Number of co-authors:33
Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:Jonathan Grudin:13Gloria Mark:5Ludwin Fuchs:2
Steven Poltrock's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:Gregory D. Abowd:116Jakob Nielsen:109Jonathan Grudin:105
A user will find any interface design intuitive...with enough practice.
-- Popular computer one-liner
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Has also published under the name of:
"Steven E. Poltrock"
Personal Homepage: projects.ischool.washington.edu/cir/poltrock.htm
I retired from The Boeing Company in 2009 where I was a Technical Fellow in the Research & Technology division. My research was in computer support for cooperative work, focusing on industrial applications of collaboration technology, including support for teamwork, workflow management, and knowledge management. My educational background includes degrees in engineering, mathematics, and psychology, and my career has combined my interests in all three areas. After completing a Ph.D. in psychology at the University of Washington I was a professor of psychology at the University of Denver and worked at Bell Laboratories and MCC before joining Boeing Research & Technology.
Publications by Steven Poltrock (bibliography)
Poltrock, Steven, Handel, Mark J., Poteet, Stephen R. and Murray, Paul (2012): Recognizing team context during simulated missions. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW12 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2012. pp. 197-206.
We investigated ways to automatically analyze movement and verbal behavior of teams of soldiers engaged in simulated military missions. Analysis of location data revealed that soldiers' locations were consistent with 3 stationary patterns and 2 movement patterns. Analysis of their dialogue detected statistical regularities. An automated text classifier was developed that employed these regularities to code dialogue utterances. These analyses demonstrate the feasibility of interpreting collaborative activity automatically and constructing models of team context for teams of soldiers engaged in trained activities.
© All rights reserved Poltrock et al. and/or ACM Press
Grudin, Jonathan and Poltrock, Steven (2012): Taxonomy and theory in computer-supported cooperative work. In: Kozlowski, Steve W. J. (ed.). "The Oxford Handbook of Organizational Psychology, Two-Volume Set (Oxford Library of Psychology)". Oxford University Press, USA
Grudin, Jonathan and Poltrock, Steven (2013): Computer Supported Cooperative Work. In: Soegaard, Mads and Dam, Rikke Friis (eds.). "The Encyclopedia of Human-Computer Interaction, 2nd Ed.". Aarhus, Denmark: The Interaction Design Foundation. Available online at http://www.interaction-design.org/encyclopedia/cscw_computer_supported_cooperative_work.html
Handel, Mark J. and Poltrock, Steven (2011): Working around official applications: experiences from a large engineering project. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW11 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2011. pp. 309-312.
We describe facets of specialized software applications developed to support a large collaborative engineering program. Although many of the applications were bespoke efforts, designed to the requirements of users, virtually all major applications have an unofficial spreadsheet or database backing up the official application. These tools invariably play a critical but unofficial role in the day-to-day work, acting as more than just as a work-around, while the official applications are used primarily for mandated record keeping and auditing purposes. Surprisingly, there is often management approval for these unofficial applications, but at the same time, desire to elimination these applications and only use the official applications. We discuss the implications of this finding for future collaborative applications and long-term record keeping.
© All rights reserved Handel and Poltrock and/or their publisher
Poltrock, Steven and Handel, Mark (2009): Modeling Collaborative Behavior: Foundations for Collaboration Technologies. In: HICSS 2009 - 42st Hawaii International International Conference on Systems Science 5-8 January, 2009, Waikoloa, Big Island, HI, USA. pp. 1-10.
Baecker, Ronald M., Harrison, Steve, Buxton, Bill, Poltrock, Steven and Churchill, Elizabeth F. (2008): Media spaces: past visions, current realities, future promise. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2008 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 5-10, 2008. pp. 2245-2248.
Established researchers and practitioners active in the development and deployment of media spaces review what seemed to be promised twenty years ago, what has actually been achieved, and what we might anticipate over the next twenty years.
© All rights reserved Baecker et al. and/or ACM Press
Grudin, Jonathan and Poltrock, Steven (2007): Collaborative Behavior and Supporting Technologies. In: Baranauskas, Maria Cecília Calani, Palanque, Philippe A., Abascal, Julio and Barbosa, Simone Diniz Junqueira (eds.) DEGAS 2007 - Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Design and Evaluation of e-Government Applications and Services September 11th, 2007, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. pp. 700-701.
Poltrock, Steven and Grudin, Jonathan (2005): Videoconferencing: Recent Experiments and Reassessment. In: HICSS 2005 - 38th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences 3-6 January, 2005, Big Island, HI, USA. .
Mark, Gloria, Bergman, Mark and Poltrock, Steven (2004): Expanding the Horizons of Requirements Engineering: Examining Requirements during Groupware Tool Diffusion. In: 12th IEEE International Conference on Requirements Engineering RE 2004 6-10 September, 2004, Kyoto, Japan. pp. 186-195.
Mark, Gloria and Poltrock, Steven (2004): Groupware adoption in a distributed organization: transporting and transforming technology through social worlds. In Information and Organization, 14 (4) pp. 297-327.
In this paper, we draw on theory from social worlds to analyze how different organizational contexts affect groupware adoption. We report on a study of the adoption of data conferencing in a large distributed organization. Our data show that the diffusion process, which was driven by the users, was a result of communication and transformation of the technology across different social worlds. We also discovered that membership in multiple social worlds in an organization creates a tension for the potential adopter who is in a distributed team. To function effectively, team members must uniformly adopt the technology, yet some may face resistance from other social worlds to which they belong. Our study showed that adoption was affected by organizational sites having conflicting views of the value of collaboration, different amounts and needs for resources, and different acceptance of technology standards. Potential technology adopters on distributed teams are faced with conflicting loyalties, constraints, and requirements between their distributed collaborations and organizational homes.
© All rights reserved Mark and Poltrock and/or Elsevier Ltd
Poltrock, Steven, Grudin, Jonathan, Dumais, Susan, Fidel, Raya, Bruce, Harry and Pejtersen, Annelise Mark (2003): Information seeking and sharing in design teams. In: Tremaine, Marilyn M. and Simone, Carla (eds.) Proceedings of the International ACM SIGGROUP Conference on Supporting Group Work 2003 November 9-12, 2003, Sanibel Island, Florida, USA. pp. 239-247.
Information retrieval is generally considered an individual activity, and information retrieval research and tools reflect this view. As digitally mediated communication and information sharing increase, collaborative information retrieval merits greater attention and support. We describe field studies of information gathering in two design teams that had very different products, disciplinary backgrounds, and tools. We found striking similarities in the kinds of information they sought and the methods used to get it. For example, each team sought information about design constraints from external sources. A common strategy was to propose ideas and request feedback, rather than to ask directly for recommendations. Some differences in information seeking and sharing reflected differences in work contexts. Our findings suggest some ways that existing team collaboration tools could support collaborative information retrieval more effectively.
© All rights reserved Poltrock et al. and/or ACM Press
Mark, Gloria and Poltrock, Steven (2003): Shaping technology across social worlds: groupware adoption in a distributed organization. In: Tremaine, Marilyn M. and Simone, Carla (eds.) Proceedings of the International ACM SIGGROUP Conference on Supporting Group Work 2003 November 9-12, 2003, Sanibel Island, Florida, USA. pp. 284-293.
In this paper, we draw on theory about social worlds to analyze how different organizational contexts affect groupware adoption. We report on a study of the adoption of data conferencing in a large distributed organization. Our data show that the diffusion process, which was driven by the users, was a result of communication and transformation of the technology across different social worlds. We also discovered that membership in multiple social worlds in an organization creates a tension for the potential adopter who is in a distributed team. To function effectively, team members must uniformly adopt the technology, yet some may face resistance at their organizational homes. Our case study showed that adoption was affected by organizational sites having conflicting views of the value of collaboration, different amounts and needs for resources, and different acceptance of technology standards. Potential technology adopters on distributed teams are faced with conflicting loyalties, constraints, and requirements between their distributed collaborations and organizational homes.
© All rights reserved Mark and Poltrock and/or ACM Press
Grudin, Jonathan and Poltrock, Steven (2003): Collaboration Technology in Teams, Organizations, and Communities. In: Proceedings of IFIP INTERACT03: Human-Computer Interaction 2003, Zurich, Switzerland. p. 1023.
Grudin, Jonathan and Poltrock, Steven (2003): Computer-supported cooperative work and groupware. In: Zelkowitz, Marvin (ed.). "Advances in Computers". Academic Press
Geyer, Werner, Richter, Heather, Fuchs, Ludwin, Frauenhofer, Tom, Daijavad, Shahrokh and Poltrock, Steven (2001): A team collaboration space supporting capture and access of virtual meetings. In: Ellis, Clarence and Zigurs, Ilze (eds.) Proceedings of the International ACM SIGGROUP Conference on Supporting Group Work 2001 September 30 - October 3, 2001, Boulder, Colorado, USA. pp. 188-196.
In this paper, we address the design issues of a collaborative workspace system, called TeamSpace, that supports geographically distributed teams by managing shared work processes and maintaining shared artifacts in a project. TeamSpace attempts to integrate both synchronous and asynchronous types of team interaction into a task-oriented environment. Since meetings are an integral part of teamwork, our current work focuses on supporting virtual meetings as part of a larger collaborative work process. We present an initial TeamSpace prototype that supports asynchronous meeting management seamlessly integrated with capture and access of synchronous distributed meetings. The captured synchronous data is integrated with other related information in TeamSpace, enabling users to efficiently gain knowledge of both current and past team activities.
© All rights reserved Geyer et al. and/or ACM Press
Mark, Gloria and Poltrock, Steven (2001): Diffusion of a collaborative technology cross distance. In: Ellis, Clarence and Zigurs, Ilze (eds.) Proceedings of the International ACM SIGGROUP Conference on Supporting Group Work 2001 September 30 - October 3, 2001, Boulder, Colorado, USA. pp. 232-241.
Achieving a common set of collaboration tools is a significant challenge for people working together in a geographically distributed enterprise. It requires coordinated technology adoption across geographic distance and organizational boundaries. In this paper, we report on the diffusion of a data conferencing technology in a large distributed enterprise. Two years ago we studied the early adopters; now the technology is widespread. We conducted a company-wide survey and found that it is generally the users, and not management, who are the driving force in diffusing the technology across distance. We discuss the organizational conditions that led to the diffusion, how barriers have changed, and emerging work practices as a result of the diffusion.
© All rights reserved Mark and Poltrock and/or ACM Press
Poltrock, Steven and Grudin, Jonathan (2001): Collaboration Technology in Teams, Organizations, and Communities. In: Proceedings of IFIP INTERACT01: Human-Computer Interaction 2001, Tokyo, Japan. pp. 819-820.
Richter, Heather A., Abowd, Gregory D., Geyer, Werner, Fuchs, Ludwin, Daijavad, Shahrokh and Poltrock, Steven (2001): Integrating Meeting Capture within a Collaborative Team Environment. In: Abowd, Gregory D., Brumitt, Barry and Shafer, Steven A. (eds.) Ubicomp 2001 Ubiquitous Computing - Third International Conference September 30 - October 2, 2001, Atlanta, Georgia, USA. pp. 123-138.
Mark, Gloria, Grudin, Jonathan and Poltrock, Steven (1999): Meeting at the desktop: An empirical study of virtually collocated teams. In: Břdker, Susanne, Kyng, Morten and Schmidt, Kjeld (eds.) ECSCW 99 - Proceedings of the Sixth European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work 12-16 September, 1999, Copenhagen, Denmark. p. 159.
Poltrock, Steven and Grudin, Jonathan (eds.) Proceedings of the 1998 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work November 14 - 18, 1998, Seattle, Washington, United States.
Poltrock, Steven and Grudin, Jonathan (1998): Conference Preview: CSCW '98: the 1998 ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, Nov. 14-18, 1998, Seattle, WA. In Interactions, 5 (5) pp. 41-43.
Poltrock, Steven and Engelbeck, George (1997): Requirements for a Virtual Collocation Environment. In: Payne, Stephen C. and Prinz, Wolfgang (eds.) Proceedings of the International ACM SIGGROUP Conference on Supporting Group Work 1997 November 11-19, 1997, Phoenix, Arizona, USA. pp. 61-70.
We analyze how physically collocated teams work together now and what services they require to work together across distances, focusing on real time interactions because those interactions justify collocating teams today. We explain how Integrated Product Teams (IPTs) are organized in system development programs and how their physical collocation facilitates communication, collaboration, and coordination within the team. Interactions within IPTs take two forms: scheduled meetings and opportunistic interactions. Scenarios of scheduled IPT meetings help motivate and identify requirements for supporting distributed meetings. Opportunistic interactions are far more common than scheduled meetings, and more difficult to observe and analyze because they are not scheduled or predictable.
© All rights reserved Poltrock and and/or ACM Press
Poltrock, Steven and Grudin, Jonathan (1994): Organizational Obstacles to Interface Design and Development: Two Participant-Observer Studies. In ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 1 (1) pp. 52-80.
The development of human-computer interfaces was studied in two large software product development organizations. Researchers joined development projects for approximately one month and participated in interface design while concurrently interviewing other project participants and employees, recording activity in meetings and on electronic networks, and otherwise observing the process. The two organizations differed in their approaches to development, and, in each case, the approach differed in practice from the model supported by the organizational structure. Development practices blocked the successful application of accepted principles of interface design. The obstacles to effective design included the inability of interface designers to obtain access to users, prototyping tools that allow minor changes to be tested but that constrain innovation, resistance to iterative design that results from people noticing and being affected by interface changes, and a lack of communication among those sharing responsibility for different aspects of the interface.
© All rights reserved Poltrock and and/or ACM Press
Mulligan, Robert M., Dieli, Mary, Nielsen, Jakob, Poltrock, Steven, Rosenberg, Daniel and Rudman, Susan Ehrlich (1992): Designing Usable Systems Under Real-World Constraints: A Practitioners Forum. In: Bauersfeld, Penny, Bennett, John and Lynch, Gene (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 92 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference June 3-7, 1992, Monterey, California. pp. 149-152.
Malcolm, Kathryn C., Poltrock, Steven and Schuler, D. (1991): Industrial Strength Hypermedia: Requirements for a Large Engineering Enterprise. In: Walker, Jan (ed.) Proceedings of ACM Hypertext 91 Conference December 15-18, 1991, San Antonio, Texas. pp. 13-24.
Current hypermedia tools do not support the needs of collaborative work groups in distributed heterogeneous environment and cannot be integrated into the existing and planned computing environment at large enterprises like Boeing. It is in meeting these needs, however, that hypermedia could make its greatest impact. Hypermedia systems must evolve beyond their current standalone status into a technology that is truly integrative. We use a description of some current hypermedia projects and a representative future scenario to help identify technical requirements and strategies for developing and deploying hypermedia that is of sufficient "industrial strength" to support a large engineering enterprise. This paper is addressed to hypermedia researchers and developers as well as to our colleagues in other business and engineering organizations. The intent of this paper is to remind both the research and development communities of the urgent, "real-world" needs that exist and to encourage dialogue between the two worlds.
© All rights reserved Malcolm et al. and/or ACM Press
Poltrock, Steven and Butler, Keith A. (1990): Boeing Advanced Technology Center. In: Carrasco, Jane and Whiteside, John (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 90 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference 1990, Seattle, Washington,USA. pp. 381-382.
Poltrock, Steven (1989): Innovation in User Interface Development: Obstacles and Opportunities. In: Bice, Ken and Lewis, Clayton H. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 89 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 30 - June 4, 1989, Austin, Texas. pp. 191-195.
Case studies of two software development organizations suggest that common practices of these organizations pose obstacles to innovation. Although software development organizations have good reasons to be conservative and resist innovation, they recognize the importance of innovations to the competitiveness of their products. But organizations experienced at development of regularly scheduled releases are not well suited to development of innovations. In this research investigators worked with the user interface teams in two organizations while interviewing people throughout the organizations. Both organizations developed prototypes, but only small design changes were prototyped and tested early in development. Innovative changes were evaluated late, when resistance to iteration was great. User interface designs and prototypes were often not shown to users. Mechanisms for coordinating development were another conservative influence. Both organizations successfully overcame these obstacles by departing from established practices.
© All rights reserved Poltrock and/or ACM Press
Grudin, Jonathan and Poltrock, Steven (1989): User Interface Design in Large Corporations: Coordination and Communication Across Disciplines. In: Bice, Ken and Lewis, Clayton H. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 89 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 30 - June 4, 1989, Austin, Texas. pp. 197-203.
This report describes some of the results of a survey constructed to address the multidisciplinary, collaborative nature of user interface design as it is practiced in large software development organizations today. Survey forms were prepared for Software Engineers, Human Factors Engineers, Industrial Design Engineers, Technical Writers, Training Developers, and Marketing representatives. The survey was filled out by over 200 designers from multiple sites within 7 large companies. Previous interview studies of user interface design have relied on far smaller samples taken primarily from single organizations, and have focused on the individual designer's perspective, primarily that of programmers or software engineers. While surveys have limitations as information-gathering tools, the findings in this report suggest specific places where organizational change or tool development might improve the coordination or communication among the different professionals and managers who contribute to interface design in large company settings.
© All rights reserved Grudin and Poltrock and/or ACM Press
Poltrock, Steven, Steiner, Donald D. and Tarlton, P. Nong (1986): Graphic Interfaces for Knowledge-Based System Development. In: Mantei, Marilyn and Orbeton, Peter (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 86 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 13-17, 1986, Boston, Massachusetts. pp. 9-15.
Creating and debugging knowledge-based systems, such as expert systems, requires easy access to rules and facts in a vast, loosely-connected system. Three graphic representations were devised for a system development tool that integrates forward chaining, backward chaining, and full truth maintenance. In one representation, possible interactions among rules, determined by syntactically parsing the rules, are displayed as a directed graph. In a second representation, actual interactions among facts and rules are displayed dynamically. The third representation is a fish-eye view of the knowledge base that explains why a fact was asserted. In addition, the text of rules and facts is displayed in editing windows.
© All rights reserved Poltrock et al. and/or ACM Press
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