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Thomas E. Miller
Publications by Thomas E. Miller (bibliography)
Kaempf, George L., Wolf, Steve and Miller, Thomas E. (1993): Decision Making in the AEGIS Combat Information Center. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 37th Annual Meeting 1993. pp. 1107-1111.
This paper presents the methods and findings of a study designed to identify the decision requirements for anti-air warfare officers in the Combat Information Center of an AEGIS cruiser. Decision requirements include the decisions that systems operators make, the cognitive strategies they invoke to make these decisions, and the cues and factors essential for making these decisions. These requirements can be used to design training, human-computer interfaces, or decision supports. The researchers adopted a method based on Naturalistic Decision Making (NDM) research. NDM describes how people make decisions in real-world settings under conditions of time pressure, high risk, and ambiguity. This paper describes a process for obtaining data necessary for describing these decision processes. The central method is a semi-structured interview method, the Critical Decision method (CDM). CDM was used to interview 31 experienced AEGIS personnel resulting in 14 incidents that reflect real problems experienced by the operational fleet. Analysis of these incidents revealed 183 decisions. Of these, 103 concerned situation assessments (SA). The operators used feature matching and story building to make all SA decisions. The operators invoked recognitional strategies to generate 95% of the course of action (COA) options and compared multiple options in only 5% of the COA decisions. The findings reported here indicate that under conditions of time pressure and ambiguity: decision makers rarely use analytical decision strategies, they usually satisfice rather than optimize, they rely heavily on diagnostic decisions, and they invoke singular rather than comparative evaluations of courses of action.
© All rights reserved Kaempf et al. and/or Human Factors Society
Guerlain, Stephanie A. E., Smith, Philip J., Miller, Thomas E., Gross, Susan M., Smith, Jack W. and Rudmann, Sally (1991): A Testbed for Teaching Problem Solving Skills in an Interactive Learning Environment. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 35th Annual Meeting 1991. p. 1166.
An interactive learning environment was developed with the goal of empirically testing the effectiveness of various teaching strategies in improving problem solving performance. The domain chosen was transfusion medicine since it involves solving complex, multiple solution problems which are typically found to be difficult (Elstein, Shulman, and Sprafka, 1978) and because normal performance of this task calls for marking data sheets with intermediate conclusions, thereby improving the chances of the computer correctly inferring the student's reasoning. The testbed, called TMT (for Transfusion Medicine Tutor), monitors for errors, builds a model of what a student knows and can select teaching strategies based on human tutoring models that were developed from earlier studies. The testbed will be used to collect data of a student's performance in conditions where the degree of teaching and type of feedback are manipulated. A number of broadly applicable issues can be explored in this framework such as the difference between expert and student problem solving strategies, the effectiveness of different teaching strategies, and the importance of modeling student knowledge and providing visual feedback when developing an interactive learning environment. Preliminary results of our experiments, a demonstration of the testbed, and a discussion of how it was implemented will be presented in the demonstration session.
© All rights reserved Guerlain et al. and/or Human Factors Society
Smith, Philip J., Miller, Thomas E., Gross, Susan, Guerlain, Stephanie, Smith, Jr. Jack W., Svirbely, John, Rudmann, Sally, Strohm, Patricia and Galdes, Deborah K. (1991): The Transfusion Medicine Tutor: Methods and Results from the Development of an Interactive Learning Environment for Teaching Problem-Solving Skills. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 35th Annual Meeting 1991. pp. 1408-1411.
Investigations of students and practicing medical technologists indicate that both groups make significant numbers of errors tasks such as antibody identification. One potential solution to help with this problem is to provide access to a computerized learning environment in which users can get exposure to a larger and much broader set of problems than would otherwise be possible. This paper describes such a learning environment, the Transfusion Medicine Tutor, and discusses the ways in which it supports guided discovery learning.
© All rights reserved Smith et al. and/or Human Factors Society
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