Number of co-authors:32
Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:Kim-Phuong L. Vu:10Gavriel Salvendy:4John Sulaitis:2
Robert W. Proctor's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:Gavriel Salvendy:148Barry H. Kantowitz:17Kim-Phuong L. Vu:15
Computer programs emerge as the outcome of complex human processes of cognition, communication and negotiation, which serve to establish the meaningful embedding of the computer system in its intended use context.
-- Floyd, 1992, p. 24
Read the fascinating history of Wearable Computing, told by its father, Steve Mann
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The Social Design of Technical Systems: Building technologies for communities
by Brian Whitworth and Adnan Ahmad
The Encyclopedia of Human-Computer Interaction, 2nd Ed.
by Mads Soegaard and Rikke Friis Dam
Robert W. Proctor
Has also published under the name of:
"R. W. Proctor"
Publications by Robert W. Proctor (bibliography)
Chen, Jing and Proctor, Robert W. (2012): Up or Down: Directional Stimulus-Response Compatibility and Natural Scrolling. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 2012 Annual Meeting 2012. pp. 1381-1385.
The settings of scrolling direction (e.g., whether scrolling up or down to move the display content up) on current computer operating systems are discrepant, which may impair users' performance and user experience. To evaluate the alternatives, we conducted two experiments. In Experiment 1, we simulated the way people read and scroll on a computer by asking participants to press the up-arrow or down-arrow key to scroll the screen. In Experiment 2, we eliminated the scrolling component by including only a location-judgment task. We examined directional stimulus-response compatibility in the scrolling task and the location-judgment task. Results showed that responses were facilitated when the control direction was compatible with the display content movement direction. This finding is consonant with the Mac OS X Lion operating system, which defines the default scrolling direction as 'move content in the direction of finger movement.' We recommend that other systems adopt this directional compatible mapping.
© All rights reserved Chen and Proctor and/or Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
So, Joey C. Y., Proctor, Robert W. and Dunston, Phillip S. (2012): Impact of Interrupting Simulated Hydraulic Excavator Training with Simulated Loader Training. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 2012 Annual Meeting 2012. pp. 2482-2486.
A skilled operator of construction equipment needs to become proficient in the use and control of various classes or types of machines. It is thus important to establish effective training methods across these machine types and to determine the extent to which skills operating one machine transfer to another. An issue of concern is whether learning to operate a single piece of equipment is best if all practice is on that equipment, or whether intermixed training on a related piece of equipment can be of value (or possibly a hindrance). In the present study, naïve participants practiced performing a controls familiarization task on a simulated hydraulic excavator in an initial session. In a second session, one-third of the participants were trained on a simulated loader, another third continued practicing on the simulated excavator, and the final third engaged in an unrelated reading task. For a final session, all participants again performed the controls familiarization task on the excavator. Execution time, number of control errors, and ratings of mental workload decreased with practice. The intervening reading task led to more control errors in the third session, but training on the loader had no effect on any performance measure. Learning to operate a loader apparently does not interfere with learning to operate an excavator.
© All rights reserved So et al. and/or Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Jeong, Kyeong-Ah and Proctor, Robert W. (2011): Incorporation of Privacy and Usability for Remote/Home Healthcare Systems: Human Factors Considerations. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 55th Annual Meeting 2011. pp. 620-624.
Although specific privacy-related properties have been proposed for remote/home-based healthcare systems, usability issues relating to those properties have received little consideration. We review privacy-related problems that need to be addressed and identify many human factors considerations associated with implementation of the privacy properties for remote/home healthcare systems. Implementations that do not take the users into account will likely fail to accomplish their privacy and security goals.
© All rights reserved Jeong and Proctor and/or HFES
Vu, Kim-P. L. and Proctor, Robert W. (2011): The handbook of human factors in Web design. Mahwah, New Jersey, Erlbaum
Zeng, Liang, Proctor, Robert W. and Salvendy, Gavriel (2010): Harnessing the Users Mental Power to Enhance Website Creativity: The Meta-design Approach to Web Personalization. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 54th Annual Meeting 2010. pp. 1817-1821.
Use of the meta-design approach to facilitate web personalization is proposed, so as to enhance website creativity under the paradigm of Web 2.0. Then, a study is reported that investigates the influence of user-driven personalization on website creativity and on web user behavior. Results showed that a web service that supports creative personalization features by way of the meta-design approach can significantly enhance user-perceived creativity of the site and thus trigger more of the user's intention of adoption/use. Additionally, perceived attractiveness (PA) is found to be a significant predictor of web user behavior. The provision of user-driven personalization facilitated by the meta-design approach opens another source for website creativity, and the endeavor of engaging customers in the co-creation process would foster consumer acceptance of the web service.
© All rights reserved Zeng et al. and/or HFES
Jeong, Kyeong-Ah, Proctor, Robert W. and Salvendy, Gavriel (2009): A Survey of Smart Home Interface Preferences for U.S. and Korean Users. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 53rd Annual Meeting 2009. pp. 541-545.
A survey was conducted to determine Americans' and Koreans' preferences in both general and specific aspects of smart home interface design. 210 Americans and 282 Koreans participated. The respondents preferred to interact with a smart home using a physical device (a computer, cell phone, or remote control) rather than through communication modalities such as speech or gesture. Though different, the layout organization preferences of the American and Korean respondents conflicted with those expected on the basis of an often cited distinction between Americans' and Koreans' preferences for functional vs. thematic structures, respectively. Based on the survey, the conclusion was reached that smart home interfaces should be adapted to the particular culture. General and culture-specific guidelines for smart home interface design are proposed.
© All rights reserved Jeong et al. and/or their publisher
Zeng, Liang, Proctor, Robert W. and Salvendy, Gavriel (2009): Integrating Creativity in IT Product and Service Development Into Ergonomic Design Practices. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 53rd Annual Meeting 2009. pp. 1507-1511.
It is creativity that ultimately triggers innovations and their commercial success in information technology products and services. Previous research in ergonomic design considers only issues regarding functionality, safety, usability, and affectivity. We first propose a conceptual framework for ergonomic design that highlights the central role of creativity in achieving synergy of the four preceding design dimensions. Then, a conceptual model of the creative design process for IT products and services is proposed based on the literature in creative cognition and engineering design. The discussion provides insights into how to increase creativity and profitability of IT products and services.
© All rights reserved Zeng et al. and/or their publisher
Proctor, Robert W., Ali, M. Athar and Vu, Kim-Phuong L. (2008): Examining Usability of Web Privacy Policies. In International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 24 (3) pp. 307-328.
Three studies examined (a) the amount and types of personal information requested by Web sites from seven different categories, (b) the goals and readability of existing privacy policies for four categories of sites, and (c) users' comprehension and perceptions of privacy policies. Study 1 showed that different amounts of personal information were requested by Web sites, even within the same category. Content and readability analyses of 100 privacy policies in Study 2 showed that policies tended to be high on both privacy protection and vulnerability goals or low on both. The policies were also written at a reading level corresponding to 13 years of education. Study 3 showed, though, that even college students have poor comprehension of the content of privacy policies. The students perceived longer policies that included many privacy goals as providing better assurance of privacy than shorter policies that included fewer goals. From a usability perspective, there is considerable room for improvement in the design of organizations' Web sites with respect to the amount and types of person information solicited and the implementation of privacy policies.
© All rights reserved Proctor et al. and/or Lawrence Erlbaum Associates
Vu, Kim-Phuong L., Proctor, Robert W., Bhargav-Spantzel, Abhilasha, Tai, Bik-Lam (Belin), Cook, Joshua and Schultz, E. Eugene (2007): Improving password security and memorability to protect personal and organizational information. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 65 (8) pp. 744-757.
Personal information and organizational information need to be protected, which requires that only authorized users gain access to the information. The most commonly used method for authenticating users who attempt to access such information is through the use of username-password combinations. However, this is a weak method of authentication because users tend to generate passwords that are easy to remember but also easy to crack. Proactive password checking, for which passwords must satisfy certain criteria, is one method for improving the security of user-generated passwords. The present study evaluated the time and number of attempts needed to generate unique passwords satisfying different restrictions for multiple accounts, as well as the login time and accuracy for recalling those passwords. Imposing password restrictions alone did not necessarily lead to more secure passwords. However, the use of a technique for which the first letter of each word of a sentence was used coupled with a requirement to insert a special character and digit yielded more secure passwords that were more memorable.
© All rights reserved Vu et al. and/or Academic Press
Vu, Kim-Phuong L., Chambers, Vanessa, Garcia, Fredrick P., Creekmur, Beth, Sulaitis, John, Nelson, Deborah, Pierce, Russell and Proctor, Robert W. (2007): How Users Read and Comprehend Privacy Policies. In: Smith, Michael J. and Salvendy, Gavriel (eds.) Symposium on Human Interface 2007 - Part II July 22-27, 2007, Beijing, China. pp. 802-811.
Proctor, Robert W., Vu, Kim-Phuong L. and Ali, M. Athar (2007): Usability of User Agents for Privacy-Preference Specification. In: Smith, Michael J. and Salvendy, Gavriel (eds.) Symposium on Human Interface 2007 - Part II July 22-27, 2007, Beijing, China. pp. 766-776.
Vu, Kim-Phuong L., Garcia, Fredrick P., Nelson, Deborah, Sulaitis, John, Creekmur, Beth, Chambers, Vanessa and Proctor, Robert W. (2007): Examining User Privacy Practices While Shopping Online: What Are Users Looking for?. In: Smith, Michael J. and Salvendy, Gavriel (eds.) Symposium on Human Interface 2007 - Part II July 22-27, 2007, Beijing, China. pp. 792-801.
Roswarski, Todd Eric, Murray, Michael D. and Proctor, Robert W. (2007): Framing, Patient Characteristics, and Treatment Selection in Medical Decision-Making. In: Holzinger, Andreas (ed.) USAB 2007 - Third Symposium of the Workgroup Human-Computer Interaction and Usability Engineering of the Austrian Computer Society November, 22, 2007, Graz, Austria. pp. 315-322.
Proctor, Robert W. and Vu, Kim-Phuong L. (2006): The Cognitive Revolution at Age 50: Has the Promise of the Human Information-Processing Approach Been Fulfilled?. In International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 21 (3) pp. 253-284.
The cognitive revolution and the human information-processing approach it adopted are now more than 50 years old. This article provides an overview of the history of human information processing and its relation to human factors and human-computer interaction (HCI). Fundamental concepts and findings concerning human information processing and their applications to HCI are summarized. The last half of the article discusses new developments and evaluates criticisms of human information processing and alternative approaches that have been proposed. Our conclusion is that the information-processing approach has served psychology and HCI well, providing cumulative basic and applied knowledge in a variety of areas and a basis for integrating this knowledge. The approach continues to be a fruitful source of empirical and theoretical advances across a variety of disciplines.
© All rights reserved Proctor and Vu and/or Lawrence Erlbaum Associates
Proctor, Robert W. and Vu, Kim-Phuong L. (2005): The handbook of human factors in Web design. Mahwah, New Jersey, Erlbaum
Proctor, Robert W., Vu, Kim-Phuong L., Najjar, Lawrence J., Vaughan, Misha W. and Salvendy, Gavriel (2003): Content preparation and management for e-commerce Web sites. In Communications of the ACM, 46 (12) pp. 289-299.
Vu, K.-P. L. and Proctor, Robert W. (2001): Stimulus-Response Compatibility in Interface Design. In: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2001. pp. 1368-1372.
Vu, Kim-Phuong L., Hanley, Gerard L., Strybel, Thomas Z. and Proctor, Robert W. (2000): Metacognitive Processes in Human-Computer Interaction: Self-Assessments of Knowledge as Predictors of Computer Expertise. In International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 12 (1) pp. 43-71.
Metacognition, a person's knowledge of her or his own cognitive processes, is a concept that can be applied to many areas of human-computer interaction. This article reviews the state of contemporary knowledge regarding metacognition and describes implications for the domain of human-computer interaction. A conceptual framework is presented that distinguishes monitoring and regulation processes of metacognition. One aspect of metacognition, self-evaluation of knowledge, was investigated for a word processing application as an illustration. An experiment was conducted to evaluate which of four methods of self-assessment of expertise was the best predictor of declarative knowledge (accuracy and completeness of descriptions on how to perform a task). In addition, the experiment examined whether classifying users based on self-reported estimates of expertise would produce differences in their declarative descriptions. Results showed that individuals' ratings of their overall knowledge were better predictors than were estimations of frequency of use, as would be expected from the literature on metacognitive monitoring. In addition, classifying users based on their self-ratings of expertise showed differences in accuracy of declarative knowledge and strategy chosen to perform a task. Experts were more accurate in their descriptions of how to complete a task compared to novices and used more complex strategies to complete hard tasks.
© All rights reserved Vu et al. and/or Lawrence Erlbaum Associates
Proctor, Robert W. and Zandt, Trisha Van (1994): Human Factors in Simple and Complex Systems. Boston, MA, Allyn and Bacon
Dutta, Addie and Proctor, Robert W. (1993): The Role of Feedback in Learning Spatially Incompatible Choice Reaction Tasks: Does It Have One?. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 37th Annual Meeting 1993. pp. 1320-1324.
Stimulus-response compatibility effects have been shown to persist even after extended practice. In the present study, two experiments were conducted to see if the effects persist when knowledge of results that allows subjects to set performance goals is provided. In the first experiment, summary feedback about mean accuracy and mean reaction time was provided after each block of 40 trials of practice in a two-choice spatial compatibility task. Subjects practiced the task for 2,400 trials, yet the compatibility effect was not eliminated. Compared to previous experiments, reaction times were faster overall, but the degree of change was the same for both compatible and incompatible assignments. In the second experiment, a response deadline was imposed on each trial. If the subject did not respond within the time limit, which was reduced as the experiment progressed, auditory feedback was presented. Summary feedback was also presented as in Experiment 1. Again, 2,400 trials of practice reduced but did not eliminate the compatibility effect. The greater reduction in the difference in reaction times for compatible and incompatible assignments, relative to other experiments, could be attributed to speed-accuracy tradeoff. The results indicate that the persistence of stimulus-response compatibility effects with extended practice is not due to poorer motivation to perform with the incompatible assignment. The results suggest that training will be insufficient to overcome difficulties in performance resulting from spatially incompatible assignments.
© All rights reserved Dutta and Proctor and/or Human Factors Society
Proctor, Robert W., Weeks, Daniel J., Alluisi, Earl A., Simon, J. Richard and Kantowitz, Barry H. (1990): A Forty-Year Perspective on Compatibility Phenomena: A Panel in Honor of Arnold M. Small, Sr.. In: D., Woods, and E., Roth, (eds.) Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 34th Annual Meeting 1990, Santa Monica, USA. pp. 1444-1446.
Proctor, Robert W. and Vu, Kim-Phuong L. (): The handbook of human factors in Web design. Mahwah, New Jersey, Erlbaum
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