Publication statistics

Pub. period:1988-2012
Pub. count:51
Number of co-authors:46



Co-authors

Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Ellen Christiansen:4
Liam Bannon:3
Kaj Grønbæk:3

 

 

Productive colleagues

Susanne Bødker's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

John M. Carroll:209
Jonathan Grudin:105
Mark S. Ackerman:67
 
 
 
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Susanne Bødker

Picture of Susanne Bødker.
Has also published under the name of:
"Susanne Bodker"

Personal Homepage:
http://www.daimi.au.dk/~bodker/

Current place of employment:
Dept. of Computer Science, University of Aarhus

Susanne Bødker is professor of Human Computer Interaction at the Computer Science Department, University of Aarhus. Her research areas include participatory design, computer-supported cooperative work and human-computer interaction. Her PhD thesis, Through the Interface - a Human Activity Approach to User Interface Design was an early attempt to present activity theoretical HCI to an international audience. Much of her research since can be seen as consolidation and expansion of this theoretical frame. Susanne Bødker has been co-managing a national research center of human-machine interaction, and several projects where HCI researchers have cooperated with industrial partners and with users of the future technology. Her scientific production includes over 60 internationally published papers and a book. She is associate editor of ACM ToCHI and International Journal of Human-Computer Studies. Susanne Bødker has been a key person in building up HCI teaching at the University of Aarhus, at undergraduate as well as graduate levels.

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Publications by Susanne Bødker (bibliography)

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2012
 
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Schraefel, M. C., Kellog, Wendy, Ackerman, Mark S., Marsden, Gary, Bødker, Susanne, Wyche, Susan, Reddy, Madhu and Rouncefield, Mark (2012): Domain crossing: how much expertise is enough?. In: Companion Proceedings of ACM CSCW12 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2012. pp. 29-32.

In CSCW, how much do we need to know about another domain/culture before we observe, intersect and intervene with designs. What optimally would that other culture need to know about us? Is this a "how long is a piece of string" question, or an inquiry where we can consider a variety of contexts and to explicate best practice. The goal of this panel will be to develop heuristics for such practice.

© All rights reserved Schraefel et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Bødker, Susanne, Christiansen, Ellen, Nyvang, Tom and Zander, Pär-Ola (2012): Personas, people and participation: challenges from the trenches of local government. In: Proceedings of the 12th Participatory Design Conference. Volume 1 Research Papers 2012. pp. 91-100.

In the early days of digital technology development, design was done 'for', 'with' or 'by' the users based on the assumption that users were real people. Today 'users' have become a component in mass-market production and are seen as 'customers', rather than people. Still designers need to address use, and personas have been introduced for this purpose. The paper uses research on user participation and research-based personas from the eGov+ project to discuss whether personas help designers engage with users. In this project, design was carried out in the domain of municipal services through involvement of clerks, management and citizens from three different municipalities. Through four cases we discuss if applying personas in participatory design settings is productive to designers' understanding of users' use situations. Does deployment of personas bring designers closer to the actual use situation? In which ways do personas help design for, with or by the users? Do personas support participatory design?

© All rights reserved Bødker et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Bødker, Susanne and Halskov, Kim (2012): Participation: basic concepts and research challenges. In: Proceedings of the 12th Participatory Design Conference. Volume 2 Exploratory Papers, Workshop Descriptions, Industry Cases 2012. pp. 149-150.

Nearly four decades ago, Participatory Design emerged as an area of research with a strong focus on the political dimension, emphasizing people's democratic rights to influence their own working conditions. During recent years the context of use for information technology has spreads from the workplace to our homes, urban settings, rural areas, art, culture and almost all aspect of everyday life. The goal of this workshop is to shed light on the basic concept of 'participation' in relation to other core concepts (such as democracy, emancipation and power) in order to address the challenges in the new domains. At a more general level, the goal of the workshop is to identify some of urgent research question the PD community is facing today and in the near future.

© All rights reserved Bødker and Halskov and/or ACM Press

 
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Korn, Matthias and Bødker, Susanne (2012): Looking ahead: how field trials can work in iterative and exploratory design of ubicomp systems. In: Proceedings of the 2012 International Conference on Uniquitous Computing 2012. pp. 21-30.

We investigate in which forms field trials are a workable model as part of an exploratory design process for sporadic, mobile, non-work settings. A major concern of evaluating ubicomp systems is to study how practices and context of use emerge and develop over time when new technology is introduced. To introduce a sophisticated version of our own prototype in the course of an iterative design process, we conducted a public field trial of the system -- a new platform for mobile democratic discussions in municipal planning -- that we distributed via the Android Market. However, it turned out to be surprisingly difficult to evaluate our design in a setting that stretches over time, place, and without a preselected set of users. Analyzing our difficulties, we develop a general model for methods studying ubicomp systems. On the basis of this model, we characterize an openly interactive approach to field trials in order to look ahead rather than back.

© All rights reserved Korn and Bødker and/or ACM Press

2011

Bødker, Susanne (2011). Commentary on 'Action Research: Its Nature and Relationship to Human-Computer Interaction' by Ned Kock

 
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Mathiasen, Niels Raabjerg and Bødker, Susanne (2011): Experiencing security in interaction design. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 2325-2334.

Security is experienced differently in different contexts. This paper argues that in everyday situations, users base their security decisions on a mix of prior experiences. When approaching security and interaction design from an experience approach, tools that help bring out such relevant experiences for design are needed. This paper reports on how Prompted exploration workshops and Acting out security were developed to target such experiences when iteratively designing a mobile digital signature solution in a participatory design process. We discuss how these tools helped the design process and illustrate how the tangibility of such tools matters. We further demonstrate how the approach grants access to non-trivial insights into people's security experience. We point out how the specific context is essential for exploring the space between experience and expectations, and we illustrate how people activate their collections of security experiences rather than deploying one security strategy in all situations.

© All rights reserved Mathiasen and Bødker and/or their publisher

 
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Bødker, Susanne (2011): Use is everywhere and changing: analysis and design with the human-artifact model. In: Proceedings of the 2011 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2011. pp. 3-10.

Using the Human-Artifact Model, this paper is revisiting the current implications for design of ubiquity, of use being everywhere, and technological artifacts replacing and supplementing one another. I look back on seamlessness and boundary-crossing as design ideals for these kinds of technologies. Based on the dialectical methods of activity theory, I offer an alternative analysis where seamlessness and seamfulness are considered as dialectical pairs, always in play in use and appropriation of technological artifact. Using the Human-Artifact Model, the paper offers more specific dialectics on the levels of activity, action and operation.

© All rights reserved Bødker and/or his/her publisher

 
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Bødker, Susanne and Klokmose, Clemens N. (2011): The Human-Artifact Model: An Activity Theoretical Approach to Artifact Ecologies. In Human–Computer Interaction, 26 (4) pp. 315-371.

Although devices of all shapes and sizes currently dominate the technological landscape, human–computer interaction (HCI) as a field is not yet theoretically equipped to match this reality. In this article we develop the human–artifact model, which has its roots in activity theoretical HCI. By reinterpreting the activity theoretical foundation, we present a framework that helps addressing the analysis of individual interactive artifacts while embracing that they are part of a larger ecology of artifacts. We show how the human–artifact model helps structuring the understanding of an artifact's action-possibilities in relation to the artifact ecology surrounding it. Essential to the model is that it provides four interconnected levels of analysis and addresses the possibilities and problems at these four levels. Artifacts and their use are constantly developing, and we address development in, and of, use. The framework needs to support such development through concepts and methods. This leads to a methodological approach that focuses on new artifacts to supplement and substitute existing artifacts. Through a design case, we develop the methodological approach and illustrate how the human–artifact model can be applied to analyze present artifacts and to design future ones. The model is used to structure such analysis and to reason about findings while providing leverage from activity theoretical insights on mediation, dialectics, and levels of activity.

© All rights reserved Bødker and Klokmose and/or Taylor and Francis

 Cited in the following chapter:

Mobile Computing: [/encyclopedia/mobile_computing.html]


 
 
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Bødker, Susanne and Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted (2011): The Human -- Artifact Model: An Activity Theoretical Approach to Artifact Ecologies. In Human Computer Interaction, 26 (4) pp. 315-371.

Although devices of all shapes and sizes currently dominate the technological landscape, human-computer interaction (HCI) as a field is not yet theoretically equipped to match this reality. In this article we develop the human-artifact model, which has its roots in activity theoretical HCI. By reinterpreting the activity theoretical foundation, we present a framework that helps addressing the analysis of individual interactive artifacts while embracing that they are part of a larger ecology of artifacts. We show how the human-artifact model helps structuring the understanding of an artifact's action-possibilities in relation to the artifact ecology surrounding it. Essential to the model is that it provides four interconnected levels of analysis and addresses the possibilities and problems at these four levels. Artifacts and their use are constantly developing, and we address development in, and of, use. The framework needs to support such development through concepts and methods. This leads to a methodological approach that focuses on new artifacts to supplement and substitute existing artifacts. Through a design case, we develop the methodological approach and illustrate how the human-artifact model can be applied to analyze present artifacts and to design future ones. The model is used to structure such analysis and to reason about findings while providing leverage from activity theoretical insights on mediation, dialectics, and levels of activity.

© All rights reserved Bødker and Klokmose and/or Lawrence Erlbaum

2010
 
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Bohøj, Morten, Borchorst, Nikolaj Gandrup, Bouvin, Niels Olof, Bødker, Susanne and Zander, Pär-Ola (2010): Timeline collaboration. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2010. pp. 523-532.

This paper explores timelines as a web-based tool for collaboration between citizens and municipal caseworkers. The paper takes its outset in a case study of planning and control of parental leave; a process that may involve surprisingly many actors. As part of the case study, a web-based timeline, CaseLine, was designed. This design crosses the boundaries between leisure and work, in ways that are different from what is often seen in current HCI. The timeline has several roles on these boundaries: It is a shared planning and visualization tool that may be used by parents and caseworkers alone or together, it serves as a contract and a sandbox, as a record and a plan, as inspiration for planning and an authoritative road, as a common information space and a fragmented exchange. Serving all these roles does not happen smoothly, and the paper discusses the challenges of such timeline interaction in, and beyond this case.

© All rights reserved Bohøj et al. and/or their publisher

2009
 
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Borchorst, Nikolaj Gandrup, Bødker, Susanne and Zander, Pär-Ola (2009): The boundaries of participatory citizenship. In: Proceedings of the 11th European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2009. pp. 1-20.

This paper explores the space between municipal administrative systems and citizens' web use. It addresses the possibilities of drawing new boundaries between public administration and citizens' everyday lives through a shared planning and visualization artifact, embedded into Web 2.0. The case deals with planning, advising and control of parental leave. This process involves several citizens, the municipal office, employers, as well as the laws regulating parental leave, and the collective agreements supplementing this legislation. The municipal office controls that citizens and employers comply with the law. At the same time it is often the only reliable source of overview of the law, and of leave days recorded. This paper analyses the current situation, presents an exploratory design process and outcome, probing the boundaries between citizens and the municipal office. Focusing on boundaries and tribes, the paper discusses how new forms of web technologies may improve communication between citizen and government and facilitate collaborative user empowerment: Participatory citizenship. Where Web 2.0 technology is often thought of as tearing down boundaries between individuals, this case points to the importance of a focus beyond individual users, and a renegotiation of boundaries between citizens and caseworkers in the context of other groups of actors.

© All rights reserved Borchorst et al. and/or their publisher

2008
 
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Bødker, Susanne (2008): Design for reconfiguration. In: DOC08 2008. pp. 263-264.

The desktop computer has been part of our work-life for a while. Even so many work situations do not consist solely of work at the desktop. Many other artefacts are used in changing configurations with and around the computer. Most user interface design has failed to recognize this, and accordingly we are still stuck with the idea that new design should replace existing artefacts, rather than exist together with them. Mobile technology makes it possible to work in many places, and current mobile technologies often seem to assume that as long as the individual user has access to all her personal documents on her laptop, she can work independently of place. This assumes that everybody would always want to carry along every document one has ever produced or received. And on top, many work settings are not about individual documents but presupposes a network-oriented shared use of documents and services across physical place. Furthermore, while moving about, and e.g. working from home, we face a blurring of the boundaries between work and other parts of life, as well as an ongoing reconfiguration of work and non-work technologies. How do we deal with changing configurations of the interfaces in particular such that cross between work and non-work? How do experiences with non-work technology influence work, and how do we deal with those experiences in design of work-place technology? My background for addressing these issues lies in activity theoretical HCI that helped bring focus "from human factors to human actors [1]." Focus was moved from individual work to groups working with a collection of applications. Theory focused on work settings and interaction within well-established communities of practice. Rigid guidelines, formal methods, and systematic testing were mostly abandoned for proactive methods such as a variety of participatory design workshops, prototyping and contextual inquiries. With the above challenges, we are about to make a next theoretical move, focusing on multiplicity, context, boundaries, experience and participation in a world of changing configurations of artefacts.

© All rights reserved Bødker and/or ACM Press

 
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Mathiasen, Niels Raabjerg and Bødker, Susanne (2008): Threats or threads: from usable security to secure experience?. In: Proceedings of the Fifth Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2008. pp. 283-289.

While the domain of security dependent technologies brings new challenges to HCI research it seems that the results and breakthroughs of HCI have not been used in design of security dependent technologies. With exceptions, work in the research field of usable security may be criticized for focusing mainly on adjusting user behavior to behave securely. With our background in newer HCI perspectives we address secure interaction from the perspective of security technology as experience. We analyze a number of collected user stories to understand what happens when everyday users encounter security dependent technologies. We apply McCarthy&Wright's [12] experience framework to the security domain and our collected stories. We point out that there are significant differences between being secure and having a secure experience, and conclude that classical usable security, focus on people's immediate security experience, and the full focus on experience proposed by McCarthy&Wright lead to three very different interaction concerns, analytically and as regards design. We illustrate these differences by examples, and conclude with a discussion of how to advance the field of usable security.

© All rights reserved Mathiasen and Bødker and/or their publisher

 
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Bødker, Susanne and Sundblad, Yngve (2008): Usability and interaction design -- new challenges for the Scandinavian tradition. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 27 (4) pp. 293-300.

Computer use and interaction possibilities are changing quickly, while use contexts and application types are radically broadening. Technology no longer consists of static tools belonging only to the workplace but permeates work on the move, homes and everyday lives. Pervasive technologies, augmented reality, small interfaces, tangible interfaces, etc. are dramatically changing the nature of HCI (human-computer interaction). We witness the creation of ad hoc configurations of large and small user interfaces. The new interfaces are moveable and used in changing locations and contexts; different tasks are done through a combination of specialized technologies. A wider repertoire of physical instruments is available than the keyboard and the mouse. Based on examples from recent research projects and a collage of concepts and solutions, we discuss how these recent developments challenge our understanding of usability and interaction design. In particular, we discuss how the Scandinavian tradition of user involvement in development is facing up with the challenges of new work and of non-work contexts. There is a tendency that much recent investigations into non-work settings get stuck in a divide between work on the one hand, and leisure, arts, and home on the other; between rationality on the hand, and emotion on the other. The Scandinavian tradition can be developed to embrace people's whole lives and transcend the dichotomies between work, rationality, etc. and their negations and a Scandinavian perspective should and could move the current co-determination framework outside of work.

© All rights reserved Bødker and Sundblad and/or Taylor and Francis

2007
 
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Brodersen, Christina, Bødker, Susanne and Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted (2007): Quality of learning in ubiquitous interaction. In: Brinkman, Willem-Paul, Ham, Dong-Han and Wong, B. L. William (eds.) ECCE 2007 - Proceedings of the 14th European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics August 28-31, 2007, London, UK. pp. 121-128.

 
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Brodersen, Christina, Bødker, Susanne and Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted (2007): Ubiquitous Substitution. In: Baranauskas, Maria Cecília Calani, Palanque, Philippe A., Abascal, Julio and Barbosa, Simone Diniz Junqueira (eds.) DEGAS 2007 - Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Design and Evaluation of e-Government Applications and Services September 11th, 2007, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. pp. 179-192.

2006
 
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Bødker, Susanne (2006): When second wave HCI meets third wave challenges. In: Proceedings of the Fourth Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2006. pp. 1-8.

This paper surveys the current status of second generation HCI theory, faced with the challenges brought to HCI by the so-called third wave. In the third wave, the use context and application types are broadened, and intermixed, relative to the focus of the second wave on work. Technology spreads from the workplace to our homes and everyday lives and culture. Using these challenges the paper specifically addresses the topics of multiplicity, context, boundaries, experience and participation in order to discuss where second wave theory and conceptions can still be positioned to make a contribution as part of the maturing of our handling of the challenges brought on by the third wave.

© All rights reserved Bødker and/or ACM Press

 Cited in the following chapters:

Activity Theory: [/encyclopedia/activity_theory.html]

Mobile Computing: [/encyclopedia/mobile_computing.html]


 
 
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Bødker, Susanne and Christiansen, Ellen (2006): Computer Support for Social Awareness in Flexible Work. In Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 15 (1) pp. 1-28.

How do we conceptualize social awareness, and what support is needed to develop and maintain social awareness in flexible work settings? The paper begins by arguing the relevance of designing for social awareness in flexible work. It points out how social awareness is suspended in the field of tension that exists between the ephemerality and continuity of social encounters, exploring ways to construct identity through relationships by means of social encounters -- notably those that are accidental and unforced. We probe into this issue through design research: In particular, we present three exploratory prototyping processes in an open office setting (examining the concepts of a shared calendar, personal panels, and ambient awareness cues). Field studies, conducted in parallel, have contributed to a conceptual deconstruction of CSCW concepts, resulting in a focus on cues to relatedness, to belonging, and to care. Analyzing these three prototypes in their microcosmic usage setting results in specific recommendations for the three types of applications with respect to social awareness. The experiences indicate that the metaphors a 'shared mirror' and 'breadcrumbs' are promising foundations on which to base further design. We present these analyses and suggest that the metaphors work because of their ability to map experiences from the physical space into conceptual experiences. We conclude that social awareness in flexible work must be constructed indirectly, presenting itself as an option, rather than as a consequence of being able to overhear and oversee.

© All rights reserved Bødker and Christiansen and/or Kluwer Academic Publishers

 
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Bødker, Susanne (2006): When second wave HCI meets third wave challenges. In: Mørch, Anders, Morgan, Konrad, Bratteteig, Tone, Ghosh, Gautam and Svanaes, Dag (eds.) NordiCHI Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction October 14-18, 2006, Oslo, Norway. pp. 1-8.

This paper surveys the current status of second generation HCI theory, faced with the challenges brought to HCI by the so-called third wave. In the third wave, the use context and application types are broadened, and intermixed, relative to the focus of the second wave on work. Technology spreads from the workplace to our homes and everyday lives and culture. Using these challenges the paper specifically addresses the topics of multiplicity, context, boundaries, experience and participation in order to discuss where second wave theory and conceptions can still be positioned to make a contribution as part of the maturing of our handling of the challenges brought on by the third wave.

© All rights reserved Bødker and/or ACM Press

 Cited in the following chapter:

Mobile Computing: [/encyclopedia/mobile_computing.html]


 
2005
 
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Petersen, Anja Bechmann and Bødker, Susanne (2005): Mediating the co-production of complex media products. In: GROUP05: International Conference on Supporting Group Work November 6-9, 2005, Sanibel Island, Florida, USA. pp. 338-339.

In this poster we present a study of cross-media challenges for an organization that has recently moved from traditional newspaper production to production involving the integrated digital production of newspaper, TV, radio and web-news. The poster shows problems of integrating work pace and contents of the different media. In this poster we will focus on how the rhythms of different media work together and apart and how these rhythms can be supported by different coordinating and planning tools.

© All rights reserved Petersen and Bødker and/or ACM Press

 
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Bødker, Susanne and Andersen, Peter B. (2005): Complex Mediation. In Human-Computer Interaction, 20 (4) pp. 353-402.

This article has its starting point in a large number of empirical findings regarding computer-mediated work. These empirical findings have challenged our understanding of the role of mediation in such work; on the one hand as an aspect of communication and cooperation at work and on the other hand as an aspect of human engagement with instruments of work. On the basis of previous work in activity-theoretical and semiotic human -- computer interaction, we propose a model to encompass both of these aspects. In a dialogue with our empirical findings we move on to propose a number of types of mediation that have helped to enrich our understanding of mediated work and the design of computer mediation for such work.

© All rights reserved Bødker and Andersen and/or Taylor and Francis

 Cited in the following chapters:

Activity Theory: [/encyclopedia/activity_theory.html]

Affordances: [/encyclopedia/affordances_and_design.html]


 
2004
 
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Bødker, Susanne and Christiansen, Ellen (2004): Designing for ephemerality and prototypicality. In: Proceedings of DIS04: Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, & Techniques 2004. pp. 255-260.

As a context for IT design, flexible work presents a new challenge. Ways of working tend to be prototypical, habits are forming slowly and work is carried out everywhere. Even when applying ethnographic methods, it is difficult to capture the ephemerality and prototypicality of cooperative work that Grudin claims must be preserved through design. Through a discussion of a design project dedicated to the design of support for social awareness, we reflect on the means of design - scenarios and prototypes, and their ability to support design for ephemerality and prototypicality. Our conclusion is that by using scenarios as boundary objects, in multiple prototyping experiments, they support the negotiation and boundary understanding of design ideas, rather than one or more solutions. Hence it becomes possible to design to preserve ephemerality and prototypicality.

© All rights reserved Bødker and Christiansen and/or ACM Press

2003
 
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Bertelsen, Olav W. and Bødker, Susanne (2003): Activity Theory. In: Carroll, John M. (ed.). "HCI Models, Theories, and Frameworks". San Francisco: Morgan Kaufman Publisherspp. 291-324

 Cited in the following chapter:

Activity Theory: [/encyclopedia/activity_theory.html]


 
 
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Bødker, Susanne, Kristensen, Jannie F., Nielsen, Christina and Sperschneider, Werner (2003): Technology for boundaries. In: Tremaine, Marilyn M. and Simone, Carla (eds.) Proceedings of the International ACM SIGGROUP Conference on Supporting Group Work 2003 November 9-12, 2003, Sanibel Island, Florida, USA. pp. 311-320.

This paper presents a study of an organisation, which is undergoing a process transforming organisational and technological boundaries. In particular, we shall look at three kinds of boundaries: the work to maintain and change the boundary between the organisation and its customers; boundaries between competencies within the organisation; and boundaries between various physical locations of work, in particular between what is done in the office and what is done on site. Maintaining and changing boundaries are the processes through which a particular community sustains its identity and practice on the one hand, and where it is confronted with the identity and practices on the other. The organisation being studied employs a multitude of IT systems that support and maintain these boundaries in a particular manner that are in many ways inappropriate to the current needs of the organisation. After analysing the history and the current boundary work, the paper will propose new technological support for boundary work. In particular the paper will suggest means of supporting boundaries when these are productive and for changing boundaries when this seems more appropriate. In total, flexible technologies seem a core issue when dealing with technology for boundaries.

© All rights reserved Bødker et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Kaptelinin, Victor, Nardi, Bonnie A., Bødker, Susanne, Carroll, John M., Hollan, James D., Hutchins, Edwin and Winograd, Terry (2003): Post-cognitivist HCI: second-wave theories. In: Cockton, Gilbert and Korhonen, Panu (eds.) Extended abstracts of the 2003 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - CHI 2003 April 5-10, 2003, Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, USA. pp. 692-693.

 Cited in the following chapter:

Activity Theory: [/encyclopedia/activity_theory.html]


 
2002
 
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Bertelsen, Olav W., Bødker, Susanne and Kuutti, Kari (eds.) Nordichi 2002 - Proceedings of the Second Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction October 19-23, 2002, Aarhus, Denmark.

 
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Bødker, Susanne and Buur, Jacob (2002): The design collaboratorium: a place for usability design. In ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 9 (2) pp. 152-169.

The "design collaboratorium" is a new usability practice that has been developed in an action research project between three industrial usability labs and a university. The design collaboratorium has been developed as a reaction to the failing capabilities of classical usability methods to cope with ubiquitous technologies. It has borrowed elements from participatory design and developed them further to become useful in large-scale industrial development organizations. The design collaboratorium will be presented through examples from a joint project: a vision project concerning wastewater treatment technology. In light of the case, we will discuss the philosophy underlying the design collaboratorium in further detail: the collaboration between active participants, the role of design artifacts, and the room as a meeting ground. Finally we lay out the working method and propose directions for future usability competencies.

© All rights reserved Bødker and and/or ACM Press

 
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Bødker, Susanne and Iversen, Ole Sejer (2002): Staging a professional participatory design practice: moving PD beyond the initial fascination of user involvement. In: Proceedings of the Second Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction October 19-23, 2002, Aarhus, Denmark. pp. 11-18.

Use and users have an important and acknowledged role to most designers of interactive systems. Nevertheless any touch of user hands does not in itself secure development of meaningful artifacts. In this article we stress the need for a professional PD practice in order to yield the full potentiality of user involvement. We suggest two constituting elements of such a professional PD practice. The existence of a shared 'where-to' and 'why' artifact and an ongoing reflection and off-loop reflection among practitioners in the PD process.

© All rights reserved Bødker and Iversen and/or ACM Press

2001
 
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Bertelsen, Olav W. and Bødker, Susanne (2001): Cooperation in massively distributed information space. In: Ecscw 2001 - Proceedings of the Seventh European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work 16-20 September, 2001, Bonn, Germany. pp. 1-18.

2000
 
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Bødker, Susanne (2000): Scenarios in User-Centred Design -- Setting the Stage for Reflection and Action. In Interacting with Computers, 13 (1) pp. 61-75.

This paper discusses three examples of use of scenarios in user-centred design. Common to the examples are the use of scenarios to support the tensions between reflection and action, between typical and critical situations, and between plus and minus situations. The paper illustrates how a variety of more specific scenarios emphasising, e.g. critical situations, or even caricatures of situations are very useful for helping groups of users and designers being creative in design. Emphasising creativity in design is a very different view on the design process than normally represented in usability work or software/requirement engineering, where generalising users' actions are much more important than, in this paper, the suggested richness of and contradiction between actual use situations. In general the paper proposes to attune scenarios to the particular purposes of the situations they are to be used in, and to be very selective based on these purposes.

© All rights reserved Bødker and/or Elsevier Science

 
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Bødker, Susanne, Ehn, Pelle, Sjogren, Dan and Sundblad, Yngve (2000): Cooperative Design Perspectives on 20 years with "the Scandinavian IT Design Model. In: Proceedings of the First Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2000. .

The authors were all involved in the 'seminal' Utopia project, 1981-85, where Co-operative Design methodology, involving users very early in the design process, had an early development and application in the use of computers.

© All rights reserved Bødker et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Bødker, Susanne, Nielsen, Christina and Petersen, Marianne Graves (2000): Creativity, Cooperation and Interactive Design. In: Proceedings of DIS00: Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, & Techniques 2000. pp. 252-261.

This paper focuses on ways and means of stimulating idea generation in collaborative situations involving designers, engineers, software developers, users and usability people. Particularly, we investigate tools of design, i.e. tools used in design to get ideas for a new interactive application and its use. Based on different studies from a research project that we have been involved with over the past three years, we present specific examples of such tools and discuss how they inform design. We frame this discussion through the following (theoretical) considerations: a concern for the past and the present in informing design, for using theory as a source of inspiration in design and for making extremes and multiple voices play a role in innovation. These considerations are used to structure and discuss the examples, illustrating how it is important for such tools to be concrete, tangible and even caricatured.

© All rights reserved Bødker et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Buur, Jacob and Bødker, Susanne (2000): From Usability Lab to "Design Collaboratorium": Reframing Usability Practice. In: Proceedings of DIS00: Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, & Techniques 2000. pp. 297-307.

This paper presents an exploratory process in which three industrial usability groups, in cooperation with HCI researchers, worked to reframe their own work practice. The usability groups moved beyond a classical usability setting towards a new way of working which we have coined the Design Collaboratorium. This design collaboratorium is a design approach that creates an open physical and organizational space where designers, engineers, users and usability professionals meet and work alongside each other. At the same time the design collaboratorium makes use of event-driven ways of working known from participatory design. Some of these working methods are well-documented from literature but adapted to the needs of the particular project, others are new. This paper illustrates how it is possible to reframe usability work and it discusses the new usability competence required.

© All rights reserved Buur and Bødker and/or ACM Press

 
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Bødker, Susanne (2000): Coordinating technical support platforms. In Communications of the ACM, 43 (11) p. 5.

1999
 
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Bødker, Susanne, Kyng, Morten and Schmidt, Kjeld (eds.) ECSCW 99 - Proceedings of the Sixth European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work 12-16 September, 1999, Copenhagen, Denmark.

 
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Bødker, Susanne (1999): Scenarios in User-Centered Design - Setting the Stage for Reflection and Action. In: HICSS 1999 1999. .

 Cited in the following chapter:

Personas: [/encyclopedia/personas.html]


 
1998
 
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Bødker, Susanne and Madsen, Kim Halskov (1998): Methods&tools: Context: An Active Choice in Usability Work. In Interactions, 5 (4) pp. 17-25.

 
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Bødker, Susanne (1998): Understanding Representation in Design. In Human-Computer Interaction, 13 (2) pp. 107-125.

Representing computer applications and their use is an important aspect of design. In various ways, designers need to externalize design proposals and present them to other designers, users, or managers. This article deals with understanding design representations and the work they do in design. The article is based on a series of theoretical concepts coming out of studies of scientific and other work practices and on practical experiences from design of computer applications. The article presents alternatives to the ideas that design representations are mappings of present or future work situations and computer applications. It suggests that representations are primarily containers of ideas and that representation is situated at the same time as representations are crossing boundaries between various design and use activities. As such, representations should be carriers of their own contexts regarding use and design. The article proposes that abstraction, elevating the representation from the situation, is not the only way to do this, and it proposes alternatives.

© All rights reserved Bødker and/or Taylor and Francis

 
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Bødker, Susanne (1998): Understanding Representation in Design. In Human-Computer Interaction, 13 (2) pp. 107-125.

Representing computer applications and their use is an important aspect of design. In various ways, designers need to externalize design proposals and present them to other designers, users, or managers. This article deals with understanding design representations and the work they do in design. The article is based on a series of theoretical concepts coming out of studies of scientific and other work practices and on practical experiences from design of computer applications. The article presents alternatives to the ideas that design representations are mappings of present or future work situations and computer applications. It suggests that representations are primarily containers of ideas and that representation is situated at the same time as representations are crossing boundaries between various design and use activities. As such, representations should be carriers of their own contexts regarding use and design. The article proposes that abstraction, elevating the representation from the situation, is not the only way to do this, and it proposes alternatives.

© All rights reserved Bødker and/or Taylor and Francis

1997
 
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Bannon, Liam and Bødker, Susanne (1997): Constructing Common Information Spaces. In: Hughes, John F., Prinz, Wolfgang and Schmidt, Kjeld (eds.) Proceedings of the Fifth European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 7-11 September, 1997, Lancaster, UK. pp. 81-96.

 
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Bødker, Susanne and Christiansen, Ellen (1997). Scenarios as springboards in design of CSCW.

 Cited in the following chapter:

Personas: [/encyclopedia/personas.html]


 
1996
 
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Bødker, Susanne (1996): Creating Conditions for Participation: Conflicts and Resources in Systems Development. In Human-Computer Interaction, 11 (3) pp. 215-236.

User participation has been recognized as a way of gaining more knowledge about work and improving the quality of the computer application to be designed. Often the problems of user participation have been discussed from the point of view of researchers getting access to the users. Yet user participation should also be seen from the point of view of the conditions of the participation process -- that is, how the conditions are set for the users to participate with designers (and managers). Experiences from participatory design projects show problems that participatory design research needs to deal with. This article suggests that the Scandinavian collective resource projects can help research in this process. However, these projects were carried out under circumstances quite different from those of corporations in the 1990s, and this fact must certainly be considered when investigating the creation of conditions for participation. The article presents a recent project, AT project, to discuss the concerns and conditions of participatory design projects today. In the AT project, the actors differed from the collective resource projects in that the actors included several different groups of workers as well as management. This caused the project to focus on resource acquisition for the whole organization as well as groups within it. Part of the idea was to utilize standard technology; at the same time, the project was to develop and implement overall visions about the use of computer technology in the organization. Inspired by philosophical approaches to human development, this article reconsiders the resources acquired in such settings and juxtaposes the work of setting up a technical platform for everyday use with the expansive codevelopment of accompanying visions. The article goes on to suggest that new alliances between groups in organizations -- with due concern for their diversity of resources, and with constructive use of the conflicts inherent in the organization -- can be a way forward in empowering organizations, making room for groups and individuals within them to act.

© All rights reserved Bødker and/or Taylor and Francis

1994
 
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Trigg, Randall H. and Bødker, Susanne (1994): From Implementation to Design: Tailoring and the Emergence of Systematization in CSCW. In: Proceedings of the 1994 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work October 22 - 26, 1994, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States. pp. 45-54.

In this paper, we look at how people working in a governmental labor inspection agency tailor their shared PC environment. Starting with standard off-the-shelf software, the tailors adapt that software to the particular workplace in which they are embedded, at the same time that they modify and extend the practices of that workplace. Over time, their adaptations and the tailoring processes themselves become structured and systematized within the organization. This tendency toward systematization is in part a response to the requirement that the results of tailoring be sharable across groups of users. Our study focuses on several dimensions of the work of tailoring: construction, organizational change, learning, and politics. We draw two kinds of lessons for system development: how better to support the work of tailors, and how system developers can learn from and cooperate with tailors.

© All rights reserved Trigg and Bødker and/or ACM Press

1993
 
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Grønbæk, Kaj, Grudin, Jonathan, Bødker, Susanne and Bannon, Liam (1993): Achieving Co-operative System Design - shifting from product to process focus. In: Schuler, D. and Namioka, A. (eds.). "Participatory Design: Perspectives of Systems Design". Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associatespp. 79-98

 Cited in the following chapter:

Participatory Design: [Not yet published]


 
 
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Bødker, Susanne (1993): Historical Analysis and Conflicting Perspectives -- Contextualizing HCI. In: East-West International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction: Proceedings of the EWHCI93 1993. pp. 132-142.

This paper develops two ways of analyzing the human-computer interaction of a computer application in use in an organization. The techniques, historical analyses and conflicting perspectives analysis, and the interplay between them, are used in providing the basis for a more detailed analysis. Historical analyses focus on the historical development of artifacts and their use. Conflicting perspectives analysis reflects on the roles of the artifact in use, as system, tool, or medium. Combined, the two types of analysis allow for a focus in particular on conflicts between the roles of a specific artifact in use. The techniques are based on human activity theory. They are illustrated by means of a case study of a computer application from a project with the Danish National Labour Inspection Service.

© All rights reserved Bødker and/or Intl. Centre for Scientific And Technical Information

1991
 
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Bannon, Liam and Bødker, Susanne (1991): Beyond the Interface - Encountering Artifacts in Use. In: Carroll, John M. (ed.). "Designing Interaction: Psychology at the Human-Computer Interface". Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Presspp. 227-253

 
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Bødker, Susanne (1991): Through the Interface - A Human Activity Approach to User Interface Design. Hillsdale, NJ, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

 Cited in the following chapters:

Participatory Design: [Not yet published]

Activity Theory: [/encyclopedia/activity_theory.html]

Affordances: [/encyclopedia/affordances_and_design.html]


 
 
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Bødker, Susanne and Grønbæk, Kaj (1991): Cooperative Prototyping: Users and Designers in Mutual Activity. In International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 34 pp. 453-478.

 Cited in the following chapter:

Participatory Design: [Not yet published]


 
1989
 
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Bødker, Susanne and Grønbæk, Kaj (1989): Cooperative prototyping experiments. In: EC-CSCW 89 - Proceedings of the First European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 13-15 September, 1989, Gatwick, London. pp. 343-357.

This paper describes experiments with a design technique that we denote cooperative prototyping. The experiments consider design of a patient case record system for municipal dental clinics in which we used HyperCard, an off the shelf programming environment for the Macintosh. In the experiments we tried to achieve a fluent work-like evaluation of prototypes where users envisioned future work with a computer tool, at the same time as we made on-line modifications of prototypes in cooperation with the users when breakdowns occur in their work-like evaluation. The experiments showed that it was possible to make a number of direct manipulation changes of prototypes in cooperation with the users, in interplay with their fluent work-like evaluation of these. However, breakdowns occurred in the prototyping process when we reached the limits of the direct manipulation support for modification. From these experiences we discuss problems in the process, requirements for design tools, and issues involved in getting going with cooperative prototyping with active user involvement.

© All rights reserved Bødker and and/or ACM Press

 
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Bødker, Susanne (1989): A Human Activity Approach to User Interfaces. In Human-Computer Interaction, 4 (3) pp. 171-195.

How can we understand why a bank teller has different needs for a user interface than those of casual users of a machine teller, or why a graphic designer needs a different user interface than a secretary? This article presents a framework for the design of user interfaces that originates from the work situations in which computer-based artifacts are used: The framework deals with the role of the user interface in purposeful human work. Human activity theory is used in this analysis. The purpose of this article is to make the reader curious and hopefully open his or her eyes to a somewhat different way of thinking about the user interface. The article applies examples of real-life interfaces to support this process, but it does not include a systematic presentation of empirical results. I focus on the role of the computer application in use. Thus, it is necessary to consider human-computer interaction and other related work conditions. I deal with human experience and competence as being rooted in the practice of the group that conducts the specific work activity. The main conclusion are: The user interface cannot be seen independently of the use activity, (i.e., the professional, socially organized practice of the users and the material conditions for the activity, including the object of the activity). The standard view in these situations is to deduce an ultimate set of operations from an abstract use activity and apply these to design and analysis. This article argues that the user interface fully reveals itself to us only when in use. What is a good user interface for those with a certain degree of competence may not be efficient for those with different levels of competence. I give certain general recommendations for the user interface, but I have no guarantee that such recommendations are applicable to the specific case wherein these concerns may be overruled by specific social or material concerns.

© All rights reserved Bødker and/or Taylor and Francis

 Cited in the following chapter:

Activity Theory: [/encyclopedia/activity_theory.html]


 
1988
 
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Bødker, Susanne, Knudsen, Jørgen L., Kyng, Morten, Ehn, Pelle and Madsen, Kim Halskov (1988): Computer Support for Cooperative Design. In: Greif, Irene (ed.) Proceedings of the 1988 ACM conference on Computer-supported cooperative work September 26 - 28, 1988, Portland, Oregon, United States. pp. 377-394.

Computer support for design as cooperative work is the subject of our discussion in the context of our research program on Computer Support in Cooperative Design and Communication. We outline our theoretical perspective on design as cooperative work, and we exemplify our approach with reflections from a project on computer support for envisionment in design - the APLEX and its use. We see envisionment facilities as support for both experiments with and communication about the future use situation. As a background we sketch the historical roots of our program - the Scandinavian collective resource approach to design and use of computer artifacts, and make some critical reflections on the rationality of computer support for cooperative work.

© All rights reserved Bødker et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Page maintainer: The Editorial Team
URL: http://www.interaction-design.org/references/authors/susanne_b%f8dker.html

Publication statistics

Pub. period:1988-2012
Pub. count:51
Number of co-authors:46



Co-authors

Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Ellen Christiansen:4
Liam Bannon:3
Kaj Grønbæk:3

 

 

Productive colleagues

Susanne Bødker's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

John M. Carroll:209
Jonathan Grudin:105
Mark S. Ackerman:67
 
 
 
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