Number of co-authors:78
Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:Nicolas Ducheneaut:9Allan MacLean:7Ian Smith:5
Victoria Bellotti's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:Steve Benford:121Jakob Nielsen:109Yvonne Rogers:99
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Has also published under the name of:
"Victoria M. E. Bellotti"
Personal Homepage: parc.com/about/people/13/victoria-bellotti.html
Victoria Bellotti is a Principal Scientist and the developer of PARC's Opportunity Discovery research and strategic investment targeting program, which assists clients in identifying the best direction to move with new technology-centered business ventures. Victoria also studies people to understand their practices, problems, and requirements for future technology, and designs and analyzes human-centered systems, focusing on user experience.
Best known for her research on personal information management and task management, Victoria has more recently been focusing on user-centered design of context- and activity-aware computing systems. Her previous work at London University UK, The British Government's Department of Trade and Industry, EuroPARC, and Apple encompasses domains such as transportation, process control, computer-mediated communication, collaboration, and ubiquitous computing.
Dr. Bellotti received her Ph.D. in Human Computer Interaction from Queen Mary and Westfield College, an M.S. in Ergonomics and a B.S. in Psychology from University College, both within London University. She is a co-inventor on 7 patents and 13 patent applications and an author or co-author on ~50 papers and book chapters, many of which are regularly cited by other scientists.
Publications by Victoria Bellotti (bibliography)
Suzuki, Shunsuke, Bellotti, Victoria, Yee, Nick, John, Bonnie E., Nakao, Yusuke, Asahi, Toshiyuki and Fukuzumi, Shin'ichi (2011): Variation in importance of time-on-task with familiarity with mobile phone models. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 2551-2554.
We studied the extent to which time-on-task is correlated with perception of usability for people who are familiar with a phone model and for those who are not. Our controlled experiment, conducted in Japan, correlated subjective usability assessments with time-on-task for expert and novice users on three different mobile phone models. We found that the correlation between perceived usability and time-on-task is stronger when participants are more familiar with the phone model. While not significant when initially inspecting a new phone model, a negative correlation between time-on-task and perceived usability becomes significant with as little as an hour's time doing tasks on the unfamiliar phone. This suggests that designing the UI to make time-on-task as short as possible may not have much effect on the purchase decision, but as experience increases, it may increase the loyalty of existing users.
© All rights reserved Suzuki et al. and/or their publisher
Fischer, Joel E., Yee, Nick, Bellotti, Victoria, Good, Nathan, Benford, Steve and Greenhalgh, Chris (2010): Effects of content and time of delivery on receptivity to mobile interruptions. In: Proceedings of 12th Conference on Human-computer interaction with mobile devices and services 2010. pp. 103-112.
In this paper we investigate effects of the content of interruptions and of the time of interruption delivery on mobile phones. We review related work and report on a naturalistic quasi-experiment using experience-sampling that showed that the receptivity to an interruption is influenced by its content rather than by its time of delivery in the employed modality of delivery -- SMS. We also examined the underlying variables that increase the perceived quality of content and found that the factors interest, entertainment, relevance and actionability influence people's receptivity significantly. Our findings inform system design that seeks to provide context-sensitive information or to predict interruptibility and suggest the consideration of receptivity as an extension to the way we think and reason about interruptibility.
© All rights reserved Fischer et al. and/or their publisher
Lim, Brian Y., Brdiczka, Oliver and Bellotti, Victoria (2010): Show me a good time: using content to provide activity awareness to collaborators with ActivitySpotter. In: GROUP10 International Conference on Supporting Group Work 2010. pp. 263-272.
In order to study the effect supporting awareness of a colleague's activity on a collaborator's communication intentions, we developed ActivitySpotter. It is a research tool and awareness display that determines a user's current activity through a semantic analysis of documents s/he accesses and shares this information with collaborators. We ran a user study on 22 participants to investigate how accurately ActivitySpotter represents user activity and whether different representations of activity (presence only, topic keywords, or activity labels) influence awareness differently and lead users to change their contact intention. Our findings suggest that activity content awareness can help users glean more about what their collaborators are doing, especially if they are more socially distant, and can afford screen space to have the display showing. This increase in awareness also positively influences users' intentions to communicate in a socially appropriate manner.
© All rights reserved Lim et al. and/or their publisher
Portnoy, Felix, Bellotti, Victoria, Lund, Arnie, Russell, Dan, Simsarian, Kristian, Wroblewski, Luke and Resnick, Marc (2010): Harvesting Innovation in the Industry: Prescriptions for breakthrough products. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 54th Annual Meeting 2010. pp. 1239-1243.
Innovation is a key element for the future of human factors, both as a discipline and as a professional society. However, formal training of innovation processes is absent from the human factors curriculum. Furthermore, published studies about innovation methodologies in human factors manuscripts are scarce. Consequently, practitioners are relying on their own experience and intuition to introduce novel product development techniques in their organization. Therefore, the goal of this panel is to discuss the innovation techniques that are employed by some of the most innovative companies in the technology domain. Human factors and user experience team leaders will present how they have formulated innovation strategies among team members and their impact on product development.
© All rights reserved Portnoy et al. and/or HFES
Ducheneaut, Nicolas, Partridge, Kurt, Huang, Qingfeng, Price, Bob, Roberts, Mike, Bellotti, Victoria and Begole, Bo (2009): Collaborative Filtering Is Not Enough? Experiments with a Mixed-Model Recommender for Leisure Activities. In: Proceedings of the 2009 Conference on User Modeling, Adaptation and Personalization 2009. pp. 295-306.
Collaborative filtering (CF) is at the heart of most successful recommender systems nowadays. While this technique often provides useful recommendations, conventional systems also ignore data that could potentially be used to refine and adjust recommendations based on a user's context and preferences. The problem is particularly acute with mobile systems where information delivery often needs to be contextualized. Past research has also shown that combining CF with other techniques often improves the quality of recommendations. In this paper, we present results from an experiment assessing user satisfaction with recommendations for leisure activities that are obtained from different combinations of these techniques. We show that the most effective mix is highly dependent on a user's familiarity with a geographical area and discuss the implications of our findings for future research.
© All rights reserved Ducheneaut et al. and/or their publisher
Bellotti, Victoria, Begole, Bo, Chi, Ed H., Ducheneaut, Nicolas, Fang, Ji, Isaacs, Ellen, King, Tracy, Newman, Mark W., Partridge, Kurt, Price, Bob, Rasmussen, Paul and Roberts, Michael (2008): Activity-based serendipitous recommendations with the Magitti mobile leisure guide. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2008 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 5-10, 2008. pp. 1157-1166.
This paper presents a context-aware mobile recommender system, codenamed Magitti. Magitti is unique in that it infers user activity from context and patterns of user behavior and, without its user having to issue a query, automatically generates recommendations for content matching. Extensive field studies of leisure time practices in an urban setting (Tokyo) motivated the idea, shaped the details of its design and provided data describing typical behavior patterns. The paper describes the fieldwork, user interface, system components and functionality, and an evaluation of the Magitti prototype.
© All rights reserved Bellotti et al. and/or ACM Press
Whittaker, Steve, Bellotti, Victoria and Gwizdka, Jacek (2006): Email in personal information management. In Communications of the ACM, 49 (1) pp. 68-73.
Whittaker, Steve, Bellotti, Victoria and Moody, Paul (2005): Introduction to This Special Issue on Revisiting and Reinventing E-Mail. In Human-Computer Interaction, 20 (1) pp. 1-9.
Bellotti, Victoria, Ducheneaut, Nicolas, Howard, Mark, Smith, Ian and Grinter, Rebecca E. (2005): Quality Versus Quantity: E-Mail-Centric Task Management and Its Relation With Overload. In Human-Computer Interaction, 20 (1) pp. 89-138.
It is widely acknowledged that many professionals suffer from "e-mail overload." This article presents findings from in-depth fieldwork that examined this phenomenon, uncovering six key challenges of task management in e-mail. Analysis of qualitative and quantitative data suggests that it is not simply the quantity but also the collaborative quality of e-mail task and project management that causes this overload. We describe how e-mail becomes especially overwhelming when people use it for tasks that involve participation of others; tasks cannot be completed until a response is obtained and so they are interleaved. Interleaving means that the e-mail user must somehow simultaneously keep track of multiple incomplete tasks, often with the only reminder for each one being an e-mail message somewhere in the inbox or a folder. This and other insights from our fieldwork led us to a new design philosophy for e-mail in which resources for task and project management are embedded directly within an e-mail client as opposed to being added on as separate components of the application. A client, TaskMaster, embodying these ideas, was developed and tested by users in managing their real e-mail over an extended period. The design of the client and results of its evaluation are also reported.
© All rights reserved Bellotti et al. and/or Taylor and Francis
Bellotti, Victoria, Dalal, Brinda, Good, Nathaniel, Flynn, Peter, Bobrow, Daniel G. and Ducheneaut, Nicolas (2004): What a to-do: studies of task management towards the design of a personal task list manager. In: Dykstra-Erickson, Elizabeth and Tscheligi, Manfred (eds.) Proceedings of ACM CHI 2004 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 24-29, 2004, Vienna, Austria. pp. 735-742.
This paper reports on the results of studies of task management to support the design of a task list manager. We examined the media used to record and organize to-dos and tracked how tasks are completed over time. Our work shows that, contrary to popular wisdom, people are not poor at prioritizing. Rather, they have well-honed strategies for tackling particular task management challenges. By illustrating what factors influence task completion and how representations function to support task management, we hope to provide a strong foundation for the design of a personal to-do list manager. We also present some preliminary efforts in this direction.
© All rights reserved Bellotti et al. and/or ACM Press
Edwards, W. Keith, Bellotti, Victoria, Dey, Anind K. and Newman, Mark W. (2003): The challenges of user-centered design and evaluation for infrastructure. In: Cockton, Gilbert and Korhonen, Panu (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2003 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 5-10, 2003, Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, USA. pp. 297-304.
Bellotti, Victoria, Ducheneaut, Nicolas, Howard, Mark and Smith, Ian (2003): Taking email to task: the design and evaluation of a task management centered email tool. In: Cockton, Gilbert and Korhonen, Panu (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2003 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 5-10, 2003, Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, USA. pp. 345-352.
Ducheneaut, Nicolas and Bellotti, Victoria (2003): Ceci n'est pas un Objet? Talking About Objects in E-mail. In Human-Computer Interaction, 18 (1) pp. 85-110.
E-mail, far from being a poor, technically limited substitute for
face-to-face communication, has some unique and compelling properties that make
it ideally suited for talking about objects. In this article we show how e-mail
users have evolved new forms of electronic deictic references to refer to work
objects and have taken full advantage of the fluid boundaries between the
different roles that e-mail can assume. We also illustrate how e-mail users
draw on the persistence of the medium to make sense of the objects being talked
about and sometimes even transform the conversation itself into an object of
conversation. We conclude with several design suggestions for future electronic
mail software based on these findings.
© All rights reserved Ducheneaut and Bellotti and/or Taylor and Francis
Baudisch, Patrick, Good, Nathaniel, Bellotti, Victoria and Schraedley, Pamela (2002): Keeping things in context: a comparative evaluation of focus plus context screens, overviews, and zooming. In: Terveen, Loren (ed.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2002 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 20-25, 2002, Minneapolis, Minnesota. pp. 259-266.
Bellotti, Victoria, Back, Maribeth, Edwards, W. Keith, Grinter, Rebecca E., Henderson, Austin and Lopes, Cristina (2002): Making sense of sensing systems: five questions for designers and researchers. In: Terveen, Loren (ed.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2002 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 20-25, 2002, Minneapolis, Minnesota. pp. 415-422.
Bellotti, Victoria, Ducheneaut, Nicolas, Howard, Mark, Neuwirth, Christine, Smith, Ian and Smith, Trevor (2002): FLANNEL: adding computation to electronic mail during transmission. In: Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel (ed.) Proceedings of the 15th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology October 27-30, 2002, Paris, France. pp. 1-10.
In this paper, we describe FLANNEL, an architecture for adding computational
capabilities to email. FLANNEL allows email to be modified by an application
while in transit between sender and receiver. This modification is done without
modification to the endpoints -- mail clients -- at either end. This paper also
describes interaction techniques that we have developed to allow senders of
email to quickly and easily select computations to be performed by FLANNEL.
Through, our experience, we explain the properties that applications must have
in order to be successful in the context of FLANNEL.
© All rights reserved Bellotti et al. and/or ACM Press
Bellotti, Victoria, Ducheneaut, Nicolas, Howard, Mark, Smith, Ian and Neuwirth, Christine (2002): Innovation in extremis: evolving an application for the critical work of email and information management. In: Proceedings of DIS02: Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, & Techniques 2002. pp. 181-192.
We describe our experience of trying to develop a novel application that transforms information management (both coordination-based and personal) from stand-alone resources into resources deeply embedded in email. We explored two models for accomplishing this goal; these were to embed these resources in the email channel and to embed them in the client. Our exploration of the first model was intensive, in-depth and ultimately unsuccessful in large part due to our design process. We adopted Extreme Programming (XP) as a means to explore our second model more efficiently. This paper describes our motivations and experiences while exploring our first model before XP and then the advantages and disadvantages of turning to XP in the exploration of our second model.
© All rights reserved Bellotti et al. and/or ACM Press
Bellotti, Victoria and Edwards, Keith (2001): Intelligibility and Accountability: Human Considerations in Context Aware Systems. In Human-Computer Interaction, 16 (2) pp. 193-212.
This essay considers the problem of defining the context that context-aware systems should pay attention to from a human perspective. In particular, we argue that there are human aspects of context that cannot be sensed or even inferred by technological means, so context-aware systems cannot be designed simply to act on our behalf. Rather, they will have to be able to defer to users in an efficient and nonobtrusive fashion. Our point is particularly relevant for systems that are constructed such that applications are architecturally isolated from the sensing and inferencing that governs their behavior. We propose a design framework that is intended to guide thinking about accommodating human aspects of context. This framework presents four design principles that support intelligibility of system behavior and accountability of human users and a number of human-salient details of context that must be accounted for in context-aware system design.
© All rights reserved Bellotti and Edwards and/or Taylor and Francis
Ducheneaut, Nicolas and Bellotti, Victoria (2001): E-mail as habitat: an exploration of embedded personal information management. In Interactions, 8 (5) pp. 30-38.
Bellotti, Victoria and Smith, Ian (2000): Informing the Design of an Information Management System with Iterative Fieldwork. In: Proceedings of DIS00: Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, & Techniques 2000. pp. 227-237.
We report on the design process of a personal information management system, Raton Laveur, and how it was influenced by an intimate relationship between iterative fieldwork and design thinking. Initially, the system was conceived as a paper-based UI to calendar, contacts, to-dos and notes. As the fieldwork progressed, our understanding of peoples practices and the constraints of their office infrastructures radically shifted our design goals away from paper-based interaction to embedded interaction with our system. By this we mean embedding information management functionality in an existing application such as email.
© All rights reserved Bellotti and Smith and/or ACM Press
Scholtz, Jean, Bellotti, Victoria, Schirra, Leslie, Erickson, Thomas, DeGroot, Jenny and Lund, Arnold (1998): Telework: When Your Job is On the Line. In Interactions, 5 (1) pp. 44-54.
Rogers, Yvonne and Bellotti, Victoria (1997): Grounding Blue-Sky Research: How Can Ethnography Help?. In Interactions, 4 (3) pp. 58-63.
Bellotti, Victoria and Rogers, Yvonne (1997): From Web Press to Web Pressure: Multimedia Representations and Multimedia Publishing. In: Pemberton, Steven (ed.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 97 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference March 22-27, 1997, Atlanta, Georgia. pp. 279-286.
The growth of multimedia computing, followed by a recent push towards publishing on the World Wide Web, is rapidly changing the publishing industry. Editorial staff, working under pressure in printed and online publications, need to use a growing diversity of representations for planning, creating and reviewing content. We present a study of a number of publishing sites, describing how such representations are critical to ensuring quality in the editorial process. Following this, we discuss design implications for better representational tools.
© All rights reserved Bellotti and Rogers and/or ACM Press
Shum, Simon Buckingham, MacLean, Allan, Bellotti, Victoria and Hammond, N. V. (1997): Graphical Argumentation and Design Cognition. In Human-Computer Interaction, 12 (3) pp. 267-300.
Many efforts have been made to exploit the properties of graphical notations to support argument construction and communication. In the context of design rationale capture, we are interested in graphical argumentation structures as cognitive tools to support individual and collaborative design in real time. This context of use requires a detailed understanding of how a new representational structure integrates into the cognitive and discursive flow of design, that is, whether it provides supportive or intrusive structure. This article presents a use-oriented analysis of a graphical argumentation notation known as QOC (Questions, Options, and Criteria). Through a series of empirical studies, we show that it provides most support when elaborating poorly understood design spaces, but is a distraction when evaluating well-constrained design spaces. This is explained in terms of the cognitive compatibility between argumentative reasoning and the demands of different modes of designing. We then provide an account based on the collaborative affordances of QOC in group design meetings, and extend this to discuss the evolution of QOC argumentation from short term working memory to long term group memory.
© All rights reserved Shum et al. and/or Taylor and Francis
Tauber, Michael J., Bellotti, Victoria, Jeffries, Robin, Mackinlay, Jock D. and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 96 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 14-18, 1996, Vancouver, Canada.
Bellotti, Victoria and Bly, Sara A. (1996): Walking Away from the Desktop Computer: Distributed Collaboration and Mobility in a Product Design Team. In: Olson, Gary M., Olson, Judith S. and Ackerman, Mark S. (eds.) Proceedings of the 1996 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work November 16 - 20, 1996, Boston, Massachusetts, United States. pp. 209-218.
A study of a spatially distributed product design team shows that most members are rarely at their individual desks. Mobility is essential for the use of shared resources and for communication. It facilitates informal interactions and awareness unavailable to colleagues at remote sites. Implications for technology design include portable and distributed computing resources, in particular moving beyond individual workstation-centric CSCW applications.
© All rights reserved Bellotti and Bly and/or ACM Press
Dourish, Paul, Adler, Annette, Bellotti, Victoria and Henderson, Austin (1996): Your Place or Mine? Learning from Long-Term Use of Audio-Video Communication. In Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 5 (1) pp. 33-62.
Workstations and personal computers are increasingly being delivered with the ability to handle multimedia data; more and more of us are linked by high-speed digital networks. With multimedia communication environments becoming more commonplace, what have we learned from earlier experiences with prototype media environments? This paper reports on some of our experiences as developers, researchers and users of flexible, networked, multimedia computer environments, or "media spaces". It focusses on the lessons we can learn from extended, long-term use of media spaces, with connections that last not hours or days, but months or years. We take as our starting point a set of assumptions which differ from traditional analytical perspectives. In particular, we begin from the position that that real-world baseline is not always an appropriate point of comparison for new media technologies; that a set of complex and intricate communicative behaviours arise over time; and that media spaces connect not only individuals, but the wider social groups of which they form part. We outline a framework based on four perspectives -- individual, interactional, communal and societal -- from which to view the behaviour of individuals and groups linked by multimedia environments. On the basis of our long-term findings, we argue for a view of media spaces which, first, focuses on a wider interpretation of media space interaction than the traditional view of person-to-person connections, and, second, emphasises emergent communicative practices, rather than looking for the transfer of face-to-face behaviours.
© All rights reserved Dourish et al. and/or Kluwer Academic Publishers
Bellotti, Victoria, Blandford, Ann, Duke, David, MacLean, Allan, May, Jon and Nigay, Laurence (1996): Interpersonal Access Control in Computer-Mediated Communications: A Systematic Analysis of the Design Space. In Human-Computer Interaction, 11 (4) pp. 357-432.
Certain design projects raise difficult user-interface problems that are not easily amenable to designers' intuition or rapid prototyping due to their novelty, conceptual complexity, and the difficulty of conducting appropriate user studies. Interpersonal access control in computer-mediated communication (CMC) systems is just such a problem. We describe a collection of systematic theory-based analyses of a system prototype that inherited its control mechanism from two preexisting systems. We demonstrate that the collective use of system and user modeling techniques provides insight into this complex design problem and enables us to examine the implications of design decisions for users and implementation. The analyses identify a number of weaknesses in the prototype and are used to propose ways of making substantive refinements to improve its simplicity and appropriateness for two tasks: altering one's accessibility and distinguishing between who can make what kinds of connections. We conclude with a discussion of some critical issues that are relevant for CMC systems, and reflect on the process of applying formal human-computer interaction (HCI) techniques in informal, exploratory design contexts.
© All rights reserved Bellotti et al. and/or Taylor and Francis
Bellotti, Victoria (1996): What You Don't Know Can Hurt You: Privacy in Collaborative Computing. In: Sasse, Martina Angela, Cunningham, R. J. and Winder, R. L. (eds.) Proceedings of the Eleventh Conference of the British Computer Society Human Computer Interaction Specialist Group - People and Computers XI August, 1996, London, UK. pp. 241-261.
Privacy is a popular subject in the CSCW literature but has largely been addressed as an issue of security by systems designers. With the growth of networked, multimedia CSCW systems comes an increasing need for better control over how people gain access to one another and to potentially shareable information. This paper poses some challenges for CSCW developers and provides some examples of systems which are beginning to meet such challenges.
© All rights reserved Bellotti and/or Springer Verlag
Bellotti, Victoria, Shum, Simon Buckingham, MacLean, Allan and Hammond, Nick (1995): Multidisciplinary Modeling in HCI Design ...In Theory and in Practice. In: Katz, Irvin R., Mack, Robert L., Marks, Linn, Rosson, Mary Beth and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 95 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference May 7-11, 1995, Denver, Colorado. pp. 146-153.
In one of the largest multidisciplinary projects in basic HCI research to date, multiple analytic HCI techniques were combined and applied within an innovative design context to problems identified by designers of an AV communication system, or media space. The problems were presented to user-, system- and design-analysts distributed across Europe. The results of analyses were integrated and passed back to the designers, and to other domain experts, for assessment. The aim of this paper is to illustrate some theory-based insights gained into key problems in media space design and to convey lessons learned about the process of contributing to design using multiple theoretical perspectives. We also describe some obstacles which must be overcome if such techniques are to be transferred successfully to practice.
© All rights reserved Bellotti et al. and/or ACM Press
Bellotti, Victoria (1993): Integrating Theoreticians' and Practitioners' Perspectives with Design Rationale. In: Ashlund, Stacey, Mullet, Kevin, Henderson, Austin, Hollnagel, Erik and White, Ted (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 93 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 24-29, 1993, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. pp. 101-106.
QOC design rationale represents argumentation about design alternatives and assessments. It can be used to generate design spaces which capture and integrate information from design discussions and diverse kinds of theoretical analyses. Such design spaces highlight how different theoretical approaches can work together to help solve design problems. This paper describes an example of the generation of a multi-disciplinary QOC design space which shows how designers' deliberations can be augmented with design contributions from a combination of different theoretical HCI approaches.
© All rights reserved Bellotti and/or ACM Press
Bellotti, Victoria and Sellen, Abigail (1993): Design for Privacy in Ubiquitous Computing Environments. In: Michelis, Giorgio De, Simone, Carla and Schmidt, Kjeld (eds.) ECSCW 93 - Proceedings of the Third European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work 1993. pp. 77-92.
Current developments in information technology are leading to increasing capture and storage of information about people and their activities. This raises serious issues about the preservation of privacy. In this paper we examine why these issues are particularly important in the introduction of ubiquitous computing technology into the working environment. Certain problems with privacy are closely related to the ways in which the technology attenuates natural mechanisms of feedback and control over information released. We describe a framework for design for privacy in ubiquitous computing environments and conclude with an example of its application.
© All rights reserved Bellotti and Sellen and/or Kluwer
Beck, Eevi E. and Bellotti, Victoria (1993): Informed Opportunism as Strategy: Supporting Coordination in Distributed Collaborative Writing. In: Michelis, Giorgio De, Simone, Carla and Schmidt, Kjeld (eds.) ECSCW 93 - Proceedings of the Third European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work 1993. pp. 233-248.
There is little understanding of how distributed writing groups manage their collaboration and what kinds of support are most useful. The paper presents three case studies of distributed collaborative writing groups in academia. The process evolves over time, constantly adapting to changing circumstances. Co-authors offer and make use of a range of information. Their subsequent opportunistic use of this information to make appropriate ad hoc decisions in new circumstances, appears to be essential to achieve flexibility and coordination. We call this informed opportunism. We identify design implications for support tools for distributed collaborative writing.
© All rights reserved Beck and Bellotti and/or Kluwer
Dourish, Paul, Bellotti, Victoria, Mackay, Wendy E. and Ma, Chao-Ying (1993): Information and Context: Lessons from the Study of Two Shared Information Systems. In: Kaplan, Simon M. (ed.) Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Organizational Computing Systems 1993 November 1-4, 1993, Milpitas, California, USA. pp. 42-51.
With the increasing ease and power of computer networking technologies, many organisations are taking information which was previously managed and distributed on paper and making it available electronically. Such shared information systems are the basis of much organisational collaboration, and electronic distribution holds great promise. However, a primary focus of such systems is on the ease of information retrieval. We believe that an equally important component is the problem of information interpretation, and that this interpretation is guided by a context which many electronic systems do not fully acknowledge. We report on a study of two systems, one paper-based and one electronic, managing similar information within the same organisation. We describe the ways in which information retrieved from these systems is interpreted subjectively by individuals, and point to some of the factors contributing to this interpretation. These factors, together making up the context of the information, are of critical importance in the design of successful electronic shared information systems.
© All rights reserved Dourish et al. and/or ACM Press
Dourish, Paul and Bellotti, Victoria (1992): Awareness and Coordination in Shared Workspaces. In: Proceedings of the 1992 ACM conference on Computer-supported cooperative work November 01 - 04, 1992, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. pp. 107-114.
Awareness of individual and group activities is critical to successful collaboration and is commonly supported in CSCW systems by active, information generation mechanisms separate from the shared workspace. These mechanisms penalise information providers, presuppose relevance to the recipient, and make access difficult. We discuss a study of shared editor use which suggests that awareness information provided and exploited passively through the shared workspace, allows users to move smoothly between close and loose collaboration, and to assign and coordinate work dynamically. Passive awareness mechanisms promise effective support for collaboration requiring this sort of behaviour, whilst avoiding problems with active approaches.
© All rights reserved Dourish and Bellotti and/or ACM Press
MacLean, Allan, Bellotti, Victoria, Young, Richard M. and Moran, Thomas P. (1991): Reaching Through Analogy: A Design Rationale Perspective on Roles of Analogy. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 167-172.
A powerful way of reaching through technology is to use analogy to make the technology transparent by exploiting the user's familiarity with other situations. However, analogy has a number of roles in user interface design in addition to the one of helping the user understand the system. In this paper we consider some of these roles and their relationship to our Design Rationale (DR) framework (MacLean et al., 1989). Our goals are to develop the DR framework by exploring the implications of explicitly taking account of analogy, and to articulate an account of the roles of analogy in design by organising them around DR concepts.
© All rights reserved MacLean et al. and/or ACM Press
MacLean, Allan, Young, Richard M., Bellotti, Victoria and Moran, Thomas P. (1991): Questions, Options, and Criteria: Elements of Design Space Analysis. In Human-Computer Interaction, 6 (3) pp. 201-250.
Design Space Analysis is an approach to representing design rationale. It uses a semiformal notation, called QOC (Questions, Options, and Criteria), to represent the design space around an artifact. The main constituents of QOC are Questions identifying key design issues, Options providing possible answers to the Questions, and Criteria for assessing and comparing the Options. Design Space Analysis also takes account of justifications for the design (and possible alternative designs) that reflect considerations such as consistency, models and analogies, and relevant data and theory. A Design Space Analysis does not produce a record of the design process but is instead a coproduct of design and has to be constructed alongside the artifact itself. Our work is motivated by the notion that a Design Space Analysis will repay the investment in its creation by supporting both the original process of design and subsequent work on redesign and reuse by (a) providing an explicit representation to aid reasoning about the design and about the consequences of changes to it and (b) serving as a vehicle for communication, for example, among members of the design team or among the original designers and later maintainers of a system. Our work to date emphasizes the nature of the QOC representation over processes for creating it, so these claims serve as goals rather than objectives we have achieved. This article describes the elements of Design Space Analysis and illustrates them by reference to analyses of existing designs and to studies of the concepts and arguments used by designers during design discussions.
© All rights reserved MacLean et al. and/or Taylor and Francis
Bellotti, Victoria, MacLean, Allan and Moran, Thomas P. (1991): What Makes a Good Design Question?. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 23 (4) pp. 80-81.
MacLean, Allan, Bellotti, Victoria and Young, Richard M. (1990): What Rationale is There in Design?. In: Diaper, Dan, Gilmore, David J., Cockton, Gilbert and Shackel, Brian (eds.) INTERACT 90 - 3rd IFIP International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction August 27-31, 1990, Cambridge, UK. pp. 207-212.
Design Rationale is a framework for locating a proposed design within a design space. It incorporates an explicit representation of design Options, and an explicit representation of Criteria for choosing among the Options. This paper explores the relationship between Design Rationale and design practice. It uses Design Rationale as a way of analysing the content of a design session to help us understand requirements for future ways of improving the design process.
© All rights reserved MacLean et al. and/or North-Holland
Bellotti, Victoria (1990): A Framework for Assessing Applicability of HCI Techniques. In: Diaper, Dan, Gilmore, David J., Cockton, Gilbert and Shackel, Brian (eds.) INTERACT 90 - 3rd IFIP International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction August 27-31, 1990, Cambridge, UK. pp. 213-218.
The findings from three studies of applied and commercial design practice provide the basis for a framework for assessing the applicability of HCI analytic techniques. This framework embodies an explicit view of the design process, HCI oriented design roles, and a scoping matrix designed to represent breadth of a design or evaluative approach. These components assist in the identification of a list of desirable features for more applicable techniques, derived from interviews with practising HCI specialists in commercial software houses.
© All rights reserved Bellotti and/or North-Holland
Bellotti, Victoria (1988): Implications of Current Design Practice for the Use of HCI Techniques. In: Jones, Dylan M. and Winder, R. (eds.) Proceedings of the Fourth Conference of the British Computer Society Human Computer Interaction Specialist Group - People and Computers IV August 5-9, 1988, University of Manchester, UK. pp. 13-34.
A study of commercial system-interface design projects was carried out in order to determine the nature of real world design practice. Of particular interest were two questions; the first being whether commercial design makes use of HCI design and evaluative techniques, and the second being whether commercial design satisfies the requirements for successful application of these design aids. The findings suggested that commercial design practice varies both in the constraints under which it operates, and in the approaches adopted. Although many problems relating to interface design appear to be tractable to HCI techniques, these techniques are rarely used. Conditions in commercial design practice sometimes act as unavoidable constraints on what designers can do. These constraints have important implications for the applicability, or inapplicability, of HCI design and evaluative techniques.
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