Publication statistics

Pub. period:2001-2012
Pub. count:42
Number of co-authors:41



Co-authors

Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

George Fitzmaurice:19
Ravin Balakrishnan:14
Justin Matejka:9

 

 

Productive colleagues

Tovi Grossman's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Karin Coninx:134
Ravin Balakrishnan:108
Bill Buxton:78
 
 
 
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Tovi Grossman

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Publications by Tovi Grossman (bibliography)

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2012
 
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Banovic, Nikola, Grossman, Tovi, Matejka, Justin and Fitzmaurice, George (2012): Waken: reverse engineering usage information and interface structure from software videos. In: Proceedings of the 2012 ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology 2012. pp. 83-92.

We present Waken, an application-independent system that recognizes UI components and activities from screen captured videos, without any prior knowledge of that application. Waken can identify the cursors, icons, menus, and tooltips that an application contains, and when those items are used. Waken uses frame differencing to identify occurrences of behaviors that are common across graphical user interfaces. Candidate templates are built, and then other occurrences of those templates are identified using a multi-phase algorithm. An evaluation demonstrates that the system can successfully reconstruct many aspects of a UI without any prior application-dependant knowledge. To showcase the design opportunities that are introduced by having this additional meta-data, we present the Waken Video Player, which allows users to directly interact with UI components that are displayed in the video.

© All rights reserved Banovic et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Li, Wei, Grossman, Tovi and Fitzmaurice, George (2012): GamiCAD: a gamified tutorial system for first time AutoCad users. In: Proceedings of the 2012 ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology 2012. pp. 103-112.

We present GamiCAD, a gamified in-product, interactive tutorial system for first time AutoCAD users. We introduce a software event driven finite state machine to model a user's progress through a tutorial, which allows the system to provide real-time feedback and recognize success and failures. GamiCAD provides extensive real-time visual and audio feedback that has not been explored before in the context of software tutorials. We perform an empirical evaluation of GamiCAD, comparing it to an equivalent in-product tutorial system without the gamified components. In an evaluation, users using the gamified system reported higher subjective engagement levels and performed a set of testing tasks faster with a higher completion ratio.

© All rights reserved Li et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Yang, Xing-Dong, Grossman, Tovi, Wigdor, Daniel and Fitzmaurice, George (2012): Magic finger: always-available input through finger instrumentation. In: Proceedings of the 2012 ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology 2012. pp. 147-156.

We present Magic Finger, a small device worn on the fingertip, which supports always-available input. Magic Finger inverts the typical relationship between the finger and an interactive surface: with Magic Finger, we instrument the user's finger itself, rather than the surface it is touching. Magic Finger senses touch through an optical mouse sensor, enabling any surface to act as a touch screen. Magic Finger also senses texture through a micro RGB camera, allowing contextual actions to be carried out based on the particular surface being touched. A technical evaluation shows that Magic Finger can accurately

© All rights reserved Yang et al. and/or ACM Press

2011
 
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Hasan, Khalad, Grossman, Tovi and Irani, Pourang (2011): Comet and target ghost: techniques for selecting moving targets. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 839-848.

Numerous applications such as simulations, air traffic control systems, and video surveillance systems are inherently composed of spatial objects that move in a scene. In many instances, users can benefit from tools that allow them to select these targets in real-time, without having to pause the dynamic display. However, selecting moving objects is considerably more difficult and error prone than selecting stationary targets. In this paper, we evaluate the effectiveness of several techniques that assist in selecting moving targets. We present Comet, a technique that enhances targets based on their speed and direction. We also introduce Target Ghost, which allows users to select a static proxy of the target, while leaving the motion uninterrupted. We found a speed benefit for the Comet in a 1D selection task in comparison to other cursor and target enhancements. For 2D selection, Comet outperformed Bubble cursor but only when Target Ghost was not available. We conclude with guidelines for design.

© All rights reserved Hasan et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Chilana, Parmit K., Ko, Andrew J., Wobbrock, Jacob O., Grossman, Tovi and Fitzmaurice, George (2011): Post-deployment usability: a survey of current practices. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 2243-2246.

Despite the growing research on usability in the pre-development phase, we know little about post-deployment usability activities. To characterize these activities, we surveyed 333 full-time usability professionals and consultants working in large and small corporations from a wide range of industries. Our results show that, as a whole, usability professionals are currently not playing a substantial role in the post-deployment phase compared to other phases of user-centered design, but when they do, practitioners find their interactions quite valuable. We highlight opportunities in HCI research and practice to bridge this gap by working more closely with software support and maintenance teams. We also raise the need to understand what might be called 'usability maintenance,' that is, the process and procedures, by which usability is maintained after deployment.

© All rights reserved Chilana et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Bi, Xiaojun, Grossman, Tovi, Matejka, Justin and Fitzmaurice, George (2011): Magic desk: bringing multi-touch surfaces into desktop work. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 2511-2520.

Despite the prominence of multi-touch technologies, there has been little work investigating its integration into the desktop environment. Bringing multi-touch into desktop computing would give users an additional input channel to leverage, enriching the current interaction paradigm dominated by a mouse and keyboard. We provide two main contributions in this domain. First, we describe the results from a study we performed, which systematically evaluates the various potential regions within the traditional desktop configuration that could become multi-touch enabled. The study sheds light on good or bad regions for multi-touch, and also the type of input most appropriate for each of these regions. Second, guided by the results from our study, we explore the design space of multi-touch-integrated desktop experiences. A set of new interaction techniques are coherently integrated into a desktop prototype, called Magic Desk, demonstrating potential uses for multi-touch enabled desktop configurations.

© All rights reserved Bi et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Yang, Xing-Dong, Grossman, Tovi, Irani, Pourang and Fitzmaurice, George (2011): TouchCuts and TouchZoom: enhanced target selection for touch displays using finger proximity sensing. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 2585-2594.

Although touch-screen laptops are increasing in popularity, users still do not comfortably rely on touch in these environments, as current software interfaces were not designed for being used by the finger. In this paper, we first demonstrate the benefits of using touch as a complementary input modality along with the keyboard and mouse or touchpad in a laptop setting. To alleviate the frustration users experience with touch, we then design two techniques, TouchCuts, a single target expansion technique, and TouchZoom, a multiple target expansion technique. Both techniques facilitate the selection of small icons, by detecting the finger proximity above the display surface, and expanding the target as the finger approaches. In a controlled evaluation, we show that our techniques improve performance in comparison to both the computer mouse and a baseline touch-based target acquisition technique. We conclude by discussing other application scenarios that our techniques support.

© All rights reserved Yang et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Matejka, Justin, Grossman, Tovi and Fitzmaurice, George (2011): Ambient help. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 2751-2760.

In this paper we present Ambient Help, a system that supports opportunistic learning by providing automatic, context-sensitive learning resources while a user works. Multiple videos and textual help resources are presented ambiently on a secondary display. We define and examine a collection of design consideration for this type of interface. After describing our implementation details, we report on an experiment which shows that Ambient Help supports finding more helpful information, while not having a negative impact on the user's productivity, as compared to a traditional help condition.

© All rights reserved Matejka et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Chilana, Parmit K., Grossman, Tovi and Fitzmaurice, George (2011): Modern software product support processes and the usage of multimedia formats. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 3093-3102.

Despite being an important channel for end-user assistance, few studies have directly investigated the interactions that occur in modern-day practice of software product support. We present results from a multi-dimensional analysis of product support activities at a leading design software company. We carried out a quantitative analysis of existing support requests, a survey with product support specialists, and follow-up interviews to understand the current practices in product support. In particular, we investigated the utility of different multimedia formats that modern web-based support systems enable. Our results showed that despite the value that these formats bring to support tasks, support specialists still face bottlenecks in remotely resolving software problems. We conclude by highlighting several opportunities in HCI for improving diagnosis and resolution of software issues over the web.

© All rights reserved Chilana et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Rooke, Michael, Grossman, Tovi and Fitzmaurice, George (2011): AppMap: exploring user interface visualizations. In: Proceedings of the 2011 Conference on Graphics Interface 2011. pp. 111-118.

In traditional graphical user interfaces, the majority of UI elements are hidden to the user in the default view, as application designers and users desire more space for their application data. We explore the benefits of dedicating additional screen space for presenting an alternative visualization of an application's user interface. Some potential benefits are to assist users in examining complex software, understanding the extent of an application's capabilities, and exploring the available features. We propose user interface visualizations, alternative representations of an application's interface augmented with usage information. We introduce a design space for UI visualizations and describe some initial prototypes and insights based on this design space. We then present AppMap, our new design, which displays the entire function set of AutoCAD and allows the user to interactively explore the visualization which is augmented with visual overlays displaying analytical data about the functions and their relations. In our initial studies, users welcomed this new presentation of functionality, and the unique information that it presents.

© All rights reserved Rooke et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Matejka, Justin, Grossman, Tovi and Fitzmaurice, George (2011): IP-QAT: in-product questions, answers, & tips. In: Proceedings of the 2011 ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology 2011. pp. 175-184.

We present IP-QAT, a new community-based question and answer system for software users. Unlike most community forums, IP-QAT is integrated into the actual software application, allowing users to easily post questions, answers and tips without having to leave the application. Our in-product implementation is context-aware and shows relevant posts based on a user's recent activity. It is also designed with minimal transaction costs to encourage users to easily post, include annotated images and file attachments, as well as tag their posts with relevant UI components. We describe a robust cloud-based system implementation, which allowed us to release IP-QAT to 37 users for a 2 week field study. Our study showed that IP-QAT increased user contributions, and subjectively, users found our system more useful and easier to use, in comparison to the existing commercial discussion board.

© All rights reserved Matejka et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Li, Wei, Grossman, Tovi, Matejka, Justin and Fitzmaurice, George (2011): TwitApp: in-product micro-blogging for design sharing. In: Proceedings of the 2011 ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology 2011. pp. 185-194.

We describe TwitApp, an enhanced micro-blogging system integrated within AutoCAD for design sharing. TwitApp integrates rich content and still keeps the sharing transaction cost low. In TwitApp, tweets are organized by their project, and users can follow or unfollow each individual project. We introduce the concept of automatic tweet drafting and other novel features such as enhanced real-time search and integrated live video streaming. The TwitApp system leverages the existing Twitter micro-blogging system. We also contribute a study which provides insights on these concepts and associated designs, and demonstrates potential user excitement of such tools.

© All rights reserved Li et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Ekstrand, Michael, Li, Wei, Grossman, Tovi, Matejka, Justin and Fitzmaurice, George (2011): Searching for software learning resources using application context. In: Proceedings of the 2011 ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology 2011. pp. 195-204.

Users of complex software applications frequently need to consult documentation, tutorials, and support resources to learn how to use the software and further their understanding of its capabilities. Existing online help systems provide limited context awareness through "what's this?" and similar techniques. We examine the possibility of making more use of the user's current context in a particular application to provide useful help resources. We provide an analysis and taxonomy of various aspects of application context and how they may be used in retrieving software help artifacts with web browsers, present the design of a context-aware augmented web search system, and describe a prototype implementation and initial user study of this system. We conclude with a discussion of open issues and an agenda for further research.

© All rights reserved Ekstrand et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Annett, Michelle, Grossman, Tovi, Wigdor, Daniel and Fitzmaurice, George (2011): Medusa: a proximity-aware multi-touch tabletop. In: Proceedings of the 2011 ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology 2011. pp. 337-346.

We present Medusa, a proximity-aware multi-touch tabletop. Medusa uses 138 inexpensive proximity sensors to: detect a user's presence and location, determine body and arm locations, distinguish between the right and left arms, and map touch point to specific users and specific hands. Our tracking algorithms and hardware designs are described. Exploring this unique design, we develop and report on a collection of interactions enabled by Medusa in support of multi-user collaborative design, specifically within the context of Proxi-Sketch, a multi-user UI prototyping tool. We discuss design issues, system implementation, limitations, and generalizable concepts throughout the paper.

© All rights reserved Annett et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Fernquist, Jennifer, Grossman, Tovi and Fitzmaurice, George (2011): Sketch-sketch revolution: an engaging tutorial system for guided sketching and application learning. In: Proceedings of the 2011 ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology 2011. pp. 373-382.

We describe Sketch-Sketch Revolution, a new tutorial system that allows any user to experience the success of drawing content previously created by an expert artist. Sketch-Sketch Revolution not only guides users through the application user interface, it also provides assistance with the actual sketching. In addition, the system offers an authoring tool that enables artists to create content and then automatically generates a tutorial from their recorded workflow history. Sketch-Sketch Revolution is a unique hybrid tutorial system that combines in-product, content-centric and reactive tutorial methods to provide an engaging learning experience. A qualitative user study showed that our system successfully taught users how to interact with a drawing application user interface, gave users confidence they could recreate expert content, and was uniformly considered useful and easy to use.

© All rights reserved Fernquist et al. and/or ACM Press

2010
 
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McCrae, James, Glueck, Michael, Grossman, Tovi, Khan, Azam and Singh, Karan (2010): Exploring the design space of multiscale 3D orientation. In: Proceedings of the 2010 International Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces 2010. pp. 81-88.

Recently, research in 3D computer graphics and interaction has started to move beyond the narrow domain of single object authoring and inspection, and has begun to consider complex multiscale objects and environments. This generalization of problem scope calls for more general solutions, which are more akin to information visualization techniques than traditional computer graphics approaches. We consider the general problem of the user's understanding of their position and orientation within a multiscale 3D scene and propose a classification of the design space. To ground this theoretical discussion, we present initial explorations into grouping techniques, visualizations, and interactions to facilitate multiscale 3D orientation.

© All rights reserved McCrae et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Grossman, Tovi and Fitzmaurice, George (2010): ToolClips: an investigation of contextual video assistance for functionality understanding. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2010. pp. 1515-1524.

We investigate the use of on-line contextual video assistance to improve the learnability of software functionality. After discussing motivations and design goals for such forms of assistance, we present our new technique, ToolClips. ToolClips augment traditional tooltips to provide users with quick and contextual access to both textual and video assistance. In an initial study we found that users successfully integrated ToolClip usage into the flow of their primary tasks to overcome learnability difficulties. In a second study, we found that with ToolClips, users successfully completed 7 times as many unfamiliar tasks, in comparison to using a commercial professionally developed on-line help system. Users also retained the information obtained from ToolClips, performing tasks significantly faster one week later.

© All rights reserved Grossman and Fitzmaurice and/or their publisher

 
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Lepinski, G. Julian, Grossman, Tovi and Fitzmaurice, George (2010): The design and evaluation of multitouch marking menus. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2010. pp. 2233-2242.

Despite the considerable quantity of research directed towards multitouch technologies, a set of standardized UI components have not been developed. Menu systems provide a particular challenge, as traditional GUI menus require a level of pointing precision inappropriate for direct finger input. Marking menus are a promising alternative, but have yet to be investigated or adapted for use within multitouch systems. In this paper, we first investigate the human capabilities for performing directional chording gestures, to assess the feasibility of multitouch marking menus. Based on the positive results collected from this study, and in particular, high angular accuracy, we discuss our new multitouch marking menu design, which can increase the number of items in a menu, and eliminate a level of depth. A second experiment showed that multitouch marking menus perform significantly faster than traditional hierarchal marking menus, reducing acquisition times in both novice and expert usage modalities.

© All rights reserved Lepinski et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Song, Hyunyoung, Guimbretiere, Francois, Grossman, Tovi and Fitzmaurice, George (2010): MouseLight: bimanual interactions on digital paper using a pen and a spatially-aware mobile projector. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2010. pp. 2451-2460.

MouseLight is a spatially-aware standalone mobile projector with the form factor of a mouse that can be used in combination with digital pens on paper. By interacting with the projector and the pen bimanually, users can visualize and modify the virtually augmented contents on top of the paper, and seamlessly transition between virtual and physical information. We present a high fidelity hardware prototype of the system and demonstrate a set of novel interactions specifically tailored to the unique properties of MouseLight. MouseLight differentiates itself from related systems such as PenLight in two aspects. First, MouseLight presents a rich set of bimanual interactions inspired by the ToolGlass interaction metaphor, but applied to physical paper. Secondly, our system explores novel displaced interactions, that take advantage of the independent input and output that is spatially aware of the underneath paper. These properties enable users to issue remote commands such as copy and paste or search. We also report on a preliminary evaluation of the system which produced encouraging observations and feedback.

© All rights reserved Song et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Grossman, Tovi, Matejka, Justin and Fitzmaurice, George (2010): Chronicle: capture, exploration, and playback of document workflow histories. In: Proceedings of the 2010 ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology 2010. pp. 143-152.

We describe Chronicle, a new system that allows users to explore document workflow histories. Chronicle captures the entire video history of a graphical document, and provides links between the content and the relevant areas of the history. Users can indicate specific content of interest, and see the workflows, tools, and settings needed to reproduce the associated results, or to better understand how it was constructed to allow for informed modification. Thus, by storing the rich information regarding the document's history workflow, Chronicle makes any working document a potentially powerful learning tool. We outline some of the challenges surrounding the development of such a system, and then describe our implementation within an image editing application. A qualitative user study produced extremely encouraging results, as users unanimously found the system both useful and easy to use.

© All rights reserved Grossman et al. and/or their publisher

2009
 
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Song, Hyunyoung, Grossman, Tovi, Fitzmaurice, George W., Guimbretiere, Francois, Khan, Azam, Attar, Ramtin and Kurtenbach, Gordon (2009): PenLight: combining a mobile projector and a digital pen for dynamic visual overlay. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2009. pp. 143-152.

Digital pen systems, originally designed to digitize annotations made on physical paper, are evolving to permit a wider variety of applications. Although the type and quality of pen feedback (e.g., haptic, audio, and visual) have a huge impact on advancing the digital pen technology, dynamic visual feedback has yet to be fully investigated. In parallel, miniature projectors are an emerging technology with the potential to enhance visual feedback for small mobile computing devices. In this paper we present the PenLight system, which is a testbed to explore the interaction design space and its accompanying interaction techniques in a digital pen embedded with a spatially-aware miniature projector. Using our prototype, that simulates a miniature projection (via a standard video projector), we visually augment paper documents, giving the user immediate access to additional information and computational tools. We also show how virtual ink can be managed in single and multi-user environments to aid collaboration and data management. User evaluation with professional architects indicated promise of our proposed techniques and their potential utility in the paper-intensive domain of architecture.

© All rights reserved Song et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Grossman, Tovi, Fitzmaurice, George W. and Attar, Ramtin (2009): A survey of software learnability: metrics, methodologies and guidelines. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2009. pp. 649-658.

It is well-accepted that learnability is an important aspect of usability, yet there is little agreement as to how learnability should be defined, measured, and evaluated. In this paper, we present a survey of the previous definitions, metrics, and evaluation methodologies which have been used for software learnability. Our survey of evaluation methodologies leads us to a new question-suggestion protocol, which, in a user study, was shown to expose a significantly higher number of learnability issues in comparison to a more traditional think-aloud protocol. Based on the issues identified in our study, we present a classification system of learnability issues, and demonstrate how these categories can lead to guidelines for addressing the associated challenges.

© All rights reserved Grossman et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Matejka, Justin, Grossman, Tovi, Lo, Jessica and Fitzmaurice, George W. (2009): The design and evaluation of multi-finger mouse emulation techniques. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2009. pp. 1073-1082.

We explore the use of multi-finger input to emulate full mouse functionality, such as the tracking state, three buttons, and chording. We first present the design space for such techniques, which serves as a guide for the systematic investigation of possible solutions. We then perform a series of pilot studies to come up with recommendations for the various aspects of the design space. These pilot studies allow us to arrive at a recommended technique, the SDMouse. In a formal study, the SDMouse was shown to significantly improve performance in comparison to previously developed mouse emulation techniques.

© All rights reserved Matejka et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Grossman, Tovi, Baudisch, Patrick and Hinckley, Ken (2009): Handle Flags: efficient and flexible selections for inking applications. In: Proceedings of the 2009 Conference on Graphics Interface 2009. pp. 167-174.

There are a number of challenges associated with content selection in pen-based interfaces. Supplementary buttons to enter a selection mode may not be available, and selections may require a careful and error prone lasso stroke. In this paper we describe the design and evaluation of Handle Flags, a new localized technique used to select and perform commands on ink strokes in pen-operated interfaces. When the user positions the pen near an ink stroke, Handle Flags are displayed for the potential selections that the ink stroke could belong to (such as proximal strokes comprising a word or drawing). Tapping the handle allows the user to access the corresponding selection, without requiring a complex lasso stroke. Our studies show that Handle Flags offer significant benefits in comparison to traditional techniques, and are a promising technique for pen-based applications.

© All rights reserved Grossman et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Matejka, Justin, Li, Wei, Grossman, Tovi and Fitzmaurice, George (2009): CommunityCommands: command recommendations for software applications. In: Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology 2009. pp. 193-202.

We explore the use of modern recommender system technology to address the problem of learning software applications. Before describing our new command recommender system, we first define relevant design considerations. We then discuss a 3 month user study we conducted with professional users to evaluate our algorithms which generated customized recommendations for each user. Analysis shows that our item-based collaborative filtering algorithm generates 2.1 times as many good suggestions as existing techniques. In addition we present a prototype user interface to ambiently present command recommendations to users, which has received promising initial user feedback.

© All rights reserved Matejka et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Vanacken, Lode, Grossman, Tovi and Coninx, Karin (2009): Multimodal selection techniques for dense and occluded 3D virtual environments. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 67 (3) pp. 237-255.

Object selection is a primary interaction technique which must be supported by any interactive three-dimensional virtual reality application. Although numerous techniques exist, few have been designed to support the selection of objects in dense target environments, or the selection of objects which are occluded from the user's viewpoint. There is, thus, a limited understanding on how these important factors will affect selection performance. In this paper, we present a set of design guidelines and strategies to aid the development of selection techniques which can compensate for environment density and target visibility. Based on these guidelines, we present new forms of the ray casting and bubble cursor selection techniques, which are augmented with visual, audio, and haptic feedback, to support selection within dense and occluded 3D target environments. We perform a series of experiments to evaluate these new techniques, varying both the environment density and target visibility. The results provide an initial understanding of how these factors affect selection performance. Furthermore, the results showed that our new techniques adequately allowed users to select targets which were not visible from their initial viewpoint. The audio and haptic feedback did not provide significant improvements, and our analysis indicated that our introduced visual feedback played the most critical role in aiding the selection task.

© All rights reserved Vanacken et al. and/or Academic Press

2008
 
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Grossman, Tovi and Balakrishnan, Ravin (2008): Collaborative interaction with volumetric displays. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2008 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 5-10, 2008. pp. 383-392.

Volumetric displays possess a number of unique properties which potentially make them particularly suitable for collaborative 3D applications. Because such displays have only recently become available, interaction techniques for collaborative usage have yet to be explored. In this paper, we initiate this exploration. We present a prototype collaborative 3D model viewing application, which served as a platform for our explorations. We outline three design goals, discuss the key interaction issues which were encountered, and describe a suite of new techniques in detail. In initial user observation sessions, we found that our techniques allowed users to successfully complete a variety of 3D tasks. Furthermore, interviews with experts in potential usage domains indicated that the techniques we developed can serve as a baseline for future collaborative applications for volumetric displays.

© All rights reserved Grossman and Balakrishnan and/or ACM Press

2007
 
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Birnholtz, Jeremy P., Grossman, Tovi, Mak, Clarissa and Balakrishnan, Ravin (2007): An exploratory study of input configuration and group process in a negotiation task using a large display. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2007 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2007. pp. 91-100.

This paper reports on an exploratory study of the effects of input configuration on group behavior and performance in a collaborative task performed by a collocated group using a large display. Twelve groups completed a mixed-motive negotiation task under two conditions: a single, shared mouse and one mouse per person. Results suggest that the multiple mouse condition allowed for more parallel work, but the quality of discussion was higher in the single mouse condition. Moreover, participants were more likely to act in their own best interest in the multiple mouse condition.

© All rights reserved Birnholtz et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Kattinakere, Raghavendra S., Grossman, Tovi and Subramanian, Sriram (2007): Modeling steering within above-the-surface interaction layers. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2007 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2007. pp. 317-326.

Interaction techniques that utilize the space above the display surface to extend the functionalities of digitized surfaces continue to emerge. In such techniques, movements are constrained by the bounds of a layer. In addition, constraints imposed on the direction of movement within the layer may be present. Despite the presence of such techniques, there is limited understanding of human capabilities for performing the required steering task. In this paper we study and model user performance when steering through constrained and unconstrained paths in above-the-surface layers. Through a series of experiments we validate the derivation and applicability of our proposed models.

© All rights reserved Kattinakere et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Grossman, Tovi, Kong, Nicholas and Balakrishnan, Ravin (2007): Modeling pointing at targets of arbitrary shapes. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2007 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2007. pp. 463-472.

We investigate pointing at graphical targets of arbitrary shapes. We first describe a previously proposed probabilistic Fitts' law model [7] which, unlike previous models that only account for rectangular targets, has the potential to handle arbitrary shapes. Three methods of defining the centers of arbitrarily shaped targets for use within the model are developed. We compare these methods of defining target centers, and validate the model using a pointing experiment in which the targets take on various shapes. Results show that the model can accurately account for the varying target shapes. We discuss the implications of our results to interface design.

© All rights reserved Grossman et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Grossman, Tovi, Wigdor, Daniel and Balakrishnan, Ravin (2007): Exploring and reducing the effects of orientation on text readability in volumetric displays. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2007 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2007. pp. 483-492.

Volumetric displays, which provide a 360 view of imagery illuminated in true 3D space, are a promising platform for interactive 3D applications. However, presenting text in volumetric displays can be a challenge, as the text may not be oriented towards the user. This is especially problematic with multiple viewers, as the text could, for example, appear forwards to one user, and backwards to another. In a first experiment we determined the effects of 3D rotations on text readability. Based on the results, we developed and evaluated a new technique which optimizes text orientation for multiple viewers. This technique provided 33% faster group reading times in a collaborative experimental task.

© All rights reserved Grossman et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Grossman, Tovi, Dragicevic, Pierre and Balakrishnan, Ravin (2007): Strategies for accelerating on-line learning of hotkeys. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2007 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2007. pp. 1591-1600.

Hotkeys are extremely useful in leveraging expert performance, but learning them is a slow process. This paper investigates alternative menu designs that can motivate and help users remember associations between menu commands and hotkeys. Building upon previous work on paired-associate learning, we suggest that the transition to expert use can be accelerated by manipulating feedback and cost associated with menu selection. We evaluate five designs in a pilot study and then two of the most promising ones in a formal experiment, showing that the speed of hotkey learning can indeed be significantly increased with little modifications to the standard menu/hotkey paradigm.

© All rights reserved Grossman et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Grossman, Tovi and Wigdor, Daniel (2007): Going Deeper: a Taxonomy of 3D on the Tabletop. In: Second IEEE International Workshop on Horizontal Interactive Human-Computer Systems Tabletop 2007 October 10-12, 2007, Newport, Rhode Island, USA. pp. 137-144.

2006
 
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Grossman, Tovi, Hinckley, Ken, Baudisch, Patrick, Agrawala, Maneesh and Balakrishnan, Ravin (2006): Hover widgets: using the tracking state to extend the capabilities of pen-operated devices. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2006 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2006. pp. 861-870.

We present Hover Widgets, a new technique for increasing the capabilities of pen-based interfaces. Hover Widgets are implemented by using the pen movements above the display surface, in the tracking state. Short gestures while hovering, followed by a pen down, access the Hover Widgets, which can be used to activate localized interface widgets. By using the tracking state movements, Hover Widgets create a new command layer which is clearly distinct from the input layer of a pen interface. In a formal experiment Hover Widgets were found to be faster than a more traditional command activation technique, and also reduced errors due to divided attention.

© All rights reserved Grossman et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Grossman, Tovi and Balakrishnan, Ravin (2006): The design and evaluation of selection techniques for 3D volumetric displays. In: Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology 2006. pp. 3-12.

Volumetric displays, which display imagery in true 3D space, are a promising platform for the display and manipulation of 3D data. To fully leverage their capabilities, appropriate user interfaces and interaction techniques must be designed. In this paper, we explore 3D selection techniques for volumetric displays. In a first experiment, we find a ray cursor to be superior to a 3D point cursor in a single target environment. To address the difficulties associated with dense target environments we design four new ray cursor techniques which provide disambiguation mechanisms for multiple intersected targets. Our techniques showed varied success in a second, dense target experiment. One of the new techniques, the depth ray, performed particularly well, significantly reducing movement time, error rate, and input device footprint in comparison to the 3D point cursor.

© All rights reserved Grossman and Balakrishnan and/or ACM Press

 
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Grossman, Tovi and Balakrishnan, Ravin (2006): An evaluation of depth perception on volumetric displays. In: Celentano, Augusto (ed.) AVI 2006 - Proceedings of the working conference on Advanced visual interfaces May 23-26, 2006, Venezia, Italy. pp. 193-200.

2005
 
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Grossman, Tovi and Balakrishnan, Ravin (2005): The bubble cursor: enhancing target acquisition by dynamic resizing of the cursor's activation area. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 281-290.

We present the bubble cursor - a new target acquisition technique based on area cursors. The bubble cursor improves upon area cursors by dynamically resizing its activation area depending on the proximity of surrounding targets, such that only one target is selectable at any time. We also present two controlled experiments that evaluate bubble cursor performance in 1D and 2D target acquisition tasks, in complex situations with multiple targets of varying layout densities. Results show that the bubble cursor significantly outperforms the point cursor and the object pointing technique [7], and that bubble cursor performance can be accurately modeled and predicted using Fitts' law.

© All rights reserved Grossman and Balakrishnan and/or ACM Press

2004
 
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Grossman, Tovi and Balakrishnan, Ravin (2004): Pointing at trivariate targets in 3D environments. In: Dykstra-Erickson, Elizabeth and Tscheligi, Manfred (eds.) Proceedings of ACM CHI 2004 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 24-29, 2004, Vienna, Austria. pp. 447-454.

We investigate pointing in true 3D environments where the target size varies in three spatial dimensions. We also study the effect of the user's physical movement angle on pointing performance. Results show that target size dimension along the primary axis of movement has a greater impact on performance than the other two dimensions. Movement angle also significantly affects performance, and changes the relative impact of the three target dimensions. Building upon recent results in the modeling of bivariate pointing, we propose and validate a new model that describes pointing at trivariate targets. This model also accounts for movement angle, and outperforms previously published models.

© All rights reserved Grossman and Balakrishnan and/or ACM Press

 
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Grossman, Tovi, Wigdor, Daniel and Balakrishnan, Ravin (2004): Multi-finger gestural interaction with 3d volumetric displays. In: Proceedings of the 2004 ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology 2004. pp. 61-70.

Volumetric displays provide interesting opportunities and challenges for 3D interaction and visualization, particularly when used in a highly interactive manner. We explore this area through the design and implementation of techniques for interactive direct manipulation of objects with a 3D volumetric display. Motion tracking of the user\'s fingers provides for direct gestural interaction with the virtual objects, through manipulations on and around the display\'s hemispheric enclosure. Our techniques leverage the unique features of volumetric displays, including a 360{deg} viewing volume that enables manipulation from any viewpoint around the display, as well as natural and accurate perception of true depth information in the displayed 3D scene. We demonstrate our techniques within a prototype 3D geometric model building application.

© All rights reserved Grossman et al. and/or ACM Press

2003
 
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Grossman, Tovi, Balakrishnan, Ravin and Singh, Karan (2003): An interface for creating and manipulating curves using a high degree-of-freedom curve input device. In: Cockton, Gilbert and Korhonen, Panu (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2003 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 5-10, 2003, Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, USA. pp. 185-192.

2002
 
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Grossman, Tovi, Balakrishnan, Ravin, Kurtenbach, Gordon, Fitzmaurice, George W., Khan, Azam and Buxton, Bill (2002): Creating principal 3D curves with digital tape drawing. In: Terveen, Loren (ed.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2002 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 20-25, 2002, Minneapolis, Minnesota. pp. 121-128.

2001
 
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Grossman, Tovi, Balakrishnan, Ravin, Kurtenbach, Gordon, Fitzmaurice, George W., Khan, Azam and Buxton, William (2001): Interaction techniques for 3D modeling on large displays. In: SI3D 2001 2001. pp. 17-23.

 
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Page Information

Page maintainer: The Editorial Team
URL: http://www.interaction-design.org/references/authors/tovi_grossman.html

Publication statistics

Pub. period:2001-2012
Pub. count:42
Number of co-authors:41



Co-authors

Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

George Fitzmaurice:19
Ravin Balakrishnan:14
Justin Matejka:9

 

 

Productive colleagues

Tovi Grossman's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Karin Coninx:134
Ravin Balakrishnan:108
Bill Buxton:78
 
 
 
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