Number of co-authors:18
Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:Christopher D. Hund..:6Anant Kartik Mithal:4Eckehard Doerry:2
Sarah A. Douglas's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:I. Scott MacKenzie:67Thomas P. Moran:66John T. Stasko:60
A general principle for all user interface design is to go through all of your design elements and remove them one at a time. If the design works as well without a certain design element, kill it.
-- Jakob Nielsen, Designing Web Usability, p. 22.
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Sarah A. Douglas
Publications by Sarah A. Douglas (bibliography)
Douglas, Sarah A. and Willson, Shasta (2007): Haptic comparison of size (relative magnitude) in blind and sighted people. In: Ninth Annual ACM Conference on Assistive Technologies 2007. pp. 83-90.
Applications for blind users often involve the mapping of information such as size (magnitude) from one sensory domain (vision) onto another (sound or touch). For example, visual perception of length can be estimated directly by touch, or encoded to pitch or even vibration. Applications for blind users will benefit from fundamental research into human perception of computer-generated substitutions for vision. In this paper we present the results of a haptics-only experiment with the PHANToM that measures human performance (time and accuracy) judging relative magnitude with computer generated haptic properties. Magnitude was represented by either physical length (displacement), or vibration varied by frequency or amplitude. Eleven blind and eleven blindfolded sighted individuals participated. Displacement tasks were 50% slower than vibration conditions for all participants. Accuracy for displacement and vibration varied by amplitude was equivalent. Vibration varied by frequency was significantly less accurate, although we are cautious about the reliability of those results. Blind participants took 50% longer with equivalent accuracy to sighted participants. Sightedness had no effect on performance regarding the type of display. No other interaction effects were found. These results suggest that vibration varied by amplitude provides a faster and equally accurate display of magnitude compared with the traditional displacement approach. Secondly, the same coding benefits equally well visually disabled and sighted individuals.
© All rights reserved Douglas and Willson and/or ACM Press
Miller, Daniel, Parecki, Aaron and Douglas, Sarah A. (2007): Finger dance: a sound game for blind people. In: Ninth Annual ACM Conference on Assistive Technologies 2007. pp. 253-254.
The usual approach to developing video games for people with visual impairment is sensory substitution. Elements of the visual display are replaced with auditory and/or haptic displays. Our approach differs. The purpose of the Finger Dance project is to research and develop accessible solutions to games that are inherently audio: musical rhythm-action games such as Dance Dance Revolution. However, these games still rely on visual cues that instruct the user on how to play along with musical rhythms. Finger Dance is an original audio-based rhythm-action game we developed specifically for visually impaired people. Working with both blind and sighted gamers using a human-centered development approach, players are able to play the game on their own and are enthusiastic about it. This paper discusses the game's design, development process and user studies.
© All rights reserved Miller et al. and/or ACM Press
Reimer, Yolanda Jacobs and Douglas, Sarah A. (2004): Ethnography, Scenario-Based Observational Usability Study, and Other Reviews Inform the Design of a Web-Based E-Notebook. In International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 17 (3) pp. 403-426.
As users turn to the World Wide Web to accomplish an increasing variety of daily tasks, many engage in information assimilation (IA), a process defined as the gathering, editing, annotating, organizing, and saving of Web information, and the tracking of ongoing Web work processes. The process of IA, which is similar to traditional note taking but in the Web environment, emerges from a literature review and an ethnographic field study, as presented in this article. Despite strong evidence which suggests that IA is critical to many Web users, however, a scenario-based observational usability study and a heuristic evaluation indicate that it is currently not well supported by existing software applications. This article, which culminates in the presentation of NetNotes-a Web-based e-notebook developed specifically to support the process of IA-illustrates how design requirements can be effectively extracted and synthesized from a variety of complementary background user studies.
© All rights reserved Reimer and Douglas and/or Lawrence Erlbaum Associates
Kirkpatrick, Arthur E. and Douglas, Sarah A. (2002): Application-Based Evaluation of Haptic Interfaces. In: HAPTICS 2002 - Symposium on Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems 2002 2002. pp. 32-39.
Hundhausen, Christopher D. and Douglas, Sarah A. (2002): Low-Fidelity Algorithm Visualization. In J. Vis. Lang. Comput., 13 (5) pp. 449-470.
Hundhausen, Christopher D., Douglas, Sarah A. and Stasko, John T. (2002): A Meta-Study of Algorithm Visualization Effectiveness. In J. Vis. Lang. Comput., 13 (3) pp. 259-290.
Hundhausen, Christopher D. and Douglas, Sarah A. (2001): Communicative Dimensions of End-User Environments. In: HCC 2001 - IEEE CS International Symposium on Human-Centric Computing Languages and Environments September 5-7, 2001, Stresa, Italy. pp. 127-134.
Hundhausen, Christopher D. and Douglas, Sarah A. (2000): Using Visualizations to Learn Algorithms: Should Students Construct Their Own, or View an Expert's?. In: VL 2000 2000. pp. 21-28.
Hundhausen, Christopher D. and Douglas, Sarah A. (2000): SALSA and ALVIS: A Language and System for Constructing and Presenting Low Fidelity Algorithm Visualizations. In: VL 2000 2000. pp. 67-68.
Douglas, Sarah A., Kirkpatrick, Arthur E. and MacKenzie, I. Scott (1999): Testing Pointing Device Performance and User Assessment with the ISO 9241, Part 9 Standard. In: Altom, Mark W. and Williams, Marian G. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 99 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference May 15-20, 1999, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. pp. 215-222.
The ISO 9241, Part 9 Draft International Standard for testing computer pointing devices proposes an evaluation of performance and comfort. In this paper we evaluate the scientific validity and practicality of these dimensions for two pointing devices for laptop computers, a finger-controlled isometric joystick and a touchpad. Using a between-subjects design, evaluation of performance using the measure of throughput was done for one-direction and multi-directional pointing and selecting. Results show a significant difference in throughput for the multi-directional task, with the joystick 27% higher; results from the one-direction task were non-significant. After the experiment, participants rated the device for comfort, including operation, fatigue, and usability. The questionnaire showed no overall difference in the responses, and a significant statistical difference in only the question concerning force required to operate the device -- the joystick requiring slightly more force. The paper concludes with a discussion of problems in implementing the ISO standard and recommendations for improvement.
© All rights reserved Douglas et al. and/or ACM Press
Douglas, Sarah A. and Mithal, Anant Kartik (1997): The Ergonomics of Computer Pointing Devices. Springer-Verlag
Mithal, Anant Kartik and Douglas, Sarah A. (1996): Differences in Movement Microstructure of the Mouse and the Finger-Controlled Isometric Joystick. In: Tauber, Michael J., Bellotti, Victoria, Jeffries, Robin, Mackinlay, Jock D. and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 96 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 14-18, 1996, Vancouver, Canada. pp. 300-307.
This paper describes a study comparing the movement characteristics of the mouse and the velocity-control isometric joystick. These characteristics are called the microstructure of movement. The comparison found random variations in the velocity of the isometric joystick that make it hard to control. The study shows that the microstructure of movement can explain differences in performance among devices.
© All rights reserved Mithal and Douglas and/or ACM Press
Douglas, Sarah A. and Kirkpatrick, Ted (1996): Do Color Models Really Make a Difference?. In: Tauber, Michael J., Bellotti, Victoria, Jeffries, Robin, Mackinlay, Jock D. and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 96 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 14-18, 1996, Vancouver, Canada. pp. 399-405.
User interfaces for color selection are based upon an underlying color model. There is widespread belief, and some evidence, that color models produce significant differences in human performance. We performed a color-matching experiment using an interface with high levels of feedback. With this interface, we observed no differences in speed or accuracy between the RGB and HSV color models, but found that increasing feedback improved accuracy of matching. We suggest that feedback may be an important factor in usability of a color selection interface.
© All rights reserved Douglas and Kirkpatrick and/or ACM Press
Douglas, Sarah A., Hundhausen, Christopher and McKeown, Donna (1996): Exploring human visualization of computer algorithms. In: Graphics Interface 96 May 22-24, 1996, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. pp. 9-16.
Douglas, Sarah A. and Kirkpatrick, Ted (1996): The effect of feedback on a color selection interface. In: Graphics Interface 96 May 22-24, 1996, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. pp. 47-54.
Douglas, Sarah A., Hundhausen, Christopher D. and McKeown, Donna (1995): Toward Empirically-Based Software Visualization Languages. In: VL 1995 1995. pp. 342-350.
Douglas, Sarah A. and Mithal, Anant Kartik (1994): The Effect of Reducing Homing Time on the Speed of a Finger-Controlled Isometric Pointing Device. In: Adelson, Beth, Dumais, Susan and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 94 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 24-28, 1994, Boston, Massachusetts. pp. 411-416.
This paper describes a study of a new pointing device. Subjects' performance with two pointing devices was compared in two tasks. One task required pointing, the other both pointing and typing. One group used the standard keyboard and mouse combination. The other used a keyboard with a joystick under the 'J' key. The mouse was faster for both tasks despite the reduction in homing time shown by the joystick and keyboard combination. The experiment shows that the mouse is the faster pointing device, and that a finger controlled device complies with Fitts' law. In addition, we show that efforts to design faster pointing devices should focus on increasing the Fitts' Law Index of Performance rather than reducing the homing time.
© All rights reserved Douglas and Mithal and/or ACM Press
Douglas, Sarah A. and Mithal, Anant Kartik (1994): The Effect of Reducing Homing Time on the Speed of a Finger-Controlled Isometric Pointing Device. In: Proceedings of Human Factors in Computing Systems, ACM SIGCHI 1994. pp. 411-416.
Douglas, Sarah A., Doerry, Eckehard and Novick, David G. (1992): QUICK: a tool for graphical user-interface construction by non-programmers. In The Visual Computer, 8 (2) pp. 117-133.
Douglas, Sarah A. and Meyer, Gary W. (1990): Interactive Systems Group. In: Carrasco, Jane and Whiteside, John (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 90 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference 1990, Seattle, Washington,USA. pp. 385-386.
Douglas, Sarah A., Doerry, Eckehard and Novick, David G. (1990): QUICK: A User Interface Design Kit for Non-Programmers. In: Hudson, Scott E. (ed.) Proceedings of the 3rd annual ACM SIGGRAPH symposium on User interface software and technology October 03 - 05, 1990, Snowbird, Utah, United States. pp. 47-56.
Interface design toolkits have proven useful, both for exploring conceptual issues in user interface design, and for constructing product quality interfaces for commercial applications. However, most such toolkits focus on a relatively low-level of abstraction, are oriented towards design of a limited set of "standard" interface types, and are intended for expert users. Our QUICK system explores the opposite pole. QUICK is a toolkit for the design of highly interactive direct manipulation interfaces oriented specifically towards non-programmers. The challenge we face in QUICK lies in maximizing the power and flexibility in an extremely simple environment. We explore the utility of direct manipulation, the object oriented paradigm and a structure editor in this context.
© All rights reserved Douglas et al. and/or ACM Press
Bowden, Edward M., Douglas, Sarah A. and Stanford, Cathryn A. (1989): Testing the Principle of Orthogonality in Language Design. In Human-Computer Interaction, 4 (2) pp. 95-120.
Research has shown that organization plays an important role in memory. This study applies these findings to the design of a command language. The concept of orthogonality was used to maximize the internal organization of a text-editing command language. In Experiments 1 and 2, this orthogonal language was compared to an organized, but nonorthogonal, and an antiorganized language on measures of predictability, recall, and performance. Subjects in the orthogonal language condition performed better than subjects in the other conditions on all measures. In a third experiment, steps were taken to eliminate possible confounding effects of mnemonics. The orthogonal language was compared to the organized language on measures of recall and performance. Even without the aid of mnemonics, subjects in the orthogonal language condition performed better on the recall test than subjects in the organized language condition. In addition, analysis of keystroke data revealed that subjects using the orthogonal language required less time to think of appropriate commands to accomplish their tasks. General steps necessary to design an orthogonal language are discussed.
© All rights reserved Bowden et al. and/or Taylor and Francis
Douglas, Sarah A. and Moran, Thomas P. (1983): Learning Text Editor Semantics by Analogy. In: Smith, Raoul N., Pew, Richard W. and Janda, Ann (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 83 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conferenc December 12-15, 1983, Boston, Massachusetts, United States. pp. 207-211.
This paper presents a cognitive model for one aspect of how novices learn text editors-the acquisition of procedural skill by problem solving in problem spaces and the use of analogy for building a representation of the semantics of text-editor commands (which we call operators). Protocol data of computer-native subjects learning the EMACS text editor suggests that they use their knowledge of typewriting to decide which commands to use in performing editing tasks. We propose a formal method of analysis that compares operators in two problem spaces and generates misconceptions. The comparison of these predicted misconceptions with verbal comments, error data, and task difficulty lends support to this analysis.
© All rights reserved Douglas and Moran and/or ACM Press
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