Civilization advances by extending the number of important operations which we can perform without thinking of them.
-- Alfred North Whitehead
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Publications by Tim Tijs (bibliography)
Zangouei, Farnaz, Gashti, Mohammad Ali Babazadeh, Höök, Kristina, Tijs, Tim, Vries, Gert-Jan de and Westerink, Joyce (2010): How to stay in the emotional rollercoaster: lessons learnt from designing EmRoll. In: Proceedings of the Sixth Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2010. pp. 571-580.
Bodily expressions can be used to involve players in intense experiences with games. By physically moving, breathing, or increasing your pulse, you may start emotional processes that help create for a stronger experience of the narrative in the game. We have designed a system named EmRoll that poses riddles to pairs of players. The riddles can only be solved if the players are, or at least pretend to be, moving according to different emotional states: dancing happily, relaxed breathing and being scared. The system measures movement, breathing and sweat reactions from the two players. Lessons learnt were: playing in pairs is an important aspect as the two players influenced one-another, pulling each other into stronger experiences; getting excited through intense movement when involving your whole body worked well, as did relaxing through deep breathing; using the sweat response as an input mechanism worked less well; and finally, putting a Wizard (a human operator) into the loop can help bootstrap difficulty balancing and thereby increase emotional involvement.
© All rights reserved Zangouei et al. and/or their publisher
Jennett, Charlene, Cox, Anna L., Cairns, Paul, Dhoparee, Samira, Epps, Andrew, Tijs, Tim and Walton, Alison (2008): Measuring and defining the experience of immersion in games. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 20 (9) pp. 641-661.
Despite the word's common usage by gamers and reviewers alike, it is still not clear what immersion means. This paper explores immersion further by investigating whether immersion can be defined quantitatively, describing three experiments in total. The first experiment investigated participants' abilities to switch from an immersive to a non-immersive task. The second experiment investigated whether there were changes in participants' eye movements during an immersive task. The third experiment investigated the effect of an externally imposed pace of interaction on immersion and affective measures (state anxiety, positive affect, negative affect). Overall the findings suggest that immersion can be measured subjectively (through questionnaires) as well as objectively (task completion time, eye movements). Furthermore, immersion is not only viewed as a positive experience: negative emotions and uneasiness (i.e. anxiety) also run high.
© All rights reserved Jennett et al. and/or Academic Press
Hendrix, Koen, Yang, Guo, Mortel, Dirk van de, Tijs, Tim and Markopoulos, Panos (2008): Designing a Head-Up Game for Children. In: Proceedings of the HCI08 Conference on People and Computers XXII 2008. pp. 45-53.
Head-Up Games [19,20] attempt to combine the technological benefits of modern electronic games with the social and physical advantages of traditional games. To demonstrate this concept, a Head-Up Game for 9- to 11-year-old children was designed and developed iteratively, with intensive involvement of children for play-testing. This paper describes and reflects on the game's design process and the implications regarding the concept of Head-Up Games. The final game, Stop the Bomb, was found to be physically and socially stimulating, understood and enjoyed by the target group, and preferred over a non-electronic version of the game at first encounter.
© All rights reserved Hendrix et al. and/or their publisher
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