this development process have limited the flexibility of session management systems and their ability to cooperate across applications, resulting in the fairly formalized, heavy-weight session management found in most collaborative systems today. We present a model for a light-weight form of session management, the theoretical foundation for this model (based on the sharing of information about user and system activity), and details of a collaboration support environment which implements our session management model.

© All rights reserved Edwards and/or ACM Press

 
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Edwards, W. Keith and Mynatt, Elizabeth D. (1994): An Architecture for Transforming Graphical Interfaces. In: Szekely, Pedro (ed.) Proceedings of the 7th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 02 - 04, 1994, Marina del Rey, California, United States. pp. 39-47. Available online

While graphical user interfaces have gained much popularity in recent years, there are situations when the need to use existing applications in a nonvisual modality is clear. Examples of such situations include the use of applications on hand-held devices with limited screen space (or even no screen space, as in the case of telephones), or users with visual impairments. We have developed an architecture capable of transforming the graphical interfaces of existing applications into powerful and intuitive nonvisual interfaces. Our system, called Mercator, provides new input and output techniques for working in the nonvisual domain. Navigation is accomplished by traversing a hierarchical tree representation of the interface structure. Output is primarily auditory, although other output modalities (such as tactile) can be used as well. The mouse, an inherently visually-oriented device, is replaced by keyboard and voice interaction. Our system is currently in its third major revision. We have gained insight into both the nonvisual interfaces presented by our system and the architecture necessary to construct such interfaces. This architecture uses several novel techniques to efficiently and flexibly map graphical interfaces into new modalities.

© All rights reserved Edwards and Mynatt and/or ACM Press

 
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Edwards, W. Keith, Mynatt, Elizabeth D. and Stockton, Kathryn (1994): Providing Access to Graphical User Interfaces -- Not Graphical Screens. In: First Annual ACM Conference on Assistive Technologies 1994. pp. 47-54. Available online

The 1990 paper "The Graphical User Interface: Crisis, Danger and Opportunity" [BBV90] summarized an overwhelming concern expressed by the blind community: a new type of visual interface threatened to erase the progress made by the innovators of screen reader software. Such software (as the name implies) could read the contents of a computer screen, allowing blind computer users equal access to the tools used by their sighted colleagues. Whereas ASCII-based screens were easily accessible, new graphical interfaces presented a host of technological challenges. The contents of the screen were mere pixel values, the on or off "dots" which form the basis of any bit-mapped display. The goal for screen reader providers was to develop new methods for bringing the meaning of these picture-based interfaces to users who could not see them. The crisis was imminent. Graphical user interfaces were quickly adopted by the sighted community as a more intuitive interface. Ironically, these interfaces were deemed more accessible by the sighted population because they seemed approachable for novice computer users. The danger was tangible in the forms of lost jobs, barriers to education, and the simple frustration of being left behind as the computer industry charged ahead. Much has changed since that article was published. Commercial screen reader interfaces now exist for two of the three main graphical environments. Some feel that the crisis has been adverted, that the danger is now diminished. But what about the opportunity? Have graphical user interfaces improved the lives of blind computer users? The simple answer is not very much. This opportunity has not been realized because current screen reader technology provides access to graphical screens, not graphical interfaces. In this paper, we discuss the historical reasons for this mismatch as well as analyze the contents of graphical user interfaces. Next, we describe one possible way for a blind user to interact with a graphical user interface, independent of its presentation on the screen. We conclude by describing the components of a software architecture which can capture and model a graphical user interface for presentation to a blind computer user.

© All rights reserved Edwards et al. and/or ACM Press

1992
 
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Mynatt, Elizabeth D. and Edwards, W. Keith (1992): Mapping GUIs to Auditory Interfaces. In: Mackinlay, Jock D. and Green, Mark (eds.) Proceedings of the 5th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 15 - 18, 1992, Monteray, California, United States. pp. 61-70. Available online

This paper describes work to provide mappings between X-based graphical interfaces with auditory interfaces. In our system, dubbed Mercator, this mapping is transparent to applications. The primary motivation for this work is to provide accessibility to graphical applications for users who are blind or visually impaired. We describe the design of an auditory interface which simulates many of the features of graphical interfaces. We then describe the architecture we have built to model and transform graphical interfaces. Finally, we conclude with some indications of future research for improving our translation mechanisms and for creating an auditory "desktop" environment.

© All rights reserved Mynatt and Edwards and/or ACM Press

 
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