Number of co-authors:19
Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:Steve Whittaker:9Nicolas Villar:3Abigail Sellen:2
Vaiva Kalnikaité's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:Yvonne Rogers:93Abigail Sellen:81Steve Whittaker:68
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Publications by Vaiva Kalnikaité (bibliography)
Whittaker, Steve, Kalnikaité, Vaiva and Ehlen, Patrick (2012): Markup as you talk: establishing effective memory cues while still contributing to a meeting. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW12 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2012. pp. 349-358.
Meeting participants can experience cognitive overload when they need both to verbally contribute to ongoing discussion while simultaneously creating notes to promote later recall of decisions made during the meeting. We designed two novel cuing tools to reduce the cognitive load associated with note-taking, thus improving verbal contributions in meetings. The tools combine real-time automatic speech recognition (ASR) with lightweight annotation to transform note-taking into a low overhead markup process. To create lightweight notes, users do not generate the notes' content themselves. Instead they simply highlight important phrases in a real-time ASR transcript (Highlighter tool), or press a button to indicate when they heard something important (Hotspots tool). We evaluated these markup tools against a traditional pen-and-paper baseline with 26 users. Hotspots was highly successful: compared with handwritten notes, it increased participants' conversational contributions and reduced their perception of overload in the meeting, while improving recall of the meeting two months later. Highlighter also improved recall without compromising conversational contributions, although users found it more demanding.
© All rights reserved Whittaker et al. and/or ACM Press
Whittaker, Steve, Kalnikaité, Vaiva, Petrelli, Daniela, Sellen, Abigail, Villar, Nicolas, Bergman, Ofer, Clough, Paul and Brockmeier, Jens (2012): Socio-Technical Lifelogging: Deriving Design Principles for a Future Proof Digital Past. In Eminds – International Journal of Human Computer Interaction, 27 (1) pp. 37-62.
Lifelogging is a technically inspired approach that attempts to address the problem of human forgetting by developing systems that "record everything." Uptake of lifelogging systems has generally been disappointing, however. One reason for this lack of uptake is the absence of design principles for developing digital systems to support memory. Synthesizing multiple studies, we identify and evaluate 4 new empirically motivated design principles for lifelogging: Selectivity, Embodiment, Synergy, and Reminiscence. We first summarize four empirical studies that motivate the principles, then describe the evaluation of four novel systems built to embody these principles. We show that design principles were generative, leading to the development of new classes of lifelogging system, as well as providing strategic guidance about how those systems should be built. Evaluations suggest support for Selection and Embodiment principles, but more conceptual and technical work is needed to refine the Synergy and Reminiscence principles.
© All rights reserved Whittaker et al. and/or Universidad de Oviedo
Kalnikaité, Vaiva, Rogers, Yvonne, Bird, Jon, Villar, Nicolas, Bachour, Khaled, Payne, Stephen, Todd, Peter M., Schöning, Johannes, Krüger, Antonio and Kreitmayer, Stefan (2011): How to nudge in Situ: designing lambent devices to deliver salient information in supermarkets. In: Proceedings of the 2011 International Conference on Uniquitous Computing 2011. pp. 11-20.
There are a number of mobile shopping aids and recommender systems available, but none can be easily used for a weekly shop at a local supermarket. We present a minimal, mobile and fully functional lambent display that clips onto any shopping trolley handle, intended to nudge people when choosing what to buy. It provides salient information about the food miles for various scanned food items represented by varying lengths of lit LEDs on the handle and a changing emoticon comparing the average miles of all the products in the trolley against a social norm. When evaluated in situ, the lambent handle display nudged people to choose products with fewer food miles than the items they selected using their ordinary shopping strategies. People also felt guilty when the average mileage of the contents of their entire shopping trolley was above the social norm. The findings are discussed in terms of how to provide different kinds of product information that people care about, using simple lambent displays.
© All rights reserved Kalnikaité et al. and/or ACM Press
Kalnikaité, Vaiva, Sellen, Abigail, Whittaker, Steve and Kirk, David (2010): Now let me see where i was: understanding how lifelogs mediate memory. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2010. pp. 2045-2054.
Lifelogging technologies can capture both mundane and important experiences in our daily lives, resulting in a rich record of the places we visit and the things we see. This study moves beyond technology demonstrations, in aiming to better understand how and why different types of Lifelogs aid memory. Previous work has demonstrated that Lifelogs can aid recall, but that they do many other things too. They can help us look back at the past in new ways, or to reconstruct what we did in our lives, even if we don't recall exact details. Here we extend the notion of Lifelogging to include locational information. We augment streams of Lifelog images with geographic data to examine how different types of data (visual or locational) might affect memory. Our results show that visual cues promote detailed memories (akin to recollection). In contrast locational information supports inferential processes -- allowing participants to reconstruct habits in their behaviour.
© All rights reserved Kalnikaité et al. and/or their publisher
Petrelli, Daniela, Villar, Nicolas, Kalnikaité, Vaiva, Dib, Lina and Whittaker, Steve (2010): FM radio: family interplay with sonic mementos. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2010. pp. 2371-2380.
Digital mementos are increasingly problematic, as people acquire large amounts of digital belongings that are hard to access and often forgotten. Based on fieldwork with 10 families, we designed a new type of embodied digital memento, the FM Radio. It allows families to access and play sonic mementos of their previous holidays. We describe our underlying design motivation where recordings are presented as a series of channels on an old fashioned radio. User feedback suggests that the device met our design goals: being playful and intriguing, easy to use and social. It facilitated family interaction, and allowed ready access to mementos, thus sharing many of the properties of physical mementos that we intended to trigger.
© All rights reserved Petrelli et al. and/or their publisher
Kalnikaité, Vaiva and Whittaker, Steve (2010): Beyond being there? Evaluating augmented digital records. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 68 (10) pp. 627-640.
Technological advances have made possible a new generation of digital prosthetic memory devices (or memory aids). Yet we currently know little about when, how and why these devices might be useful. We evaluated two novel prosthetic memory devices in naturalistic and controlled learning settings. Both devices provide controlled access to annotated digital records of lectures, potentially freeing students from taking detailed notes, allowing them to re-access lecture recordings whenever they choose. Digital records had benefits over traditional learning aids (e.g. handouts/personal notes): Students were more accurate in answering class quizzes using digital records, and spontaneous digital records usage outside lectures showed strategic access during important aspects of the course. Native speakers who used digital records performed better on coursework, and non-native language speakers used digital records extensively. Despite being a verbatim record, digital records did not substitute for attendance: students who had attended lectures performed better on quizzes and final coursework and few students listened to lectures from beginning to end. Digital records are thus a highly promising teaching tool, but prosthetic memory devices are best understood as working in synergy with current tools to aid human memory, rather than replacing it. We conclude by discussing potential theory and design implications.
© All rights reserved Kalnikaité and Whittaker and/or Academic Press
Pedro, Jose San, Kalnikaité, Vaiva and Whittaker, Steve (2009): You can play that again: exploring social redundancy to derive highlight regions in videos. In: Proceedings of the 2009 International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces 2009. pp. 469-474.
Identifying highlights in multimedia content such as video and audio is currently a very difficult technical problem. We present and evaluate a novel algorithm that identifies highlights by combining content analysis with Web 2.0 data mining techniques. We exploit the fact that popular content tends to be redundantly uploaded onto community sharing sites. Our "social summarization" technique first identifies overlaps in uploaded scenes and then uses the upload frequency of each video scene to compute that scene's importance in the complete video. Our user evaluation shows the reliability of the technique: scenes automatically selected by our method are agreed by experts to be the most relevant.
© All rights reserved Pedro et al. and/or their publisher
Kalnikaité, Vaiva and Whittaker, Steve (2008): Social summarization: does social feedback improve access to speech data?. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW08 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2008. pp. 9-12.
We extend the notion of social tagging to construct social summaries of complex multimedia materials. Our system allows students to apply time-indexed multimedia tags such as handwritten annotations or photos to different parts of lecture recordings. These tags can be used to straightforwardly access different parts of the lecture. The social component of the interface presents information about which tags are most frequently accessed by others: allowing students to infer those parts of the lecture of most interest to others. We demonstrate the utility of the approach in a 6 week fieldwork study. Social summaries are used much more than corresponding systems that do not provide social information. In addition, social tool use was correlated with high course marks.
© All rights reserved Kalnikaité and Whittaker and/or ACM Press
Kalnikaité, Vaiva and Whittaker, Steve (2008): Cueing Digital Memory: How and Why do Digital Notes Help Us Remember?. In: Proceedings of the HCI08 Conference on People and Computers XXII 2008. pp. 153-161.
People are aware of the fact that their memories are fallible. As a result, they spend significant amounts of time preparing for subsequent memory challenges, e.g. by leaving themselves reminders. Recent findings suggest, however, that people's ability to prepare for subsequent retrieval may not always be effective. This paper looks at the efficacy of memory strategies in the context of digital and paper-based note-taking. Prior research has claimed that (a) notes may not always be useful in promoting later retrieval; (b) taking notes may distract people from effectively processing important information. We examined pen and paper note-taking as well as a new generation digital note-taking device ChittyChatty, finding that notes help memory in two ways. First they provide cues that help people retrieve information that they might otherwise forget. Second the act of taking notes helps people to better focus on incoming information even if they never later consult these notes. Finally we found differences between different note-taking strategies. People who take high quality notes remember better than those who focus on exhaustive documentation; taking large volumes of notes decreases the efficiency of retrieval -- possibly because it is more time consuming to scan extensive notes to find relevant retrieval cues.
© All rights reserved Kalnikaité and Whittaker and/or their publisher
Kalnikaité, Vaiva and Whittaker, Steve (2007): Software or wetware?: discovering when and why people use digital prosthetic memory. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2007 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2007. pp. 71-80.
Our lives are full of memorable and important moments, as well as important items of information. The last few years have seen the proliferation of digital devices intended to support prosthetic memory (PM), to help users recall experiences, conversations and retrieve personal information. We nevertheless have little systematic understanding of when and why people might use such devices, in preference to their own organic memory (OM). Although OM is fallible, it may be more efficient than accessing information from a complex PM device. We report a controlled lab study which investigates when and why people use PM and OM. We found that PM use depended on users' evaluation of the quality of their OM, as well as PM device properties. In particular, we found that users trade-off Accuracy and Efficiency, preferring rapid access to potentially inaccurate information over laborious access to accurate information. We discuss the implications of these results for future PM design and theory. Rather than replacing OM, future PM designs need to focus on allowing OM and PM to work in synergy.
© All rights reserved Kalnikaité and Whittaker and/or ACM Press
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