Publication statistics

Pub. period:1989-2012
Pub. count:30
Number of co-authors:33



Co-authors

Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Bernard D. Adelstein:11
Magnus Axholt:6
Brian M. Menges:4

 

 

Productive colleagues

Stephen R. Ellis's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Mark Billinghurst:92
Anthony Steed:68
Kay M. Stanney:37
 
 
 

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Stephen R. Ellis

 

Publications by Stephen R. Ellis (bibliography)

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2012
 
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Ellis, Stephen R., Adelstein, Bernard D. and Yeom, Kiwon (2012): Human Control in Rotated Frames: Anisotropies in the Misalignment Disturbance Function of Pitch, Roll, and Yaw. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 2012 Annual Meeting 2012. pp. 1336-1340. Available online

Comparative misalignment disturbance functions (MDF) have been measured for rotations between display and control axes for pure pitch, roll, and yaw misalignments in a high fidelity virtual environment. Twenty participants manually moved a virtual cursor using position control to touch 3-dimensionally, randomly presented nearby targets having a constant Fitts Index of Difficulty. Results show a peak disturbance near 120 of rotation for all axes with Roll being distinguishably more disturbed. Some reasons for observed anisotropies, nonlinearities and an equiaxial spiral feature are briefly discussed and modeled.

© All rights reserved Ellis et al. and/or Human Factors and Ergonomics Society

 
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Yeom, Kiwon, Ellis, Stephen R. and Adelstein, Bernard D. (2012): Discontinuity Detection Algorithm for Three-Dimensional Trajectory Data Analysis in Telerobotics. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 2012 Annual Meeting 2012. pp. 2537-2541. Available online

Discontinuities in human movement can provide information about the control law that an operator is using. Such discontinuities are revealed by change points in one or more of the trajectory's spatial derivatives. They are indicative of abrupt variations in the movement and provide information about spatial sampling and error detection. These discontinuities can arise in telerobotic applications, for example, when human operators pause while waiting for time-delayed teleoperation data to arrive or while adapting to account for misalignments between a remote camera and the operator's local manual input reference frame. This paper presents a method for detecting discontinuities from trajectory records during three-dimensional target acquisition movements made by a simulated telerobot operator when display and control coordinates are misaligned. We develop the geometric detection algorithm and illustrate its use on actual data.

© All rights reserved Yeom et al. and/or Human Factors and Ergonomics Society

2011
 
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Ellis, Stephen R., Frstenau, Norbert and Mittendorf, Monika (2011): Frame Rate Effects on Visual Discrimination of Landing Aircraft Deceleration: Implications for Virtual Tower Design and Speed Perception. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 55th Annual Meeting 2011. pp. 71-75. Available online

In order to help determine the required visual frame rate for the design of remote/virtual airport towers, thirteen active air traffic controllers viewed high dynamic-fidelity simulations of landing aircraft and decided whether the aircraft would stop before the end of the runway, as if to be able to make a runway turnoff. The viewing conditions and simulation dynamics replicated visual rates and environments of transport aircraft landing at small commercial airports. Three frame rates were used: 6, 12, and 24 fps. The frame rate that would be needed to produce asymptotic performance was estimated from a model fit to perceptual discriminability (d′) of the condition in which the aircraft would stop. The required frame rate appears to range from 30-60 fps, but definitive recommendations require further testing at a higher rate in the range of 45-60 fps. Errors and reports of judgment certainty show performance was roughly steady state. Anecdotal reports of increased apparent speed due to low frame rates are objectively confirmed. Some implications for the perceptual design of a remote tower are briefly discussed.

© All rights reserved Ellis et al. and/or HFES

2010
 
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Peterson, Stephen D., Axholt, Magnus, Cooper, Matthew and Ellis, Stephen R. (2010): Detection thresholds for label motion in visually cluttered displays. In: Lok, Benjamin, Klinker, Gudrun and Nakatsu, Ryohei (eds.) IEEE Virtual Reality Conference, VR 2010 March 20-24, 2010, Waltham, Massachusetts, USA. pp. 203-206. Available online

2009
 
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Peterson, Stephen D., Axholt, Magnus and Ellis, Stephen R. (2009): Objective and subjective assessment of stereoscopically separated labels in augmented reality. In Computers & Graphics, 33 (1) pp. 23-33. Available online

2008
 
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Peterson, Stephen D., Axholt, Magnus and Ellis, Stephen R. (2008): Comparing disparity based label segregation in augmented and virtual reality. In: Feiner, Steven K., Thalmann, Daniel, Guitton, Pascal, Frohlich, Bernd, Kruijff, Ernst and Hachet, Martin (eds.) VRST 2008 - Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Virtual Reality Software and Technology October 27-29, 2008, Bordeaux, France. pp. 285-286. Available online

 
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Axholt, Magnus, Peterson, Stephen and Ellis, Stephen R. (2008): User boresight calibration precision for large-format head-up displays. In: Feiner, Steven K., Thalmann, Daniel, Guitton, Pascal, Frohlich, Bernd, Kruijff, Ernst and Hachet, Martin (eds.) VRST 2008 - Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Virtual Reality Software and Technology October 27-29, 2008, Bordeaux, France. pp. 141-148. Available online

 
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Axholt, Magnus, Peterson, Stephen and Ellis, Stephen R. (2008): User Boresighting for AR Calibration: A Preliminary Analysis. In: IEEE Virtual Reality Conference 2008 VR 2008 8-12 March, 2008, Reno, Nevada, USA. pp. 43-46. Available online

 
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Peterson, Stephen, Axholt, Magnus and Ellis, Stephen R. (2008): Managing Visual Clutter: A Generalized Technique for Label Segregation using Stereoscopic Disparity. In: IEEE Virtual Reality Conference 2008 VR 2008 8-12 March, 2008, Reno, Nevada, USA. pp. 169-176. Available online

2007
 
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II, J. Edward Swan, Ellis, Stephen R. and Adelstein, Bernard D. (2007): Tutorial 2: Conducting Human Subject Experiments with Virtual and Augmented Reality. In: Sherman, William R., Lin, Ming C. and Steed, Anthony (eds.) IEEE Virtual Reality Conference, VR 2007 10-14 March, 2007, Charlotte, NC, USA. p. 319.

2002
 
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Ellis, Stephen R., Harm, D., Kennedy, Robert S. and Stanney, Kay M. (2002): Psychophysical Effects of Immersive Virtual Reality (panel). In: VR 2002 2002. pp. 145-. Available online

 
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Mania, Katerina, Ellis, Stephen R., Billinghurst, Mark and Steed, Anthony (2002): Tutorial 1: Usability Evaluation Techniques for Virtual Reality Technologies. In: VR 2002 2002. pp. 299-. Available online

2001
 
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Ellis, Stephen R., Mania, Katerina, Chalmers, Alan, Billinghurst, Mark and Steed, Anthony (2001): Tutorial 4: Usability Evaluation Techniques for Virtual Reality Technologies. In: VR 2001 2001. p. 310. Available online

2000
 
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McCandless, Jeffrey, Ellis, Stephen R. and Adelstein, Bernard D. (2000): Localization of a Time-Delayed, Monocular Virtual Object Superimposed on a Real Environment. In Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 9 (1) pp. 15-24.

 
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Ellis, Stephen R. (2000): The Elements of Human Factors: Illustrations from the Collision at the Mir Space Station. In: VR 2000 2000. pp. 185-. Available online

1999
 
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Ellis, Stephen R., Young, Mark J., Adelstein, Bernard D. and Ehrlich, Sheryl M. (1999): Discrimination of changes in latency during head movement. In: Bullinger, Hans-Jorg and Ziegler, Jrgen (eds.) HCI International 1999 - Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction - Volume 2 August 22-26, 1999, Munich, Germany. pp. 1129-1133.

 
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Ellis, Stephen R., Adelstein, Bernard D., Baumeler, S., Jense, G. J. and Jacoby, Richard H. (1999): Sensor Spatial Distortion, Visual Latency, and Update Rate Effects on 3D Tracking in Virtual Environments. In: VR 1999 1999. pp. 218-221. Available online

1997
 
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Ellis, Stephen R. and Menges, Brian M. (1997): Judgments of the Distance to Nearby Virtual Objects: Interaction of Viewing Conditions and Accommodative Demand. In Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 6 (4) pp. 452-460.

 
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Ellis, Stephen R., Dorighi, N. S., Menges, Brian M., Adelstein, Bernard D. and Jacoby, Richard H. (1997): In Search of Equivalence Classes in Subjective Scales of Reality. In: Smith, Michael J., Salvendy, Gavriel and Koubek, Richard J. (eds.) HCI International 1997 - Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction - Volume 2 August 24-29, 1997, San Francisco, California, USA. pp. 873-876.

 
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Ellis, Stephen R., Breant, F., Menges, Brian M., Jacoby, Richard H. and Adelstein, Bernard D. (1997): Operator Interaction with Visual Objects: Effect of System Latency. In: Smith, Michael J., Salvendy, Gavriel and Koubek, Richard J. (eds.) HCI International 1997 - Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction - Volume 2 August 24-29, 1997, San Francisco, California, USA. pp. 973-976.

1996
 
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Adelstein, Bernard D., Johnston, Eric R. and Ellis, Stephen R. (1996): Dynamic Response of Electromagnetic Spatial Displacement Trackers. In Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 5 (3) pp. 302-318.

 
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Ellis, Stephen R. (1996): Presence of Mind: A Reaction to Thomas Sheridans 'Further Musings on the Psychophysics of Presence'. In Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 5 (2) pp. 247-259.

1995
 
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Ellis, Stephen R. and Menges, Brian M. (1995): Judged Distance to Virtual Objects in the Near Visual Field. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 39th Annual Meeting 1995. pp. 1400-1404.

Errors in judged depth of nearby virtual objects presented via see-through, helmet mounted displays are examined as a function of monocular, biocular and stereoscopic viewing conditions, accommodative demand and subjects' age. These errors are argued to be related to changes in binocular vergence. Suggestions for improved control of the judged distance to virtual objects and the cause of the judgment errors are briefly discussed.

© All rights reserved Ellis and Menges and/or Human Factors Society

1994
 
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Ellis, Stephen R. and Bucher, Urs J. (1994): Distance Perception of Stereoscopically Presented Virtual Objects Optically Superimposed on Physical Objects by a Head-Mounted See-Through Display. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 38th Annual Meeting 1994. pp. 1300-1304.

The influence of physically presented background stimuli on distance judgments to optically overlaid, stereoscopic virtual images has been studied using head-mounted stereoscopic, virtual image displays. Positioning of an opaque physical object either at the perceived depth of the virtual image or at a position substantially in front of it, has been observed to cause the virtual image to apparently move doses to the observer. In the case of physical objects positioned substantially in front of the virtual image, subjects often perceive the opaque object as transparent. Evidence is presented that the apparent change of position caused by interposition of the physical object is not influenced by the strengthening of occlusion cues but is influenced by motion of the physical objects which would attract the subjects ocular vergence. The observed effect appears to be associated with the relative conspicuousness of the overlaid virtual image and the background. This effect may be related to Foley's models of open-loop stereoscopic pointing errors which attributed the stereoscopic distance errors to misjudgment of a reference point for interpretation of retinal disparities. Some implications for the design of see-through displays for manufacturing will also be discussed briefly.

© All rights reserved Ellis and Bucher and/or Human Factors Society

1993
 
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Dorighi, Nancy S., Ellis, Stephen R. and Grunwald, Arthur J. (1993): Perspective Format for a Primary Flight Display (ADI) and Its Effect on Pilot Spatial Awareness. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 37th Annual Meeting 1993. pp. 88-92.

A perspective format for a "Tunnel-in-the-Sky" primary flight display was evaluated in a part-task experiment to determine if it provided improved spatial situation awareness compared to a conventional electronic attitude director indicator. Body referenced visual direction to targets on the ground was used to measure spatial situation awareness. Underestimation of visual direction previously observed in laboratory conditions was replicated in the part-task environment. Conditions under which the "Tunnel" display could provide less biased and more accurate situation awareness were also investigated.

© All rights reserved Dorighi et al. and/or Human Factors Society

 
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Adelstein, Bernard D. and Ellis, Stephen R. (1993): Effect of Head-Slaved Visual Image Roll on Spatial Situation Awareness. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 37th Annual Meeting 1993. pp. 1350-1354.

We examined whether the inclusion of a third head-slaved "roll" degree of freedom (dof) -- in addition to pitch and yaw dofs -- to control the orientation of a remotely-viewed or computer-synthesized scene can enhance spatial situation awareness. Six subjects were required to match the position and orientation of stationary target markers on a remote taskboard by manually placing response markers on an identical local taskboard. Subjects could only view the remote taskboard through images transmitted to a head mounted display (HMD) from a motorized pitch-yaw-roll camera platform; they could see neither the local taskboard nor their own limbs. Results show that, while systematic overshoot errors in azimuth judgment occurred regardless of the roll condition, the addition of the roll dof to the platform had no statistically discernible effect on the subjects' ability to match the position (i.e., azimuth and elevation) of the remote targets. Absence of the roll dof, however, did affect the subjects' judgment of target orientation when their heads were at maximum elevation (pitch) and azimuth (yaw) combinations.

© All rights reserved Adelstein and Ellis and/or Human Factors Society

1992
 
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Adelstein, Bernard D., Johnston, Eric R. and Ellis, Stephen R. (1992): A Testbed for Characterizing Dynamic Response of Virtual Environment Spatial Sensors. In: Mackinlay, Jock D. and Green, Mark (eds.) Proceedings of the 5th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 15 - 18, 1992, Monteray, California, United States. pp. 15-22. Available online

This paper describes a testbed and method for characterizing the dynamic response of the type of spatial displacement transducers commonly used in virtual environment (VE) applications. The testbed consists of a motorized rotary swing arm that imparts known displacement inputs to the VE sensor. The experimental method involves a series of tests in which the sensor is displayed back and forth at a number of controlled frequencies that span the bandwidth of volitional human movement. During the tests, actual swing arm angle and reported VE sensor displacements are collected and time stamped. Because of the time stamping technique, the response time of the sensor can be measured directly, independently of latencies in data transmission from the sensor unit and any processing by the interface application running on the host computer. Analysis of these experimental results allows sensor time delay and gain characteristics to be determined as a functions of input frequency. Results from tests of several different VE spatial sensors (Ascension, Logitech, and Polhemus) are presented here to demonstrate use of the testbed and method.

© All rights reserved Adelstein et al. and/or ACM Press

1991
 
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Ellis, Stephen R., Tharp, Gregory K., Grunwald, Arthur J. and Smith, Stephen (1991): Exocentric Judgements in Real Environments and Stereoscopic Displays. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 35th Annual Meeting 1991. pp. 1442-1446.

Spatial direction errors during interpretation of perspective images, such as 3D map displays, may originate from misjudgment of the orientation of the viewing direction used to make the display. One source of these errors could be perceptual evidence of the display surface. Two experiments are reported in which the same judgement exocentric task was presented, but the cues to the picture surface were reduced or eliminated by presenting the task as a stereoscopic, virtual image or by a geometrically matched physical model. A theory developed to model exocentric direction errors on perspective displays has been fitted to the data from these two experiments. The parameters estimated from the fit in both experiments indicate that the subjects may be more correctly estimating the viewing direction than in ordinary perspective displays. Consequently, in some real world or stereo viewing conditions, errors in estimating the viewing direction are not likely to dominate exocentric direction errors.

© All rights reserved Ellis et al. and/or Human Factors Society

1990
 
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Ellis, Stephen R. and Hacisalihzade, Selim S. (1990): Symbolic Enhancement of Perspective Displays. In: D., Woods, and E., Roth, (eds.) Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 34th Annual Meeting 1990, Santa Monica, USA. pp. 1465-1469.

Two exocentric azimuth judgement experiments with a perspective display were conducted with 16 subjects. Previous work has shown these judgements to exhibit a bias possibly due to misinterpretation of the viewing parameters used to generate the display. Though geometric compensations may be used to correct for the bias, an alternate technique selected in the following 2 experiments was the introduction of symbolic enhancements in the form of compass roses. It is suggested that a compass rose with 30 degree divisions results in overall optimal azimuth estimation accuracy when accuracy and decision time are both considered. The data also suggest that the added radial lines on the compass roses may interact with normalization processes that influence the judgement errors.

© All rights reserved Ellis and Hacisalihzade and/or Human Factors Society

1989
 
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Ellis, Stephen R., Smith, Stephen and Hacisalihzade, Selim (1989): Visual Direction as a Metric of Virtual Space. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 33rd Annual Meeting 1989. pp. 1392-1395.

Two experiments examine the abilities of 10 subjects to visualize directions shown on a perspective display. Subjects indicated their perceived directions by adjusting a head-mounted cursor to correspond to the direction depicted on the display. This task is required of telerobotic operators who use map-like pictures of their workspace to determine the direction of objects seen by direct view. Results show significant open-loop, judgements biases that may be composed of errors arising from misinterpretation of the map geometry and overestimation of gaze direction.

© All rights reserved Ellis et al. and/or Human Factors Society

 
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