Publication statistics

Pub. period:2002-2010
Pub. count:18
Number of co-authors:22



Co-authors

Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Jennifer Mankoff:8
Tara Matthews:6
Laurent Denoue:4

 

 

Productive colleagues

Scott Carter's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Gregory D. Abowd:116
Anind K. Dey:71
Jennifer Mankoff:45
 
 
 

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Scott Carter

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Publications by Scott Carter (bibliography)

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2010
 
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Branham, Stacy, Golovchinsky, Gene, Carter, Scott and Biehl, Jacob T. (2010): Let's go from the whiteboard: supporting transitions in work through whiteboard capture and reuse. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2010. pp. 75-84.

The use of whiteboards is pervasive across a wide range of work domains. But some of the qualities that make them successful -- an intuitive interface, physical working space, and easy erasure -- inherently make them poor tools for archival and reuse. If whiteboard content could be made available in times and spaces beyond those supported by the whiteboard alone, how might it be appropriated? We explore this question via ReBoard, a system that automatically captures whiteboard images and makes them accessible through a novel set of user-centered access tools. Through the lens of a seven week workplace field study, we found that by enabling new workflows, ReBoard increased the value of whiteboard content for collaboration.

© All rights reserved Branham et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Carter, Scott, Liao, Chunyuan, Denoue, Laurent, Golovchinsky, Gene and Liu, Qiong (2010): Linking Digital Media to Physical Documents: Comparing Content- and Marker-Based Tags. In IEEE Pervasive Computing, 9 (2) pp. 46-55.

2009
 
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Golovchinsky, Gene, Qvarfordt, Pernilla, Melle, Bill van, Carter, Scott and Dunnigan, Tony (2009): DICE: designing conference rooms for usability. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2009. pp. 1015-1024.

One of the core challenges now facing smart rooms is supporting realistic, everyday activities. While much research has been done to push forward the frontiers of novel interaction techniques, we argue that technology geared toward widespread adoption requires a design approach that emphasizes straightforward configuration and control, as well as flexibility. We examined the work practices of users of a large, multi-purpose conference room, and designed DICE, a system to help them use the room's capabilities. We describe the design process, and report findings about the system's usability and about people's use of a multi-purpose conference room.

© All rights reserved Golovchinsky et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Perttula, Arttu, Carter, Scott and Denoue, Laurent (2009): Kartta: extracting landmarks near personalized points-of-interest from user generated content. In: Proceedings of 11th Conference on Human-computer interaction with mobile devices and services 2009. p. 72.

Most mobile navigation systems focus on answering the question, "I know where I want to go, now can you show me exactly how to get there?" While this approach works well for many tasks, it is not as useful for unconstrained situations in which user goals and spatial landscapes are more fluid, such as festivals or conferences. In this paper we describe the design and iteration of the Kartta system, which we developed to answer a slightly different question: "What are the most interesting areas here and how do I find them?"

© All rights reserved Perttula et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Denoue, Laurent, Adcock, John, Carter, Scott and Golovchinsky, Gene (2009): WebNC: efficient sharing of web applications. In: Proceedings of the 20th ACM Conference on Hypertext and Hypermedia 2009. pp. 365-366.

WebNC is a system for efficiently sharing, retrieving and viewing web applications. Unlike existing screencasting and screensharing tools, WebNC is optimized to work with web pages where a lot of scrolling happens. WebNC uses a tile-based encoding to capture, transmit and deliver web applications, and relies only on dynamic HTML and JavaScript. The resulting webcasts require very little bandwidth and are viewable on any modern web browser including Firefox and Internet Explorer as well as browsers on the iPhone and Android platforms.

© All rights reserved Denoue et al. and/or their publisher

2008
 
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Carter, Scott, Mankoff, Jennifer, Klemmer, Scott R. and Matthews, Tara (2008): Exiting the Cleanroom: On Ecological Validity and Ubiquitous Computing. In Human-Computer Interaction, 23 (1) pp. 47-99.

Over the past decade and a half, corporations and academies have invested considerable time and money in the realization of ubiquitous computing. Yet design approaches that yield ecologically valid understandings of ubiquitous computing systems, which can help designers make design decisions based on how systems perform in the context of actual experience, remain rare. The central question underlying this article is, What barriers stand in the way of real-world, ecologically valid design for ubicomp? Using a literature survey and interviews with 28 developers, we illustrate how issues of sensing and scale cause ubicomp systems to resist iteration, prototype creation, and ecologically valid evaluation. In particular, we found that developers have difficulty creating prototypes that are both robust enough for realistic use and able to handle ambiguity and error and that they struggle to gather useful data from evaluations because critical events occur infrequently, because the level of use necessary to evaluate the system is difficult to maintain, or because the evaluation itself interferes with use of the system. We outline pitfalls for developers to avoid as well as practical solutions, and we draw on our results to outline research challenges for the future. Crucially, we do not argue for particular processes, sets of metrics, or intended outcomes, but rather we focus on prototyping tools and evaluation methods that support realistic use in realistic settings that can be selected according to the needs and goals of a particular developer or researcher.

© All rights reserved Carter et al. and/or Taylor and Francis

 
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Carter, Scott and Denoue, Laurent (2008): PicNTell: a camcorder metaphor for screen recording. In: El-Saddik, Abdulmotaleb, Vuong, Son, Griwodz, Carsten, Bimbo, Alberto Del, Candan, K. Selcuk and Jaimes, Alejandro (eds.) Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Multimedia 2008 October 26-31, 2008, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. pp. 869-872.

2007
 
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Carter, Scott, Mankoff, Jennifer and Heer, Jeffrey (2007): Momento: support for situated ubicomp experimentation. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2007 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2007. pp. 125-134.

We present the iterative design of Momento, a tool that provides integrated support for situated evaluation of ubiquitous computing applications. We derived requirements for Momento from a user-centered design process that included interviews, observations and field studies of early versions of the tool. Motivated by our findings, Momento supports remote testing of ubicomp applications, helps with participant adoption and retention by minimizing the need for new hardware, and supports mid-to-long term studies to address infrequently occurring data. Also, Momento can gather logdata, experience sampling, diary, and other qualitative data.

© All rights reserved Carter et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Matthews, Tara, Rattenbury, Tye and Carter, Scott (2007): Defining, Designing, and Evaluating Peripheral Displays: An Analysis Using Activity Theory. In Human Computer Interaction, 22 (1) pp. 221-261.

Peripheral displays are an important class of applications that improve our ability to balance multiple activities. However, peripheral display innovation and development has suffered because much of the past work has been technology driven: There exists little theoretical understanding of how they operate in relation to people's everyday lives. In response to this, we present a framework for understanding, designing, and evaluating peripheral displays based on Activity Theory. We argue that peripheral displays are information displays that become unobtrusive to users. As this quality depends on the context of use, we present a framework for describing peripheral displays based on the number and types of activities they support. Furthermore, we argue that different types of displays require different approaches to evaluation. From our own work and a review of related literature we derive a set of general evaluation criteria for peripheral displays (appeal, learnability, awareness, effects of breakdowns, and distraction). We then describe approaches for evaluating these criteria for different types of peripheral displays and present a case study to illustrate the value of our Activity Theory evaluation framework in practice.

© All rights reserved Matthews et al. and/or Lawrence Erlbaum

 
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Matthews, Tara, Rattenbury, Tye and Carter, Scott (2007): Defining, Designing, and Evaluating Peripheral Displays: An Analysis Using Activity Theory. In Human-Computer Interaction, 22 (1) pp. 221-261.

Peripheral displays are an important class of applications that improve our ability to balance multiple activities. However, peripheral display innovation and development has suffered because much of the past work has been technology driven: There exists little theoretical understanding of how they operate in relation to people's everyday lives. In response to this, we present a framework for understanding, designing, and evaluating peripheral displays based on Activity Theory. We argue that peripheral displays are information displays that become unobtrusive to users. As this quality depends on the context of use, we present a framework for describing peripheral displays based on the number and types of activities they support. Furthermore, we argue that different types of displays require different approaches to evaluation. From our own work and a review of related literature we derive a set of general evaluation criteria for peripheral displays (appeal, learnability, awareness, effects of breakdowns, and distraction). We then describe approaches for evaluating these criteria for different types of peripheral displays and present a case study to illustrate the value of our Activity Theory evaluation framework in practice.

© All rights reserved Matthews et al. and/or Taylor and Francis

 
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Matthews, Tara, Rattenbury, Tye and Carter, Scott (2007): Defining, Designing, and Evaluating Peripheral Displays: An Analysis Using Activity Theory. In Human-Computer Interaction, 22 (1) pp. 221-261.

Peripheral displays are an important class of applications that improve our ability to balance multiple activities. However, peripheral display innovation and development has suffered because much of the past work has been technology driven: There exists little theoretical understanding of how they operate in relation to people's everyday lives. In response to this, we present a framework for understanding, designing, and evaluating peripheral displays based on Activity Theory. We argue that peripheral displays are information displays that become unobtrusive to users. As this quality depends on the context of use, we present a framework for describing peripheral displays based on the number and types of activities they support. Furthermore, we argue that different types of displays require different approaches to evaluation. From our own work and a review of related literature we derive a set of general evaluation criteria for peripheral displays (appeal, learnability, awareness, effects of breakdowns, and distraction). We then describe approaches for evaluating these criteria for different types of peripheral displays and present a case study to illustrate the value of our Activity Theory evaluation framework in practice.

© All rights reserved Matthews et al. and/or Taylor and Francis

2006
 
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Carter, Scott, Hurst, Amy, Mankoff, Jennifer and Li, Jack (2006): Dynamically adapting GUIs to diverse input devices. In: Eighth Annual ACM Conference on Assistive Technologies 2006. pp. 63-70.

Many of today's desktop applications are designed for use with a pointing device and keyboard. Someone with a disability, or in a unique environment, may not be able to use one or both of these devices. We have developed an approach for automatically modifying desktop applications to accommodate a variety of input alternatives as well as a demonstration implementation, the Input Adapter Tool (IAT). Our work is differentiated from past work by our focus on input adaptation (such as adapting a paint program to work without a pointing device) rather than output adaptation (such as adapting web pages to work on a cellphone). We present an analysis showing how different common interactive elements and navigation techniques can be adapted to specific input modalities. We also describe IAT, which supports a subset of these adaptations, and illustrate how it adapts different inputs to two applications, a paint program and a form entry program.

© All rights reserved Carter et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Matthews, Tara, Carter, Scott, Pai, Carol, Fong, Janette and Mankoff, Jennifer (2006): Scribe4Me: Evaluating a Mobile Sound Transcription Tool for the Deaf. In: Dourish, Paul and Friday, Adrian (eds.) UbiComp 2006 Ubiquitous Computing - 8th International Conference September 17-21, 2006, Orange County, CA, USA. pp. 159-176.

2005
 
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Carter, Scott and Mankoff, Jennifer (2005): When participants do the capturing: the role of media in diary studies. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 899-908.

In this paper, we investigate how the choice of media for capture and access affects the diary study method. The diary study is a method of understanding participant behavior and intent in situ that minimizes the effects of observers on participants. We first situate diary studies within a framework of field studies and review related literature. We then report on three diary studies we conducted that involve photographs, audio recordings, location information and tangible artifacts. We then analyze our findings, specifically addressing the following questions: How do context information and episodic memory prompts captured by participants vary with media? In what way do different media "jog" memory? How do different media affect the diary study process? These questions are particularly important for diary studies because they can be especially useful as compared to other methods when a participant intends to do an action but does not or when actions are particularly difficult to sense. We also built and tested a tool based on participant and researcher frustrations with the method. Our contribution includes suggested modifications to traditional diary techniques that enable annotation and review of captured media; a new variation on the diary study appropriate for researchers using digital capture media; and a lightweight tool to support it, motivated by past work and findings from our studies.

© All rights reserved Carter and Mankoff and/or ACM Press

 
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Carter, Scott (2005): The role of the author in topical blogs. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 1256-1259.

Web logs, or blogs, challenge the notion of authorship. Seemingly, rather than a model in which the author's writings are themselves a contribution, the blog author weaves a tapestry of links, quotations, and references amongst generated content. In this paper, I present a study of the role of the author plays in the construction of topical blogs, in particular focusing on how blog authors make decisions about what to post and how they judge the quality of posts. To this end, I analyzed the blogs and blogging habits of eight participants using a quantitative analysis tool that I developed, a diary study, and interviews with each participant. Results suggest that authors of topical blogs often do not create new content but strive to, often follow journalistic conventions, use the content of their blogs as a reference tool for other work practices, and are connected as a community by a set of source documents. Results also show that Instant Messaging is useful as an interview medium when questions center around online content.

© All rights reserved Carter and/or ACM Press

 
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Carter, Scott and Mankoff, Jennifer (2005): Prototypes in the wild lessons from three ubicomp systems. In IEEE Pervasive Computing, 4 (4) pp. 51-57.

2004
 
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Matthews, Tara, Dey, Anind K., Mankoff, Jennifer, Carter, Scott and Rattenbury, Tye (2004): A toolkit for managing user attention in peripheral displays. In: Proceedings of the 2004 ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology 2004. pp. 247-256.

Traditionally, computer interfaces have been confined to conventional displays and focused activities. However, as displays become embedded throughout our environment and daily lives, increasing numbers of them must operate on the periphery of our attention. Peripheral displays can allow a person to be aware of information while she is attending to some other primary task or activity. We present the Peripheral Displays Toolkit (PTK), a toolkit that provides structured support for managing user attention in the development of peripheral displays. Our goal is to enable designers to explore different approaches to managing user attention. The PTK supports three issues specific to conveying information on the periphery of human attention. These issues are abstraction of raw input, rules for assigning notification levels to input, and transitions for updating a display when input arrives. Our contribution is the investigation of issues specific to attention in peripheral display design and a toolkit that encapsulates support for these issues. We describe our toolkit architecture and present five sample peripheral displays demonstrating our toolkit\'s capabilities.

© All rights reserved Matthews et al. and/or ACM Press

2002
 
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Dey, Anind K., Mankoff, Jennifer, Abowd, Gregory D. and Carter, Scott (2002): Distributed mediation of ambiguous context in aware environments. In: Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel (ed.) Proceedings of the 15th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology October 27-30, 2002, Paris, France. pp. 121-130.

Many context-aware services make the assumption that the context they use is completely accurate. However, in reality, both sensed and interpreted context is often ambiguous. A challenge facing the development of realistic and deployable context-aware services, therefore, is the ability to handle ambiguous context. In this paper, we describe an architecture that supports the building of context-aware services that assume context is ambiguous and allows for mediation of ambiguity by mobile users in aware environments. We illustrate the use of our architecture and evaluate it through three example context-aware services, a word predictor system, an In/Out Board, and a reminder tool.

© All rights reserved Dey et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Changes to this page (author)

26 Jul 2011: Modified
26 Jul 2011: Modified
03 Nov 2010: Modified
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Page Information

Page maintainer: The Editorial Team
URL: http://www.interaction-design.org/references/authors/scott_carter.html

Publication statistics

Pub. period:2002-2010
Pub. count:18
Number of co-authors:22



Co-authors

Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Jennifer Mankoff:8
Tara Matthews:6
Laurent Denoue:4

 

 

Productive colleagues

Scott Carter's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Gregory D. Abowd:116
Anind K. Dey:71
Jennifer Mankoff:45
 
 
 

Upcoming Courses

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Marc Hassenzahl explains the fascinating concept of User Experience and Experience Design. Commentaries by Don Norman, Eric Reiss, Mark Blythe, and Whitney Hess

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Our Latest Books

 
 
The Social Design of Technical Systems: Building technologies for communities. 2nd Edition
by Brian Whitworth and Adnan Ahmad
start reading
 
 
 
 
Gamification at Work: Designing Engaging Business Software
by Janaki Mythily Kumar and Mario Herger
start reading
 
 
 
 
The Social Design of Technical Systems: Building technologies for communities
by Brian Whitworth and Adnan Ahmad
start reading
 
 
 
 
The Encyclopedia of Human-Computer Interaction, 2nd Ed.
by Mads Soegaard and Rikke Friis Dam
start reading