Publication statistics

Pub. period:2001-2013
Pub. count:38
Number of co-authors:57



Co-authors

Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Saul Greenberg:10
Mark Hancock:7
Miguel A. Nacenta:7

 

 

Productive colleagues

Sheelagh Carpendale's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Saul Greenberg:140
Carl Gutwin:116
Kori Inkpen:70
 
 
 

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Sheelagh Carpendale

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pages.cpsc.ucalgary.ca/~sheelagh/wiki/pmwiki.php


 

Publications by Sheelagh Carpendale (bibliography)

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2013
 
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Nacenta, Miguel, Hinrichs, Uta and Carpendale, Sheelagh (2013). FatFonts. Retrieved 31 August 2013 from http://fatfonts.org/

Fat Fonts allow you to write numbers and yet create graphics in the same image.

© All rights reserved Nacenta et al. and/or their publisher

2012
 
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Dork, Marian, Carpendale, Sheelagh and Williamson, Carey (2012): Fluid Views: a zoomable search environment. In: Proceedings of the 2012 International Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces 2012. pp. 233-240. Available online

We present Fluid Views, a web-based search environment designed to bridge overview and detail by integrating dynamic queries, semantic zooming, and dual layers. The most common form of search results is long ranked and paginated lists, which are seldom examined beyond the top ten items. To support more exploratory forms of information seeking, we bring together the notion of relevance with the power of visual encoding. In Fluid Views, results portray relevance via size and detail in a dynamic top layer and semantic similarity via position on a base map. We designed Fluid Views with temporal, spatial, and content-defined base maps for both textual and visual resources, and tested our prototype system on books, blogs, and photos. Interviews with library professionals indicate the potential of Fluid Views for exploring collections and exciting directions for future research.

© All rights reserved Dork et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Nacenta, Miguel, Hinrichs, Uta and Carpendale, Sheelagh (2012): FatFonts: combining the symbolic and visual aspects of numbers. In: Proceedings of the 2012 International Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces 2012. pp. 407-414. Available online

In this paper we explore numeric typeface design for visualization purposes. We introduce FatFonts, a technique for visualizing quantitative data that bridges the gap between numeric and visual representations. FatFonts are based on Arabic numerals but, unlike regular numeric typefaces, the amount of ink (dark pixels) used for each digit is proportional to its quantitative value. This enables accurate reading of the numerical data while preserving an overall visual context. We discuss the challenges of this approach that we identified through our design process and propose a set of design goals that include legibility, familiarity, readability, spatial precision, dynamic range, and resolution. We contribute four FatFont typefaces that are derived from our exploration of the design space that these goals introduce. Finally, we discuss three example scenarios that show how FatFonts can be used for visualization purposes as valuable representation alternatives.

© All rights reserved Nacenta et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Riche, Nathalie Henry, Dwyer, Tim, Lee, Bongshin and Carpendale, Sheelagh (2012): Exploring the design space of interactive link curvature in network diagrams. In: Proceedings of the 2012 International Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces 2012. pp. 506-513. Available online

When exploiting the power of node-link diagrams to represent real-world data such as web structures, airline routes, electrical, telecommunication and social networks, link congestion frequently arises. Such areas in the diagram -- with dense, overlapping links -- are not readable connectivity, node shapes, labels, and contextual information are obscured. In response, graph-layout research has begun to consider the modification of link shapes with techniques such as link routing and bundling. In this paper, we delve into the interactive techniques afforded by variant use of link curvature, delineating a six-dimensional design space that is populated by four families of interactive techniques: bundling, fanning, magnets, and legends. Our taxonomy encompasses existing techniques and reveals several novel link interactions. We describe the implementation of these techniques and illustrate their potential for exploring dense graphs with multiple types of links.

© All rights reserved Riche et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Chen, Xiang 'Anthony', Boring, Sebastian, Carpendale, Sheelagh and Greenberg, Saul (2012): Spalendar: visualizing a group's calendar events over a geographic space on a public display. In: Proceedings of the 2012 International Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces 2012. pp. 689-696. Available online

Portable paper calendars (i. e., day planners and organizers) have greatly influenced the design of group electronic calendars. Both use time units (hours/days/weeks/etc.) to organize visuals, with useful information (e.g., event types, locations, attendees) usually presented as -- perhaps abbreviated or even hidden -- text fields within those time units. The problem is that, for a group, this visual sorting of individual events into time buckets conveys only limited information about the social network of people. For example, people's whereabouts cannot be read 'at a glance' but require examining the text. Our goal is to explore an alternate visualization that can reflect and illustrate group members' calendar events. Our main idea is to display the group's calendar events as spatiotemporal activities occurring over a geographic space animated over time, all presented on a highly interactive public display. In particular, our Spalendar (Spatial Calendar) design animates people's past, present and forthcoming movements between event locations as well as their static locations. Detail of people's events, their movements and their locations is progressively revealed and controlled by the viewer's proximity to the display, their identity, and their gestural interactions with it, all of which are tracked by the public display.

© All rights reserved Chen et al. and/or ACM Press

2011
 
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Dork, Marian, Carpendale, Sheelagh and Williamson, Carey (2011): The information flaneur: a fresh look at information seeking. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 1215-1224. Available online

We introduce the information flaneur as a new human-centred view on information seeking that is grounded in interdisciplinary research. We use the metaphor of the urban flaneur making sense of a city as an inspiring lens that brings together diverse perspectives. These perspectives shift information seeking towards a more optimistic outlook: the information flaneur represents curious, creative, and critical information seeking. The resulting information-seeking model conceptualizes the interrelated nature between information activities and experiences as a continuum between horizontal exploration and vertical immersion. Motivated by enabling technological trends and inspired by the information flaneur, we present explorability as a new guiding principle for design and raise research challenges regarding the representation of information abstractions and details.

© All rights reserved Dork et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Hinrichs, Uta and Carpendale, Sheelagh (2011): Gestures in the wild: studying multi-touch gesture sequences on interactive tabletop exhibits. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 3023-3032. Available online

In this paper we describe our findings from a field study that was conducted at the Vancouver Aquarium to investigate how visitors interact with a large interactive table exhibit using multi-touch gestures. Our findings show that the choice and use of multi-touch gestures are influenced not only by general preferences for certain gestures but also by the interaction context and social context they occur in. We found that gestures are not executed in isolation but linked into sequences where previous gestures influence the formation of subsequent gestures. Furthermore, gestures were used beyond the manipulation of media items to support social encounters around the tabletop exhibit. Our findings indicate the importance of versatile many-to-one mappings between gestures and their actions that, other than one-to-one mappings, can support fluid transitions between gestures as part of sequences and facilitate social information exploration.

© All rights reserved Hinrichs and Carpendale and/or their publisher

 
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Hinrichs, Uta, Valkanova, Nina, Kuikkaniemi, Kai, Jacucci, Giulio, Carpendale, Sheelagh and Arroyo, Ernesto (2011): Large displays in urban life -- from exhibition halls to media facades. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 2433-2436. Available online

Recent trends show an increasing prevalence of large interactive displays in public urban life. For example, museums, libraries, public plazas, or architectural facades take advantage of interactive technologies that present information in a highly visual and interactive way. Studies confirm the potential of large interactive display installations for educating, entertaining, and providing evocative experiences. This workshop will provide a platform for researchers and practitioners from different disciplines to exchange insights on current research questions in the area. The workshop will focus on how to design large interactive display installations that promote engaging experiences that go beyond playful interaction, and how to evaluate their impact. The goal is to cross-fertilize insights from different disciplines, establish a more general understanding of large interactive displays in public urban contexts, and to develop an agenda for future research directions in this area.

© All rights reserved Hinrichs et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Mikulecky, Kimberly, Hancock, Mark, Brosz, John and Carpendale, Sheelagh (2011): Exploring physical information cloth on a multitouch table. In: Proceedings of the 2011 ACM International Conference on Interactive Tabletops and Surfaces 2011. pp. 140-149. Available online

We expand multitouch tabletop information exploration by placing 2D information on a physically-based cloth in a shallow 3D viewing environment. Instead of offering 2D information on a rigid window or screen, we place our information on a soft flexible cloth that can be draped, pulled, stretched, and folded with multiple fingers and hands, supporting any number of information views. Combining our multitouch flexible information cloth with simple manipulable objects provides a physically-based information viewing environment that offers similar advantages to complex detail-in-context viewing. Previous detail-in-context views can be re-created by draping cloth over virtual objects in this physics simulation, thereby approximating many of the existing techniques by providing zoomed-in information in the context of zoomed-out information. These detail-in-context views are approximated because, rather than use distortion, the draped cloth naturally drapes and folds showing magnified regions within a physically understandable context. In addition, the information cloth remains flexibly responsive, allowing one to tweak, unfold, and smooth out regions as desired.

© All rights reserved Mikulecky et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Browne, Jeffrey, Lee, Bongshin, Carpendale, Sheelagh, Riche, Nathalie and Sherwood, Timothy (2011): Data analysis on interactive whiteboards through sketch-based interaction. In: Proceedings of the 2011 ACM International Conference on Interactive Tabletops and Surfaces 2011. pp. 154-157. Available online

When faced with the task of understanding complex data, it is common for people to work on whiteboards, where they can collaborate with others, brainstorm lists of important questions, and sketch simple visualizations. However, these sketched visualizations seldom contain real data. We address this gap by extending these sketched whiteboard visualizations with the actual data to be analyzed. Guided by an iterative design process, we developed a better understanding of the challenges involved in bringing sketch-based interaction to data analysis. In this work we contribute insights into the design challenges of sketch-based charting, and we present SketchVis, a system that leverages hand-drawn input for exploring data through simple charts.

© All rights reserved Browne et al. and/or ACM Press

2010
 
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Hancock, Mark, Cate, Thomas ten, Carpendale, Sheelagh and Isenberg, Tobias (2010): Supporting sandtray therapy on an interactive tabletop. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2010. pp. 2133-2142. Available online

We present the iterative design of a virtual sandtray application for a tabletop display. The purpose of our prototype is to support sandtray therapy, a form of art therapy typically used for younger clients. A significant aspect of this therapy is the insight gained by the therapist as they observe the client interact with the figurines they use to create a scene in the sandtray. In this manner, the therapist can gain increased understanding of the client's psyche. We worked with three sandtray therapists throughout the evolution of our prototype. We describe the details of the three phases of this design process: initial face-to-face meetings, iterative design and development via distance collaboration, and a final face-to-face feedback session. This process revealed that our prototype was sufficient for therapists to gain insight about a person's psyche through their interactions with the virtual sandtray.

© All rights reserved Hancock et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Voida, Amy, Carpendale, Sheelagh and Greenberg, Saul (2010): The individual and the group in console gaming. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW10 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2010. pp. 371-380. Available online

In this paper, we present results from a study of collocated group console gaming. We focus, in particular, on observed gaming practices that emphasized the individual gamer within a gaming group as well as practices that emphasized the gaming group as a whole. We relate each of these practices, where possible, to specific elements of the game design including game mechanics, interaction design, and special effects design. We argue that the classic distinction between competitive and cooperative modes of gameplay does not fully transfer to account for the interpersonal dynamics within collocated gaming groups.

© All rights reserved Voida et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Jota, Ricardo, Nacenta, Miguel A., Jorge, Joaquim A., Carpendale, Sheelagh and Greenberg, Saul (2010): A comparison of ray pointing techniques for very large displays. In: Proceedings of the 2010 Conference on Graphics Interface 2010. pp. 269-276. Available online

Ray-pointing techniques are often advocated as a way for people to interact with very large displays from several meters away. We are interested in two factors that can affect ray pointing: the particular technique's control type, and parallax. Consequently, we tested four ray pointing variants on a wall display that covers a large part of the user's field of view. Tasks included horizontal and vertical targeting, and tracing. Our results show that (a) techniques based on 'rotational control' perform better for targeting tasks, and (b) techniques with low parallax are best for tracing tasks. We also show that a Fitts's law analysis based on angles (as opposed to linear distances) better approximates people's ray pointing performance.

© All rights reserved Jota et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Tang, Charlotte, Carpendale, Sheelagh and Scott, Stacey (2010): InfoFlow Framework for Evaluating Information Flow and New Health Care Technologies. In International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 26 (5) pp. 477-505. Available online

This article presents a framework of 6 distinct yet interrelated factors for describing information flow that arose from a combination of field studies in a hospital ward and a review of literature. These studies investigated the dynamics of nurses' information flow, focusing on shift change. The InfoFlow Framework's 6 interrelated factors that affect the information flow are information, personnel, artifacts, spatiality, temporality, and communication mode. The framework is presented as a tool for evaluating new health care technologies. The 6 factors and their interrelationships are described first. Next, this structure is applied as a tool to aid in the analysis of the data generated in a study that assesses technology in use. Then the use of the framework is illustrated by structuring it as a set of questions that can be used as a guide for other researchers to generate coherent descriptions of the information flow and to evaluate technology deployments. Finally, there is a discussion of areas where the InfoFlow framework may be applied to allow an evaluation of the extent to which the framework may be generalized to other settings.

© All rights reserved Tang et al. and/or Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

 
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Schmidt, Sebastian, Nacenta, Miguel A., Dachselt, Raimund and Carpendale, Sheelagh (2010): A set of multi-touch graph interaction techniques. In: ITS 10 ACM International Conference on Interactive Tabletops and Surfaces 2010, Saarbrcken, Germany. pp. 113-116. Available online

Interactive node-link diagrams are useful for describing and exploring data relationships in many domains such as network analysis and transportation planning. We describe a multi-touch interaction technique set (IT set) that focuses on edge interactions for node-link diagrams. The set includes five techniques (TouchPlucking, TouchPinning, TouchStrumming, TouchBundling and PushLens) and provides the flexibility to combine them in either sequential or simultaneous actions in order to address edge congestion.

© All rights reserved Schmidt et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Vlaming, Luc, Collins, Christopher, Hancock, Mark, Nacenta, Miguel A., Isenberg, Tobias and Carpendale, Sheelagh (2010): Integrating 2D mouse emulation with 3D manipulation for visualizations on a multi-touch table. In: ITS 10 ACM International Conference on Interactive Tabletops and Surfaces 2010, Saarbrcken, Germany. pp. 221-230. Available online

We present the Rizzo, a multi-touch virtual mouse that has been designed to provide the fine grained interaction for information visualization on a multi-touch table. Our solution enables touch interaction for existing mouse-based visualizations. Previously, this transition to a multi-touch environment was difficult because the mouse emulation of touch surfaces is often insufficient to provide full information visualization functionality. We present a unified design, combining many Rizzos that have been designed not only to provide mouse capabilities but also to act as zoomable lenses that make precise information access feasible. The Rizzos and the information visualizations all exist within a touch-enabled 3D window management system. Our approach permits touch interaction with both the 3D windowing environment as well as with the contents of the individual windows contained therein. We describe an implementation of our technique that augments the VisLink 3D visualization environment to demonstrate how to enable multi-touch capabilities on all visualizations written with the popular prefuse visualization toolkit.

© All rights reserved Vlaming et al. and/or ACM Press

2009
 
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Tang, Charlotte and Carpendale, Sheelagh (2009): A mobile voice communication system in medical setting: love it or hate it?. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2009. pp. 2041-2050. Available online

Hospital work coordination and collaboration often requires mobility for acquiring proper information and resources. In turn, the spatial distribution and the mobility of clinicians can curtail the opportunities for effective communications making collaboration difficult. In this situation, a mobile hands-free voice communication system, Vocera, was introduced to enhance communication. It supports quick and impromptu conversations among coworkers for work coordination and collaboration anytime and anywhere. We study this deployment and present our findings concerning the impact of this communication system on the information flow. Our information flow framework's communication strategies help contrast the information processes before and after the deployment of Vocera.

© All rights reserved Tang and Carpendale and/or ACM Press

 
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Hancock, Mark S., Nacenta, Miguel A., Gutwin, Carl and Carpendale, Sheelagh (2009): The Effects of Changing Projection Geometry on the Interprestation of 3D Orientation on Tabletops. In: Proceedings of Interactive Tabletops and Surfaces Tabletop 2009, Banff, Canada. pp. 175-182. Available online

 
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Marquardt, Nicolai, Nacenta, Miguel A., Young, James E., Carpendale, Sheelagh, Greenberg, Saul and Sharlin, Ehud (2009): The Haptic Tabletop Puck: Tactile Feedback for Interactive Tabletops. In: Proceedings of Interactive Tabletops and Surfaces, Tabletop 2009, Banff, Canada. . Available online

 
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Hancock, Mark, Hilliges, Otmar, Collins, Christopher, Baur, Dominikus and Carpendale, Sheelagh (2009): Exploring tangible and direct touch interfaces for manipulating 2D and 3D information on a digital table. In: Proceedings of the 2009 ACM International Conference on Interactive Tabletops and Surfaces 2009. pp. 77-84. Available online

On traditional tables, people often manipulate a variety of physical objects, both 2D in nature (e.g., paper) and 3D in nature (e.g., books, pens, models, etc.). Current advances in hardware technology for tabletop displays introduce the possibility of mimicking these physical interactions through direct-touch or tangible user interfaces. While both promise intuitive physical interaction, they are rarely discussed in combination in the literature. In this paper, we present a study that explores the advantages and disadvantages of tangible and touch interfaces, specifically in relation to one another. We discuss our results in terms of how effective each technique was for accomplishing both a 3D object manipulation task and a 2D information visualization exploration task. Results suggest that people can more quickly move and rotate objects in 2D with our touch interaction, but more effectively navigate the visualization using tangible interaction. We discuss how our results can be used to inform future designs of tangible and touch interaction.

© All rights reserved Hancock et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Marquardt, Nicolai, Nacenta, Miguel A., Young, James E., Carpendale, Sheelagh, Greenberg, Saul and Sharlin, Ehud (2009): The Haptic Tabletop Puck: tactile feedback for interactive tabletops. In: Proceedings of the 2009 ACM International Conference on Interactive Tabletops and Surfaces 2009. pp. 85-92. Available online

In everyday life, our interactions with objects on real tables include how our fingertips feel those objects. In comparison, current digital interactive tables present a uniform touch surface that feels the same, regardless of what it presents visually. In this paper, we explore how tactile interaction can be used with digital tabletop surfaces. We present a simple and inexpensive device -- the Haptic Tabletop Puck -- that incorporates dynamic, interactive haptics into tabletop interaction. We created several applications that explore tactile feedback in the area of haptic information visualization, haptic graphical interfaces, and computer supported collaboration. In particular, we focus on how a person may interact with the friction, height, texture and malleability of digital objects.

© All rights reserved Marquardt et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Voida, Stephen, Tobiasz, Matthew, Stromer, Julie, Isenberg, Petra and Carpendale, Sheelagh (2009): Getting practical with interactive tabletop displays: designing for dense data, "fat fingers," diverse interactions, and face-to-face collaboration. In: Proceedings of the 2009 ACM International Conference on Interactive Tabletops and Surfaces 2009. pp. 109-116. Available online

Tabletop displays with touch-based input provide many powerful affordances for directly manipulating and collaborating around information visualizations. However, these devices also introduce several challenges for interaction designers, including discrepancies among the resolutions of the visualization, the tabletop's display, and its sensing technologies; a need to support diverse types of interactions required by different visualization techniques; and the ability to support face-to-face collaboration. As a result, most interactive tabletop applications for working with information currently demonstrate limited functionality and do not approach the power or versatility of their desktop counterparts. We present a series of design considerations, informed by prior interaction design and focus+context visualization research, for ameliorating the challenges inherent in designing practical interaction techniques for tabletop information visualization applications. We then discuss two specific techniques, i-Loupe and iPodLoupe, which illustrate how different choices among these design considerations enable vastly different experiences in working with complex data on interactive surfaces.

© All rights reserved Voida et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Hancock, Mark, Cate, Thomas ten and Carpendale, Sheelagh (2009): Sticky tools: full 6DOF force-based interaction for multi-touch tables. In: Proceedings of the 2009 ACM International Conference on Interactive Tabletops and Surfaces 2009. pp. 133-140. Available online

Tabletop computing techniques are using physically familiar force-based interactions to enable compelling interfaces that provide a feeling of being embodied with a virtual object. We introduce an interaction paradigm that has the benefits of force-based interaction complete with full 6DOF manipulation. Only multi-touch input, such as that provided by the Microsoft Surface and the SMART Table, is necessary to achieve this interaction freedom. This paradigm is realized through sticky tools: a combination of sticky fingers, a physically familiar technique for moving, spinning, and lifting virtual objects; opposable thumbs, a method for flipping objects over; and virtual tools, a method for propagating behaviour to other virtual objects in the scene. We show how sticky tools can introduce richer meaning to tabletop computing by drawing a parallel between sticky tools and the discussion in Urp [20] around the meaning of tangible devices in terms of nouns, verbs, reconfigurable tools, attributes, and pure objects. We then relate this discussion to other force-based interaction techniques by describing how a designer can introduce complexity in how people can control both physical and virtual objects, how physical objects can control both physical and virtual objects, and how virtual objects can control virtual objects.

© All rights reserved Hancock et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Hancock, Mark, Nacenta, Miguel, Gutwin, Carl and Carpendale, Sheelagh (2009): The effects of changing projection geometry on the interpretation of 3D orientation on tabletops. In: Proceedings of the 2009 ACM International Conference on Interactive Tabletops and Surfaces 2009. pp. 157-164. Available online

Applications with 3D models are now becoming more common on tabletop displays. Displaying 3D objects on tables, however, presents problems in the way that the 3D virtual scene is presented on the 2D surface; different choices in the way the projection is designed can lead to distorted images and difficulty interpreting angles and orientations. To investigate these problems, we studied people's ability to judge object orientations under different projection conditions. We found that errors increased significantly as the center of projection diverged from the observer's viewpoint, showing that designers must take this divergence into consideration, particularly for multi-user tables. In addition, we found that a neutral center of projection combined with parallel projection geometry provided a reasonable compromise for multi-user situations.

© All rights reserved Hancock et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Marquardt, Nicolai, Nacenta, Miguel A., Young, James E., Carpendale, Sheelagh, Greenberg, Saul and Sharlin, Ehud (2009): The Haptic Tabletop Puck: the video. In: Proceedings of the 2009 ACM International Conference on Interactive Tabletops and Surfaces 2009. p. D2. Available online

In everyday life, our interactions with objects on real tables include how our fingertips feel those objects. In comparison, current digital interactive tables present a uniform touch surface that feels the same, regardless of what it presents visually. In this video, we demonstrate how tactile interaction can be used with digital tabletop surfaces. We present a simple and inexpensive device -- the Haptic Tabletop Puck -- that incorporates dynamic, interactive haptics into tabletop interaction. We created several applications that explore tactile feedback in the area of haptic information visualization, haptic graphical interfaces, and computer supported collaboration. In particular, we focus on how a person may interact with the friction, height, texture and malleability of digital objects.

© All rights reserved Marquardt et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Marquardt, Nicolai, Gross, Tom, Carpendale, Sheelagh and Greenberg, Saul (2009): Revealing the invisible: visualizing the location and event flow of distributed physical devices. In: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Tangible and Embedded Interaction 2009. pp. 41-48. Available online

Distributed physical user interfaces comprise networked sensors, actuators and other devices attached to a variety of computers in different locations. Developing such systems is no easy task. It is hard to track the location and status of component devices, even harder to understand, validate, test and debug how events are transmitted between devices, and hardest yet to see if the overall system behaves correctly. Our Visual Environment Explorer supports developers of these systems by visualizing the location and status of individual and/or aggregate devices. It visualizes the current event flow between devices as they are received and transmitted, as well as the event history. Events are displayable at various levels of detail. The visualization also shows the activity of applications that use these physical devices. The tool is highly interactive: developers can explore system behavior through spatial navigation, zooming, multiple simultaneous views, event filtering, details-on-demand, and time-dependent semantic zooming.

© All rights reserved Marquardt et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Tang, Charlotte and Carpendale, Sheelagh (2009): Supporting Nurses' Information Flow by Integrating Paper and Digital Charting. In: Proceedings of the 11th European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2009. pp. 43-62. Available online

Information technology has changed the way health care is delivered. Electronic health records which are prevalently deployed to replace or supplement paper documentations have made distributed information access at various points of care and work activity achievable with the use of mobile information devices. Our particular concern is with nurse's information flow, where nurse's notes and observations taken at the point of care feed into the electronic record. In these cases, digital technology has not yet entirely replaced paper and pen, because the latter still provide greater ease and flexibility of use when compared to current digital technologies. Even when mobile digital technology is available, clinicians still prefer creating handwritten notes, and then later manually transposing them into the digital medium. Within this context, we created a prototype that integrated digital paper with electronic health charts to retain the benefits of paper and pen, as well as digital medium. A focus group evaluation of this prototype demonstrated promise and potential for its value in a medical environment.

© All rights reserved Tang and Carpendale and/or their publisher

2008
 
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Isenberg, Petra, Tang, Anthony and Carpendale, Sheelagh (2008): An exploratory study of visual information analysis. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2008 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 5-10, 2008. pp. 1217-1226. Available online

To design information visualization tools for collaborative use, we need to understand how teams engage with visualizations during their information analysis process. We report on an exploratory study of individuals, pairs, and triples engaged in information analysis tasks using paper-based visualizations. From our study results, we derive a framework that captures the analysis activities of co-located teams and individuals. Comparing this framework with existing models of the information analysis process suggests that information visualization tools may benefit from providing a flexible temporal flow of analysis actions.

© All rights reserved Isenberg et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Tang, Charlotte and Carpendale, Sheelagh (2008): Evaluating the deployment of a mobile technology in a hospital ward. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW08 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2008. pp. 205-214. Available online

Since health care teams are often distributed across time and location, information sharing is crucial for effective patient care. Studying the use of a mobile information technology in a local hospital ward at two months and eleven months after its deployment identifies both short- and long-term phenomena and reveals a mismatch between the intentions behind the deployed mobile technology and the nurses' current work practices. We contrast the new mobile technology with the paper artifacts that were previously relied upon in nursing work. Finally, in light of these findings, we suggest design directions for future technology to support the nursing shift work.

© All rights reserved Tang and Carpendale and/or ACM Press

2007
 
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Tang, Charlotte and Carpendale, Sheelagh (2007): An observational study on information flow during nurses' shift change. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2007 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2007. pp. 219-228. Available online

We present an observational study that was conducted to guide the design and development of technologies to support information flow during nurses' shift change in a hospital ward. Our goal is to find out how the complex information sharing processes during nurses' brief shift change unfold in a hospital setting. Our study shows the multitude of information media that nurses access during the parallel processes of information assembly and disassembly: digital, paper-based, displayed and verbal media. An initial analysis reveals how the common information spaces, where information media are positioned and accessible by all participants, are actively used and how they interact with the personal information spaces ephemerally constructed by the participants. Several types of information are consistently transposed from the common information spaces to the personal information space including: demographics, historical data, reminders and to-dos, alerts, prompts, scheduling and reporting information. Information types are often enhanced with a variety of visual cues to help nurses carry out their tasks.

© All rights reserved Tang and Carpendale and/or ACM Press

 
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Hancock, Mark, Carpendale, Sheelagh and Cockburn, Andy (2007): Shallow-depth 3d interaction: design and evaluation of one-, two- and three-touch techniques. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2007 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2007. pp. 1147-1156. Available online

On traditional tables, people frequently use the third dimension to pile, sort and store objects. However, while effective and informative for organization, this use of the third dimension does not usually extend far above the table. To enrich interaction with digital tables, we present the concept of shallow-depth 3D -- 3D interaction with limited depth. Within this shallow-depth 3D environment several common interaction methods need to be reconsidered. Starting from any of one, two and three touch points, we present interaction techniques that provide control of all types of 3D rotation coupled with translation (6DOF) on a direct-touch tabletop display. The different techniques exemplify a wide range of interaction possibilities: from the one-touch technique, which is designed to be simple and natural, but inherits a degree of imprecision from its simplicity; through to three-touch interaction, which allows precise bimanual simultaneous control of multiple degrees of freedom, but at the cost of simplicity. To understand how these techniques support interaction in shallow-depth 3D, we present a user study that examines the efficiency of, and preferences for, the techniques developed. Results show that users are fastest and most accurate when using the three-touch technique and that their preferences were also strongly in favour of the expressive power available from three-touch.

© All rights reserved Hancock et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Nunes, Michael, Greenberg, Saul, Carpendale, Sheelagh and Gutwin, Carl (2007): What Did I Miss? Visualizing the Past through Video Traces. In: Proceedings of the Tenth European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2007. pp. 1-20. Available online

Always-on media spaces broadcast video between collaborators to provide mutual awareness and to encourage casual interaction. This video can be easily recorded on the fly as a video trace. Ostensibly, people can review this video history to gain a better idea of the activities and availability of their collaborators. Such systems are obviously highly contentious, as they raise significant privacy concerns. However, the ease of capturing video means that video trace systems will appear in the near future. To push the boundaries and encourage debate about video trace technologies within the CSCW community, we created TIMELINE, a highly effective visualization system that combines ideas in slit scanning as used in interactive art to allow people to easily and rapidly explore a video history in detail. We describe its design and implementation, and begin the debate by offering preliminary reflections on how it can be used and misused. To encourage this debate, TIMELINE is freely available for others to try.

© All rights reserved Nunes et al. and/or Springer

2006
 
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Tang, Anthony, Tory, Melanie, Po, Barry, Neumann, Petra and Carpendale, Sheelagh (2006): Collaborative coupling over tabletop displays. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2006 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2006. pp. 1181-1190. Available online

Designing collaborative interfaces for tabletops remains difficult because we do not fully understand how groups coordinate their actions when working collaboratively over tables. We present two observational studies of pairs completing independent and shared tasks that investigate collaborative coupling, or the manner in which collaborators are involved and occupied with each other's work. Our results indicate that individuals frequently and fluidly engage and disengage with group activity through several distinct, recognizable states with unique characteristics. We describe these states and explore the consequences of these states for tabletop interface design.

© All rights reserved Tang et al. and/or ACM Press

2005
 
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Kruger, Russell, Carpendale, Sheelagh, Scott, Stacey D. and Tang, Anthony (2005): Fluid integration of rotation and translation. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 601-610. Available online

Previous research has shown that rotation and orientation of items plays three major roles during collaboration: comprehension, coordination and communication. Based on these roles of orientation and advice from kinesiology research, we have designed the Rotate'N Translate (RNT) interaction mechanism, which provides integrated control of rotation and translation using only a single touch-point for input. We present an empirical evaluation comparing RNT to a common rotation mechanism that separates control of rotation and translation. Results of this study indicate RNT is more efficient than the separate mechanism and better supports the comprehension, coordination and communication roles of orientation.

© All rights reserved Kruger et al. and/or ACM Press

2004
 
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Carpendale, Sheelagh, Ligh, John and Pattison, Eric (2004): Achieving higher magnification in context. In: Proceedings of the 2004 ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology 2004. pp. 71-80. Available online

The difficulty of accessing information details while preserving context has generated many different focus-in-context techniques. A common limitation of focus-in-context techniques is their ability to work well at high magnification. We present a set of improvements that will make high magnification in context more feasible. We demonstrate new distortion functions that effectively integrate high magnification within its context. Finally, we show how lenses can be used on top of other lenses, effectively multiplying their magnification power in the same manner that a magnifying glass applied on top of another causes multiplicative magnification. The combined effect is to change feasible detail-in-context magnification factors from less than 8 to more than 40.

© All rights reserved Carpendale et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Kruger, Russell, Carpendale, Sheelagh, Scott, Stacey D. and Greenberg, Saul (2004): Roles of Orientation in Tabletop Collaboration: Comprehension, Coordination and Communication. In Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 13 (5) pp. 501-537. Available online

In order to support co-located collaboration, many researchers are now investigating how to effectively augment tabletops with electronic displays. As far back as 1988, orientation was recognized as a significant human factors issue that must be addressed by electronic tabletop designers. As with traditional tables, when people stand or sit at different positions around a horizontal display they will be viewing the contents from different angles. One common solution to this problem is to have the software reorient objects so that a given individual can view them right way up. Yet is this the best approach? If not, how do people actually use orientation on tables? To answer these questions, we conducted an observational study of collaborative activity on a traditional table. Our results show that the strategy of reorienting objects to a persons view is overly simplistic: while important, it is an incomplete view of how people exploit their ability to reorient objects. Orientation proves critical in how individuals comprehend information, how collaborators coordinate their actions, and how they mediate communication. The coordinating role of orientation is evident in how people establish personal and group spaces and how they signal ownership of objects. In terms of communication, orientation is useful in initiating communicative exchanges and in continuing to speak to individuals about particular objects and work patterns as collaboration progresses. The three roles of orientation have significant implications for the design of tabletop software and the assessment of existing tabletop systems.

© All rights reserved Kruger et al. and/or Kluwer Academic Publishers

2003
 
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Kruger, Russell, Carpendale, Sheelagh, Scott, Stacey D. and Greenberg, Saul (2003): How people use orientation on tables: comprehension, coordination and communication. In: Tremaine, Marilyn M. and Simone, Carla (eds.) Proceedings of the International ACM SIGGROUP Conference on Supporting Group Work 2003 November 9-12, 2003, Sanibel Island, Florida, USA. pp. 369-378. Available online

In order to support co-located collaboration, many researchers are now investigating how to effectively augment tabletops with electronic displays. As far back as 1988, orientation was recognized as a significant human factor issue that must be addressed by electronic tabletop designers. As with traditional tables, when people stand at different positions around a horizontal display they will be viewing the contents from different angles. One common solution to this problem is to have the software reorient objects so that any given individual can view them 'right way up.' Yet is this the best approach? If not, how do people actually use orientation on tables? To answer these questions, we conducted an observational study of collaborative activity on a traditional table. Our results show that the strategy of reorienting objects to a person's view is overly simplistic: while important, it is an incomplete view of how people exploit their ability to reorient objects. Orientation proves critical in how individuals comprehend information, how collaborators coordinate their actions, and how they mediate communication. The coordinating role of orientation is evident in how people establish personal and group spaces, and how they signal ownership of objects. In terms of communication, orientation is useful in initiating communicative exchanges and in continuing to speak to individuals about particular objects and work patterns as collaboration progresses. The three roles of orientation have significant implications for the design of tabletop software and the assessment of existing tabletop systems.

© All rights reserved Kruger et al. and/or ACM Press

2001
 
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Kuederle, Oliver, Inkpen, Kori, Atkins, Stella and Carpendale, Sheelagh (2001): Interacting with Image Sequences: Detail-in-Context and Thumbnails. In: Graphics Interface 2001 June 7-9, 2001, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. pp. 111-118.

 
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