Number of co-authors:5
Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:Marvin C. McCallum:2John D. Lee:2Patricia A. Bolton:1
Thomas F. Sanquist's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:John D. Lee:23Marvin C. McCallum:6William A. Wheeler:5
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Thomas F. Sanquist
Publications by Thomas F. Sanquist (bibliography)
Sanquist, Thomas F., Lee, John D. and McCallum, Marvin C. (1995): Methods for Assessing Training and Qualification Needs for Automated Ships. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 39th Annual Meeting 1995. pp. 1263-1267.
Changes in maritime technology are occurring at a rapid pace. A wide range of new technologies are being introduced on ships that are either under construction or currently operational. A recent report entitled Minding the Helm (National Research Council, 1994) identified a number of navigation technologies that have the potential to improve shipping performance, such as electronic chart information display systems (ECDIS), integrated bridge designs, and automatic docking systems. The NRC report also points out that the introduction of new technology poses certain risks, including lack of familiarity by the mariner. One recommendation is that "training requirements for new technologies ... need to be determined and .... training provided prior to using technology." This recommendation challenges traditional methods of training needs assessment, which focus on observable behavior and global job descriptions. Modern automated systems place much greater emphasis on the unobservable aspects of human judgment and decision making, and therefore require more refined methods of training needs assessment. This report describes the application of four human factors methods to assessing training requirements for automated ships. The focus of the methods is on internal representations or cognitive activity. The four methods include operator function modeling (OFM), cognitive task analysis, knowledge, skill and ability analysis (KSA), and comprehension assessment / error analysis. The techniques were developed on the basis of existing human factors methods, and tailored for application to automated maritime equipment. They are intended to complement and enhance the Instructional Systems Development process.
© All rights reserved Sanquist et al. and/or Human Factors Society
Sanquist, Thomas F. and Lee, John D. (1993): Voyage Planning and Track Keeping with Paper and Electronic Charts: A Case Study of Maritime Navigation Tasks. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 37th Annual Meeting 1993. pp. 564-568.
Enhancements in shipboard automation offer the prospect of crew size reductions for navigation tasks. This work was concerned with comparing the structure of navigation tasks using paper charts with the same tasks accomplished using an electronic chart display information system (ECDIS). Voyage planning with paper charts is based on drawing specific voyage segments, measuring distances between waypoints, and annotating the chart with voyage specific information. These tasks change substantially with electronic charts, particularly in terms of how the task is accomplished. Similarly, the manual activities of track keeping are reduced, but the need for a continuous record maintains the use of the paper chart. For both navigation tasks, there is less ability to visualize geographic features continuously with electronic charts because of the keyhole effect created by a CRT display. It is concluded that the design of automated navigation aids should be based not only on the informational aspects of task performance, but also the functional means by which navigators carry out their tasks with conventional technologies such as paper charts.
© All rights reserved Sanquist and Lee and/or Human Factors Society
Sanquist, Thomas F. (1992): Human Factors in Maritime Applications: A New Opportunity for Multi-Modal Transportation Research. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 36th Annual Meeting 1992. pp. 1123-1127.
Human error has been shown to cause 65-80% of maritime casualties; this figure is similar to that of other industries. However, there has been little systematic research and development work in the area of maritime human factors. This paper presents a model of five technical domains that comprise a useful framework for conceptualizing human factors in the maritime industries. The multi-modal research potential in the areas of fatigue and the cognitive impacts of automation are discussed.
© All rights reserved Sanquist and/or Human Factors Society
Wheeler, William A., Bolton, Patricia A. and Sanquist, Thomas F. (1990): Decision Making in an Emergency: When Information is Not Enough. In: D., Woods, and E., Roth, (eds.) Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 34th Annual Meeting 1990, Santa Monica, USA. pp. 1137-1141.
Sanquist, Thomas F. and Fujita, Yushi (1989): Protocol Analysis and Action Classification in the Evaluation of an Advanced Annunciator System Design. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 33rd Annual Meeting 1989. pp. 1064-1067.
The use of protocol analysis and behavioral classification for evaluating advanced display concepts is described. Three experienced nuclear power plant operators solved problems in a full-scale simulator which employed an alarm suppression logic in the annunciator display. Verbal protocols and behavioral actions were collected as operators solved the problems, and were compared with protocols in which the alarm suppression logic was not used. The results indicated that more observations of discrete values and more control actions were made in the condition employing the alarm suppression scheme, suggesting more effective diagnosis and control with this type of man-machine interface.
© All rights reserved Sanquist and Fujita and/or Human Factors Society
Sanquist, Thomas F. and McCallum, Marvin C. (1988): Application of a Cost-Benefit Model to the Evaluation of a Military Training Management Information System. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 32nd Annual Meeting 1988. pp. 1159-1161.
A method to facilitate the comparative evaluation of automated systems based on quantitative predictions and measurements of system impacts is described. A model of the costs and benefits resulting from the automation of U.S. Army training management activities was developed on the basis of work function taxonomy measures. Data were collected from a sample of 66 personnel in the 9th Infantry Division to determine the time spent on different job tasks and work functions. The savings that could be obtained through automation were estimated by applying workload reduction factors to the task and work function times estimates. The estimates were extrapolated to the entire Army to determine the impact of a fully fielded system. The results indicate that the Army currently spends 8208 person-years on training management at a cost of $348 million. Automation could potentially reduce these cost to 5683 person-years at a cost of $227 million. The potential savings of $121 million represent resources that are currently consumed by inefficient procedures. This methodology is useful for generating quantitative predictions of automation impact for verification in comparative evaluations.
© All rights reserved Sanquist and McCallum and/or Human Factors Society
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