Number of co-authors:16
Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:Stephen J. Boies:6John D. Gould:5William Bennett:4
Sharon L. Greene's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:John D. Gould:27Louis M. Gomez:20Stephen J. Boies:19
Computer programs emerge as the outcome of complex human processes of cognition, communication and negotiation, which serve to establish the meaningful embedding of the computer system in its intended use context.
-- Floyd, 1992, p. 24
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The Social Design of Technical Systems: Building technologies for communities
by Brian Whitworth and Adnan Ahmad
The Encyclopedia of Human-Computer Interaction, 2nd Ed.
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Sharon L. Greene
Publications by Sharon L. Greene (bibliography)
Greene, Sharon L., Lou, Tracy and Matchen, Paul (2005): Dynamic dimensional feedback: an interface aid to business rule creation. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 1415-1418.
We examined the efficacy of providing dimensional feedback in the user interface as people construct business rules. Business rules often involve objects that have dimensions (e.g., area, cost, weight) and may entail complex calculations on these objects. Such mathematical expressions are error prone. We designed and tested a novel interface utilizing dimensional analysis to provide advice on expected dimensions, and error feedback on incorrect usage of dimensional objects. Experimental studies were carried out in which subjects used the interface to create rules based on word problems. In a balanced design, rule creation with dimensional feedback was compared to rule creation without such feedback. We found evidence for the usefulness of such feedback. In addition we observed the need to support higher level 'proxy variables' and stepwise definition of complex rules. The findings have implications beyond business rules tools and may be applied to any system requiring mathematical expressions with dimensional objects.
© All rights reserved Greene et al. and/or ACM Press
Greene, Sharon L. (2002): Characteristics of applications that support creativity. In Communications of the ACM, 45 (10) pp. 100-104.
Jones, Lauretta and Greene, Sharon L. (2000): MoMA and the Three-Legged Stool: Fostering Creative Insight in Interactive System Design. In: Proceedings of DIS00: Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, & Techniques 2000. pp. 39-47.
We view the design of interactive systems as a three-legged stool. The legs are: an understanding of technology, an understanding of the users and the use context, and creative insight. As the metaphor implies, if any of the legs is missing, the stool will not stand. Although much work has gone into the effort to develop tools and methodologies to enable programmers and designers to create outstanding applications, we believe the hard truth is that good design requires skill, and creative insight is an essential ingredient that must be recognized and supported. Although it is difficult to manage, plan for, and control insight and creativity, we can create an atmosphere in which creative insight is encouraged, recognized and valued. In this design study, we offer guidelines for creating this environment and present some examples of their application to a project on which we are currently working with The Museum of Modern Art in New York. The project explores learning by discovery and grows out of our research into cognitive HCI.
© All rights reserved Jones and Greene and/or ACM Press
Greene, Sharon L., Devlin, Susan J., Cannata, Philip E. and Gomez, Louis M. (1990): No IFs, ANDs, or ORs: A Study of Database Querying. In International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 32 (3) pp. 303-326.
The difficulty of expressing database queries was examined as a function of the language used. Two distinctly different query methods were investigated. One used a standard database query language, SQL, requiring users to express an English query using a formal syntax and appropriate combinations of boolean operators. The second used a newly designed Truth-table Exemplar-Based Interface (TEBI), which only required subjects to be able to choose examplars from a system-generated table representing a sample database. Through users' choices of critical examplars, the system could distinguish between interpretations of an otherwise ambiguous English query. Performance was measured by number correct, time to complete queries, and confidence in query correctness. Individual difference analyses were done to examine the relationship between subjects' characteristics and ability to express database queries. Subjects' performance was observed to be both better, and more resistant to variability in age and levels of cognitive skills, when using TEBI than when using SQL to specify queries. Possible reasons for these differences are discussed.
© All rights reserved Greene et al. and/or Academic Press
Gould, John D., Greene, Sharon L., Boies, Stephen J., Meluson, Antonia and Rasamny, Marwan (1990): Using a Touchscreen for Simple Tasks. In Interacting with Computers, 2 (1) pp. 59-74.
This work was done in the context of an interdisciplinary project (called ITS) aimed at producing new tools for computer application development. One motivation is to provide designers with a computer-based toolkit from which they can select human-computer interaction techniques appropriate to various contexts and conditions. These experiments extend our work to touchscreens, and provide a basis of comparison with keyboards and arrow keys. Three human-computer interaction methods, including basic entry and autocompletion, were studied in two simple laboratory scenarios: participants specified dates and airlines reservations. Autocompletion was preferred over, and was faster than, basic entry. The a priori countable, minimum number of touches required to use a particular interaction method is a good predictor of how much time people will need to use that interaction method on a particular task. Similar results were found previously with keyboards and arrow keys.
© All rights reserved Gould et al. and/or Elsevier Science
Wiecha, Charles, Bennett, William, Boies, Stephen J., Gould, John A. and Greene, Sharon L. (1990): ITS: A Tool for Rapidly Developing Interactive Applications. In ACM Transactions on Information Systems, 8 (3) pp. 204-236.
The ITS architecture separates applications into four layers. The action layer implements back-end application functions. The dialog layer defines the content of the user interface, independent of its style. Content specifies the objects included in each frame of the interface, the flow of control among frames, and what actions are associated with each object. The style rule layer defines the presentation and behavior of a family of interaction techniques. Finally, the style program layer implements primitive toolkit objects that are composed by the rule layer into complete interaction techniques. This paper describes the architecture in detail, compares it with previous User Interface Management Systems and toolkits, and describes how ITS is being used to implement the visitor information system for EXPO'92.
© All rights reserved Wiecha et al. and/or ACM Press
Virzi, Robert A., Penn, Dick, Tullis, Thomas S. and Greene, Sharon L. (1990): The Uses of Prototyping in User Interface Design and Evaluation. In: D., Woods, and E., Roth, (eds.) Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 34th Annual Meeting 1990, Santa Monica, USA. pp. 264-266.
This panel will explore the varied uses of prototyping in the user interface design process. We expect to show that there is no single thing called "user interface prototyping" and that the differences are, in many ways, greater than the similarities. Panelists have been chosen to represent a wide cross section of user interface design tasks. Collectively, members of the panel have experience in prototyping hardware and software, computer programs and telecommunications services, residential, business, and engineering applications, at various levels of fidelity, and in all parts of the design process. We expect to show how these factors all influence the way prototypes are used and that the designer must be careful in choosing the most appropriate prototyping methodology for his or her needs. Each panelist will begin by characterizing the portion of the design process that he or she will be talking about. This represents a major division in the way prototypes are used, both in the way that they are built and in the type of information sought by the designer. Prototypes used early in the design process (requirements analysis) tend to be of lower fidelity and are used to test preferences for design alternatives, while those used later in the design process (system specification) tend towards higher fidelity and are used to test usability. Each panelist will point out the strengths and weaknesses of his or her prototyping methodology. Each panelist will address the following points: * Appropriate uses of prototyping methodology (early vs. late in design process) * Characteristics of prototypes (platform, level of fidelity, etc.) * Information gathered from the prototypes (evaluate design preferences, measure performance, etc.) * Relative costs of the method (time to build, flexibility, etc.)
© All rights reserved Virzi et al. and/or Human Factors Society
Bennett, William, Boies, Stephen J., Gould, John D., Greene, Sharon L. and Wiecha, Charles (1989): Transformations on a Dialog Tree: Rule-Based Mapping of Content to Style. In: Sibert, John L. (ed.) Proceedings of the 2nd annual ACM SIGGRAPH symposium on User interface software and technology November 13 - 15, 1989, Williamsburg, Virginia, United States. pp. 67-75.
Gould, John D., Boies, Stephen J., Greene, Sharon L. and Bennett, William (1989): ITS: A New Method for Computer Application Development and Prototyping. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 33rd Annual Meeting 1989. pp. 245-248.
Perhaps the one thing that user interface designers most want is tools that will help them (a) quickly visualize their work; (b) carry it out more efficiently and faster; and (c) do iterative design; and (d) allow them to do more work without the need of programmers. An on-going research project (called ITS) is responding to these challenges by developing software tools for user interface and application development, together with providing a run-time environment for application execution. There are four key concepts. First, ITS separates the style of an application from the content of an application. Human-computer interface styles are general, rule-based, under parameter control, and designed to handle a variety of applications. Second, ITS envisions four general work roles in application design and development: content experts, content programmers, style experts, and style programmers. Third, end users do four operations: make choices, fill in forms, manipulate lists, and read information blocks. Fourth, ITS aims at creating software tools for each work role.
© All rights reserved Gould et al. and/or Human Factors Society
Boies, Stephen J., Gould, John D., Greene, Sharon L. and Bennett, William (1989): Demonstration of ITS -- A Rapid Application Development System for User Interfaces. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 33rd Annual Meeting 1989. p. 1142.
This note is in connection with a live demonstration of ITS. ITS is aimed at providing fast prototyping of user interfaces in new computer applications (within a few hours of when a designer begins work); greatly reducing the workload in designing, implementing, testing computer applications; insuring excellent, consistent, well-tested interface styles. ITS is a new, comprehensive approach to application development (see in this proceedings Gould, Boies, Bennett, and Green for references). ITS provides software tools for user interface and application development, and a run-time environment for application execution. There are four key concepts. First, ITS separates the style of an application from the content of an application.... Second, ITS envisions four general work roles in application design and development: application (content) experts, application (content) programmers, style experts, and style programmers.... Third, our informal analysis of computer applications indicates that end users do four operations: make choices, fill in forms, manipulate lists, and read information blocks. All information that flows across the user interface can be thought of in terms of these four operations.... Fourth, ITS aims at creating software tools for each role.... If successful, ITS will: (a) Reduce the main source of errors in application development today, namely poor customer-programmer communication, by allowing content experts to become implementers (not just interviewees). (b) Reduce the risks and major resistance in carrying out interface design today. Separating user interface style and user interface content allows each to be tested independently without unforeseen, dangerous side-effects. (c) Speed up application development through code re-use and productivity enhancing tools. (d) Relieve severe skill shortages of outstanding programmers and not enough usability people. The best work will be leveraged. (e) Provide a framework for formulating human factors work and insuring that it has impact. In contrast to user interface guidelines, which are instantiated in a book, ITS results are instantiated in a computer-based toolkit.
© All rights reserved Boies et al. and/or Human Factors Society
Greene, Sharon L., Gould, John D., Boies, Stephen J., Meluson, Antonia and Rasamny, Marwan (1988): Entry-Based versus Selection-Based Interaction Methods. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 32nd Annual Meeting 1988. pp. 284-287.
Five different human-computer interaction techniques were studied to determine the relative advantages of entry-based and selection-based methods. Gould, Boies, Meluson, Rasamny, and Vosburgh (1988), found that entry techniques aided by either automatic or requested string completion, were superior to various selection-based techniques. This study examines unaided as well as aided entry techniques, and compares them to selection-based methods. Variations in spelling difficulty and database size were studied for their effect on user performance and preferences. The main results were that automatic string completion was the fastest method and selection techniques were better than unaided entry techniques, especially for hard-to-spell words. This was particularly true for computer-inexperienced participants. The database size had its main influence on performance with the selection techniques. In the selection and aided-entry methods there was a strong correlation between the observed keystroke times and the minimum number of keystrokes required by a task.
© All rights reserved Greene et al. and/or Human Factors Society
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