Publication statistics

Pub. period:1987-2012
Pub. count:37
Number of co-authors:40



Co-authors

Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Leonardo Bonanni:5
Ernesto Arroyo:5
Henry Lieberman:4

 

 

Productive colleagues

Ted Selker's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Shumin Zhai:67
Henry Lieberman:64
Roel Vertegaal:59
 
 
 

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Ted Selker

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"T. Selker"

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Publications by Ted Selker (bibliography)

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2012
 
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Rajan, Rahul, Chen, Cliff and Selker, Ted (2012): Considerate Audio MEdiating Oracle (CAMEO): improving human-to-human communications in conference calls. In: Proceedings of DIS12 Designing Interactive Systems 2012. pp. 86-95.

This paper introduces CAMEO, a behavior-driven design approach to address commonly occurring technical and social problems in audio-only teleconference calls. Many of these problems are associated with the missing visual channel and the low bandwidth for non-verbal signals. CAMEO seeks not only to sense these problems, but also to frame and respond to them in considerate ways. These include scheduling of advisory prompts, and assistive mechanisms to augment this bandwidth-constrained medium. This paper describes their implementation in CAMEO using a blackboard architecture that shapes and define its behavior. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate CAMEO on its resolution of conversational dominance in a collaborative meeting, and its utility in reducing the effects of disruptive extraneous noise on a conference call. We show that variance in conversational dominance can significantly be reduced with proactive aural feedback. Our experiments further reveal that such feedback can also reduce the impact of extraneous noise on conversations.

© All rights reserved Rajan et al. and/or ACM Press

2010
 
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Yu, Shoou-Jong and Selker, Ted (2010): Who said what when?: capturing the important moments of a meeting. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2010. pp. 3283-3288.

Meeting information capturing paradigms such as pen and paper has been found to be tedious and distractive. This paper presents Meeting Essence II, a mobile phone based, one screen meeting information capture system to address these issues. We also introduce a new social interaction centric recording paradigm, where events in the meeting are identified by meeting participants and are recorded, classified by time and person with a single screen touch. Results from our pilot experiment shows that our system positively contributes to the quality of meeting reconstruction, while being minimally distractive to the meeting participants.

© All rights reserved Yu and Selker and/or their publisher

2008
 
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Selker, Ted (2008): Touching the future. In Communications of the ACM, 51 (12) pp. 14-16.

2007
 
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Lee, Chia-Hsun Jackie, Chang, Chaochi, Chung, Hyemin, Dickie, Connor and Selker, Ted (2007): Emotionally reactive television. In: Proceedings of the 2007 International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces 2007. pp. 329-332.

When is an interface simple? Is it when it is invisible or very obvious, even intrusive? From the time TV was created, watching TV is considered as a static activity. TV audiences have very limited choices to interact with TV, such as turning on/off, increasing/decreasing volume, and traversing among different channels. This paper suggests that TV program should have social responses to people, such as affording and accepting audience's emotional feeling with the growth of technologies. This paper presents HiTV, an Emotionally-Reactive TV system using a digitally augmented soft ball as affect-input interfaces that can amplify TV program's video/audio signals. HiTV transforms the original video and audio into effects that intrigue and fulfill people's emotional expectation.

© All rights reserved Lee et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Selker, Ted, Rosenzweig, Elizabeth and Pandolfo, Anna (2007): Reply to Comments on "A Methodology for Testing Voting Systems. In Journal of Usability Studies, 2 (2) pp. 99-101.

2006
 
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Lee, Chia-Hsun Jackie, Bonanni, Leonardo, Espinosa, Jose H., Lieberman, Henry and Selker, Ted (2006): Augmenting kitchen appliances with a shared context using knowledge about daily events. In: Proceedings of the 2006 International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces 2006. pp. 348-350.

Networked appliances might make them aware of each other, but interacting with a complex network can be difficult in itself. KitchenSense is a sensor rich networked kitchen research platform that uses Common Sense reasoning to simplify control interfaces and augment interaction. The system's sensor net attempts to interpret people's intentions to create fail-soft support for safe, efficient and aesthetic activity. By considering embedded sensor data together with daily-event knowledge, a centrally-controlled system can develop a shared context across various appliances. The system is a research platform that is used to evaluate augmented intelligent support of work scenarios in physical spaces.

© All rights reserved Lee et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Johnson, Anthony and Selker, Ted (2006): MobileEssence: meeting capture on smartphones. In: Proceedings of 8th conference on Human-computer interaction with mobile devices and services 2006. pp. 262-263.

We demonstrate a software system that runs on the Symbian smartphone platform, and allows a group to capture the essence of a face-to-face meeting or remote conference call in a decentralized manner. We show how the users set up a meeting, record elements from the meeting, and are able to continue the collaboration after the original meeting has ended. We show how the information collected during the meeting can be used by members to analyze the collective impression of the meeting, as well view consensus or differences of opinions.

© All rights reserved Johnson and Selker and/or ACM Press

 
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Johnson, Anthony and Selker, Ted (2006): MobileEssence: meeting capture on smartphones. In: Nieminen, Marko and Rykkee, Mika (eds.) Proceedings of the 8th Conference on Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services - Mobile HCI 2006 September 12-15, 2006, Helsinki, Finland. pp. 262-263.

 
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Selker, Ted, Rozenwieg, Elizabeth and Pandolfo, Anna (2006): A Methodology for Testing Voting Systems. In Journal of Usability Studies, 2 (1) pp. 7-21.

This paper compares the relative merit in realistic versus lab style experiments for testing voting technology. By analyzing three voting experiments, we describe the value of realistic settings in showing the enormous challenges for voting process control and consistent voting experiences. The methodology developed for this type of experiment will help other researchers to test polling place protocols and administration. Comparing the results from laboratory experiments with voter verification and realistic voting experiments further validates the procedure of testing equipment in laboratory settings. The methodology and protocol for testing voting systems can be applied to any voting technology. This protocol matches the real-world conditions of voting by replicating them for the experiment.

© All rights reserved Selker et al. and/or Usability Professionals Association

2005
 
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Selker, Ted (2005): Fostering motivation and creativity for computer users. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 63 (4) pp. 410-421.

Creativity might be viewed as any process which results in a novel and useful product. People use computers for creative tasks; they flesh out ideas for text, graphics, engineering solutions, etc. Computer programming is an especially creative activity, but few tools for programming aid creativity. Computers can be designed to foster creativity as well. As a start, all computer programs should help users enumerate ideas, remember alternatives and support various ways to compare them. More sophisticated thinking aids could implement other successful techniques as well. Most computers are used in solitude; however, people depend on social supports for creativity. User scenarios can provide the important social support and gracious cues normally offered by collaborators that keep people motivated and help them consider alternatives. People also use computers to build community and to communicate. Computers should also support and filter these potentially creativity-enhancing communication acts. User-interface designers are so busy exposing features and fighting bugs that they might ignore their users' needs for motivation and creativity support. This paper develops the notion that creativity and motivation enhancement can easily be aligned with the design of high-quality human-computer interaction. User interface toolkits and evaluations should include support for motivation and creativity-enhancing approaches.

© All rights reserved Selker and/or Academic Press

 
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Bonanni, Leonardo, Arroyo, Ernesto, Lee, Chia-Hsun and Selker, Ted (2005): Exploring feedback and persuasive techniques at the sink. In Interactions, 12 (4) pp. 25-28.

 
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Arroyo, Ernesto, Bonanni, Leonardo and Selker, Ted (2005): Waterbot: exploring feedback and persuasive techniques at the sink. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 631-639.

This paper presents an exploration of user interfaces, persuasive interfaces and feedback techniques in the domain of the sink. Waterbot is a system to inform and motivate behavior at the sink for the purpose of increasing safety and functionality and ultimately motivating behavior change. Waterbot can be adapted to many current sink scenarios and demonstrates the breadth of interaction possible at the point of use of water. It functions as a platform for experimenting with safety, hygiene and water conservation in a sink. This paper presents the feedback and persuasion techniques of augmented physical interfaces with value-added design, automation, just-in-time prompts, positive and negative reinforcement, social validation and adaptive interfaces. Four design iterations are presented to affect behavior at the increasing cognitive levels of safety, functionality and behavior change.

© All rights reserved Arroyo et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Bonanni, Leonardo, Lee, Chia-Hsun and Selker, Ted (2005): Attention-based design of augmented reality interfaces. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 1228-1231.

The objects and surfaces of a task-based environment can be layered with digital interfaces to make them easier and safer to use. Once information can be projected anywhere in the space, it becomes crucial to design the information to make optimal use of users' attention. We have prototyped and evaluated a real-world augmented reality kitchen where user-centered interfaces and displays can be projected anywhere in the space to improve its usability. The augmented environment is designed to support the activities of a variety of people in diverse kitchen environments. This paper presents five intelligent kitchen systems that layer useful interfaces onto the refrigerator, range, cabinets, countertops and sink. The interface design is driven by human factors, especially attention theory and user evaluations. By projecting interfaces where they require the least cognitive load, we hope to improve the performance and confidence of users. The design employs cueing and search principles from attention theory. We present the results of pilot studies and future directions for our work.

© All rights reserved Bonanni et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Bonanni, Leonardo, Arroyo, Ernesto, Lee, Chia-Hsun and Selker, Ted (2005): Smart sinks: real-world opportunities for context-aware interaction. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 1232-1235.

Can implicit interaction with a computer easily drive useful interface improvements in physical world settings? This paper presents a case study presenting multiple such context-aware interaction improvements in a sink. We have identified opportunities where automated interfaces at the sink have positive consequences for safety, hygiene and ecology. The danger of scalding oneself with hot water is confronted by transforming the water into a graphical user interface and using image understanding to dispense the proper temperature of water. Audio-visual feedback at the sink can motivate users to conserve water. Used in combination with an RFID reader, the sink can serve as an effective means of verifying hand-washing compliance for clean environments. Finally, automatic actuation of the sink's height based on the user and task can prevent burns and ergonomic injuries. This project demonstrates that the integration of digital interaction in a hostile environment can facilitate and improve our daily rituals.

© All rights reserved Bonanni et al. and/or ACM Press

2003
 
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Arroyo, Ernesto and Selker, Ted (2003): Self-adaptive multimodal-interruption interfaces. In: Johnson, Lewis and Andre, Elisabeth (eds.) International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces 2003 January 12-15, 2003, Miami, Florida, USA. pp. 6-11.

This work explores the use of ambient displays in the context of interruption. A multimodal interface was created to communicate with users by using two ambient channels for interruption: heat and light. These ambient displays acted as external interruption generators designed to get users attention away from their current task; playing a game on a desktop computer. It was verified that the disruptiveness and effectiveness of interruptions varies with the interruption modality used to interrupt. The thermal modality produced a larger decrease in performance and disruptiveness on a task being interrupted than the visual modality. Our results set the initial point in providing the theory behind future self-adaptive multimodal-interruption interfaces that will employ users individual physiological responses to each interruption modality and dynamically select the modality based on effectiveness and performance metrics.

© All rights reserved Arroyo and Selker and/or ACM Press

 
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Liu, Hugo, Lieberman, Henry and Selker, Ted (2003): A model of textual affect sensing using real-world knowledge. In: Johnson, Lewis and Andre, Elisabeth (eds.) International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces 2003 January 12-15, 2003, Miami, Florida, USA. pp. 125-132.

This paper presents a novel way for assessing the affective qualities of natural language and a scenario for its use. Previous approaches to textual affect sensing have employed keyword spotting, lexical affinity, statistical methods, and hand-crafted models. This paper demonstrates a new approach, using large-scale real-world knowledge about the inherent affective nature of everyday situations (such as "getting into a car accident") to classify sentences into "basic" emotion categories. This commonsense approach has new robustness implications. Open Mind Commonsense was used as a real world corpus of 400,000 facts about the everyday world. Four linguistic models are combined for robustness as a society of commonsense-based affect recognition. These models cooperate and compete to classify the affect of text. Such a system that analyzes affective qualities sentence by sentence is of practical value when people want to evaluate the text they are writing. As such, the system is tested in an email writing application. The results suggest that the approach is robust enough to enable plausible affective text user interfaces.

© All rights reserved Liu et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Sharon, Taly, Lieberman, Henry and Selker, Ted (2003): A zero-input interface for leveraging group experience in web browsing. In: Johnson, Lewis and Andre, Elisabeth (eds.) International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces 2003 January 12-15, 2003, Miami, Florida, USA. pp. 290-292.

The experience of a trusted group of colleagues can help users improve the quality and focus of their browsing and searching activities. How could a system provide such help, when and where the users need it, without disrupting their normal work activities? This paper describes Context-Aware Proxy based System (CAPS), an agent that recommends pages and annotates links to reveal their relative popularity among the users colleagues, matched with their automatically computed interest profiles. A Web proxy tracks browsing habits, so CAPS requires no explicit input from the user. We review here CAPS design principles and implementation. We tested user satisfaction with the interface and the accuracy of the ranking algorithm. These experiments indicate that CAPS has high potential to support effective ranking for quality judgment -- by users.

© All rights reserved Sharon et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Arroyo, E. and Selker, Ted (2003): Arbitrating Multimodal Outputs: Using Ambient Displays as Interruptions. In: Stephanidis, Constantine (ed.) Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction June 22-27, 2003, Crete, Greece. pp. 591-595.

 
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Selker, Ted (2003): Fostering Motivation and Creativity for Computer Users. In: Stephanidis, Constantine (ed.) Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction June 22-27, 2003, Crete, Greece. pp. 1303-1307.

 
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Lockerd, Andrea and Selker, Ted (2003): DriftCatcher: The Implicit Social Context of Email. In: Proceedings of IFIP INTERACT03: Human-Computer Interaction 2003, Zurich, Switzerland. p. 813.

 
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Shell, Jeffrey S., Selker, Ted and Vertegaal, Roel (2003): Interacting with groups of computers. In Communications of the ACM, 46 (3) pp. 40-46.

2002
 
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Arroyo, Ernesto, Selker, Ted and Stouffs, Alexandre (2002): Interruptions as Multimodal Outputs: Which are the Less Disruptive?. In: 4th IEEE International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces - ICMI 2002 14-16 October, 2002, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. pp. 479-482.

2001
 
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Li, Michael and Selker, Ted (2001): Eye Pattern Analysis in Intelligent Virtual Agents. In: Antonio, Angelica de, Aylett, Ruth and Ballin, Daniel (eds.) IVA 2001 - Intelligent Virtual Agents - Third International Workshop September 10-11, 2001, Madrid, Spain. pp. 23-35.

 
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Selker, Ted (2001): Affecting humanity. In Communications of the ACM, 44 (3) p. 45.

2000
 
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Maglio, Paul P., Barrett, Rob, Campbell, Christopher S. and Selker, Ted (2000): SUITOR: An Attentive Information System. In: Lieberman, Henry (ed.) International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces 2000 January 9-12, 2000, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. pp. 169-176.

Attentive systems pay attention to what users do so that they can attend to what users need. Such systems track user behavior, model user interests, and anticipate user desires and actions. Because the general class of attentive systems is broad -- ranging from human butlers to web sites that profile users -- we have focused specifically on attentive information systems, which observe user actions with information resources, model user information states, and suggest information that might be helpful to users. In particular, we describe an implemented system, Simple User Interest Tracker (Suitor), that tracks computer users through multiple channels -- gaze, web browsing, application focus -- to determine their interests and to satisfy their information needs. By observing behavior and modeling users, Suitor finds and displays potentially relevant information that is both timely and non-disruptive to the users' ongoing activities.

© All rights reserved Maglio et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Yan, Hao and Selker, Ted (2000): Context-Aware Office Assistant. In: Lieberman, Henry (ed.) International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces 2000 January 9-12, 2000, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. pp. 276-279.

This paper describes the design and implementation of the Office Assistant -- an agent that interacts with visitors at the office door and manages the office owner's schedule. We claim that rich context information about users is key to making a flexible and believable interaction. We also argue that natural face-to-face conversation is an appropriate metaphor for human-computer interaction.

© All rights reserved Yan and Selker and/or ACM Press

1999
 
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Lieberman, Henry, Bradshaw, Jeffrey M., Gil, Yolanda and Selker, Ted (1999): IUI and Agents for the New Millennium. In: Maybury, Mark T. (ed.) International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces 1999 January 5-8, 1999, Redondo Beach, California, USA. pp. 93-94.

Advocates of intelligent user interfaces are used to fighting an uphill battle against more conventional approaches. Skeptics have been reluctant to accept intelligent tutoring systems, adaptive user interfaces, machine learning, predictive user models, anthropomorphic interaction, etc. as part of everyday interfaces because they have been suspicious of the feasibility of such techniques and fearful of the risk of possible mistakes. The good news is that we seem to be making progress in gaining acceptance. Past IUI conferences abound with examples of intelligent interface experiments that clearly demonstrate their feasibility. Limited examples of intelligent interfaces are actually starting to make their ways into commercial products. There is considerable evidence that opposition is softening. However, we're not out of the woods yet. Many of the early examples of commercial IUI and agent software are positioned as "add-ons" to the more familiar direct-manipulation interfaces, rather than playing a central role. We haven't yet reached the point where a new application is simply assumed, as a matter of course, to require all the representation, reasoning and learning features that IUI attendees advocate. But suppose we do? Suppose intelligence becomes such an integral part of the interface in the 21st century that we couldn't imagine applications without it? How will our software environment and the software industry change as a result? Will knowledge bases, inference engines, and learning algorithms become as much a part of the operating system as windows and menus? Will the idea of an "application", as a standalone, shrink-wrapped single-purpose interface, disappear? Once the interface is intelligent, is there any point to having present-day concepts like "files" or "directories"? Will all interfaces become personalized to the extent that there won't be any more "generic" interfaces that remain the same across millions of users? Will all information sources be interactive and customized, obsoleting paper books and linear movies? Will that lead to a loss of shared context among users? How will different intelligent user interfaces interoperate and co-operate? What, if anything, will be the next step beyond IUIs and agents? The panel will ask participants to speculate on how the widespread acceptance of intelligent user interfaces that we expect for the next millennium will transform our computing environments.

© All rights reserved Lieberman et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Selker, Ted (1999): Style and Function of Graphic Tools. In: Graphics Interface 99 June 2-4, 1999, Kingston, Ontario, Canada. pp. 123-131.

 
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Zhai, Shumin, Kandogan, Eser, Smith, Barton A. and Selker, Ted (1999): In Search of the 'Magic Carpet': Design and Experimentation of a Bimanual 3D Navigation Interface. In J. Vis. Lang. Comput., 10 (1) pp. 3-17.

1998
 
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Ark, Wendy, Dryer, D. Christopher, Selker, Ted and Zhai, Shumin (1998): Representation Matters: The Effect of 3D Objects and a Spatial Metaphor in a Graphical User Interface. In: Johnson, Hilary, Nigay, Laurence and Roast, C. R. (eds.) Proceedings of the Thirteenth Conference of the British Computer Society Human Computer Interaction Specialist Group - People and Computers XIII August 1-4, 1998, Sheffield, UK. pp. 209-219.

As computer graphical user interfaces (GUIs) are loaded with increasingly greater numbers of objects, researchers in HCI are forced to look for the next step in constructing user interface. In this paper, we examine the effects of employing more 'natural' representations in GUIs. In particular, we experimentally assess the impact of object form (2D iconic versus 3D realistic) and layout (regular versus ecological) have on target acquisition time. Results indicate that both form and layout significantly affect performance; subjects located targets more quickly when using interfaces with 3D objects and ecological layouts than they do with 2D objects and regular layouts. An interface with an ecological layout, realistic objects, or both may be an improvement over traditional interfaces.

© All rights reserved Ark et al. and/or Springer Verlag

1997
 
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Selker, Ted (1997): What Will Happen in the Next 50 Years?. In Communications of the ACM, 40 (2) pp. 88-89.

1996
 
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Selker, Ted (1996): New Paradigms for Computing (Introduction to the Special Section). In Communications of the ACM, 39 (8) pp. 28-30.

 
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Selker, Ted (1996): New Paradigms for Using Computers. In Communications of the ACM, 39 (8) pp. 60-69.

1994
 
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Selker, Ted (1994): COACH: A Teaching Agent that Learns. In Communications of the ACM, 37 (7) pp. 92-99.

1990
 
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Rutledge, Joseph D. and Selker, Ted (1990): Force-to-Motion Functions for Pointing. In: Diaper, Dan, Gilmore, David J., Cockton, Gilbert and Shackel, Brian (eds.) INTERACT 90 - 3rd IFIP International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction August 27-31, 1990, Cambridge, UK. pp. 701-706.

A pointing device which can be operated from typing position avoids time loss and distraction. We have built and investigated force-sensitive devices for this purpose. The critical link is the force-to-motion mapping. We have found principles which enable a force joystick to match the function and approach the performance of a mouse in pure pointing tasks, and to best it in mixed tasks, such as editing. Examples take into account task, user strategy and perceptual-motor limitations.

© All rights reserved Rutledge and Selker and/or North-Holland

 Cited in the following chapters:

Fitts's Law: [/encyclopedia/fitts_law.html]

Fitts's Law: [/encyclopedia/fitts_law.html]


 
 
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Alpern, Bowen, Carter, Larry and Selker, Ted (1990): Visualizing Computer Memory Architectures. In: IEEE Visualization 1990 1990. pp. 107-113.

1987
 
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Selker, Ted, Wolf, Catherine G. and Koved, Larry (1987): A Framework for Comparing Systems with Visual Interfaces. In: Bullinger, Hans-Jorg and Shackel, Brian (eds.) INTERACT 87 - 2nd IFIP International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction September 1-4, 1987, Stuttgart, Germany. pp. 683-688.

A computer program presents its capabilities and domain of application through a user interface. With the advent of inexpensive graphics hardware, systems with visual user interfaces are proliferating. New interface technologies offer opportunities for improving the usability of programs. It is important to understand how to employ these new techniques in the design of better user interfaces. A review and comparison of visual interfaces prompted the need for a vocabulary and systematic framework to describe them. This paper presents a framework developed for describing and comparing visual user interfaces. Communication between computers and humans has often been described in linguistic terms. This paper uses the term visual language to refer to the systematic use of visual presentation methods to convey meaning to a user. The framework includes a description of the interface in terms of the elements, operators and syntax of an interface language, the rationale governing the use of visual elements, the power of the language, interface characteristics such as the interaction style and input/output device dependencies, and the domain and purpose of the application. The framework has been useful in identifying important differences between visual interfaces and has provided a vocabulary for the discussion of visual language. Elements of the framework are illustrated with examples from existing systems.

© All rights reserved Selker et al. and/or North-Holland

 
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Page Information

Page maintainer: The Editorial Team
URL: http://www.interaction-design.org/references/authors/ted_selker.html

Publication statistics

Pub. period:1987-2012
Pub. count:37
Number of co-authors:40



Co-authors

Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Leonardo Bonanni:5
Ernesto Arroyo:5
Henry Lieberman:4

 

 

Productive colleagues

Ted Selker's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Shumin Zhai:67
Henry Lieberman:64
Roel Vertegaal:59
 
 
 

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Our Latest Books

 
 
The Social Design of Technical Systems: Building technologies for communities. 2nd Edition
by Brian Whitworth and Adnan Ahmad
start reading
 
 
 
 
Gamification at Work: Designing Engaging Business Software
by Janaki Mythily Kumar and Mario Herger
start reading
 
 
 
 
The Social Design of Technical Systems: Building technologies for communities
by Brian Whitworth and Adnan Ahmad
start reading
 
 
 
 
The Encyclopedia of Human-Computer Interaction, 2nd Ed.
by Mads Soegaard and Rikke Friis Dam
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