Publication statistics

Pub. period:1983-2012
Pub. count:98
Number of co-authors:126



Co-authors

Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Aniket Kittur:11
Sara Kiesler:10
Robert S. Fish:9

 

 

Productive colleagues

Robert E. Kraut's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Alistair G. Sutcli..:148
Scott E. Hudson:113
Susan Dumais:74
 
 
 

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Robert E. Kraut

Picture of Robert E. Kraut.
Has also published under the name of:
"Robert Kraut" and "R. E. Kraut"

Personal Homepage:
http://kraut.hciresearch.org/

I started my career as a traditional social psychologist, but working in the telecommunications industry for twelve years shifted my focus from disciplines to problems. As a researcher, I have broad interests in the design and social impact of information technologies in small groups, in the home, and in organizations. I conduct research in five major areas: - Online communities - Everyday use of the Internet - Collaboration in small work groups. - Technology and conversation - Computers in organizations My research in a specific area first examines in detail the challenges individuals, groups, and organizations face in performing social tasks. This empirical research can inform the design of new technology to meet some of these challenges. Here I collaborate with computer scientists and engineers. The research comes full circle when we evaluate the usefulness of the new technology. I teach courses in these topics, including undergraduate, masters, and Ph.D. level courses in communication, computer supported cooperative work, and organizational computing.

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Publications by Robert E. Kraut (bibliography)

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2012
 
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Dabbish, Laura, Farzan, Rosta, Kraut, Robert E. and Postmes, Tom (2012): Fresh faces in the crowd: turnover, identity, and commitment in online groups. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW12 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2012. pp. 245-248.

Turnover is commonplace in many online groups because of low barriers of entry and exit. In offline settings, turnover can have a negative impact because of reduced attachment to the group as an entity. However, in an online setting, turnover in terms of changes in the visible membership of a group may have a very different impact. Online only a limited amount of information about members and their activities is observable; in particular, it is easier to see the behavior of the subset of members who are active than the potentially larger set who are not. In this paper, we describe an experiment examining the influence of visible membership turnover on commitment to an online group. Our results suggest that increased turnover in an online group may increase social presence, creating perceptions of liveness, in turn leading to increased levels of participation in the group. However, this result holds primarily for groups with a common identity, suggesting that attention to behavior of others may be stronger when people share an identity with those others. Our results extend understandings of attachment in an online setting as well as theory about social tuning.

© All rights reserved Dabbish et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Farzan, Rosta, Kraut, Robert E., Pal, Aditya and Konstan, Joseph (2012): Socializing volunteers in an online community: a field experiment. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW12 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2012. pp. 325-334.

Although many off-line organizations give their employees training, mentorship, a cohort and other socialization experiences that improve their retention and productivity, online production communities rarely do this. This paper describes the planning, execution and evaluation of a socialization regime for an online technical support community. In a two-phase project, we first automatically identified from participants' early behavior, those with high potential to become core members. We then designed, delivered and experimentally evaluated socialization experiences intended to build commitment and competence among these potential core members. We were able to identify potential core members with high accuracy from only two weeks of behavior. A year later, those classified as potential core members participated in the community ten times more actively than those not identified. In an evaluation experiment, some potential core members were randomly assigned to receive socialization experiences, while others were not. A year later, those who had participated in the socialization regime contributed more answers in the community compared to those in the control condition. The socialization experiences, however, undercut their sense of connection to the community and the quality of their contributions. We discuss what was effective and what could be improved in designing socialization experiences for online groups.

© All rights reserved Farzan et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Zhu, Haiyi, Kraut, Robert E. and Kittur, Aniket (2012): Effectiveness of shared leadership in online communities. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW12 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2012. pp. 407-416.

Traditional research on leadership in online communities has consistently focused on the small set of people occupying leadership roles. In this paper, we use a model of shared leadership, which posits that leadership behaviors come from members at all levels, not simply from people in high-level leadership positions. Although every member can exhibit some leadership behavior, different types of leadership behavior performed by different types of leaders may not be equally effective. This paper investigates how distinct types of leadership behaviors (transactional, aversive, directive and person-focused) and the legitimacy of the people who deliver them (people in formal leadership positions or not) influence the contributions that other participants make in the context of Wikipedia. After using propensity score matching to control for potential pre-existing differences among those who were and were not targets of leadership behaviors, we found that 1) leadership behaviors performed by members at all levels significantly influenced other members' motivation; 2) transactional leadership and person-focused leadership were effective in motivating others to contribute more, whereas aversive leadership decreased other contributors' motivations; and 3) legitimate leaders were in general more influential than regular peer leaders. We discuss the theoretical and practical implication of our work.

© All rights reserved Zhu et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Forte, Andrea, Kittur, Niki, Larco, Vanessa, Zhu, Haiyi, Bruckman, Amy and Kraut, Robert E. (2012): Coordination and beyond: social functions of groups in open content production. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW12 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2012. pp. 417-426.

We report on a study of the English edition of Wikipedia in which we used a mixed methods approach to understand how nested organizational structures called WikiProjects support collaboration. We first conducted two rounds of interviews with a total of 20 Wikipedians to understand how WikiProjects function and what it's like to participate in them from the perspective of Wikipedia editors. We then used a quantitative approach to further explore interpretations that arose from the qualitative data. Our analysis of these data together demonstrates how WikiProjects not only help Wikipedians coordinate tasks and produce articles, but also support community members and small groups of editors in important ways such as: providing a place to find collaborators, socialize and network; protecting editors' work; and structuring opportunities to contribute.

© All rights reserved Forte et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Wang, Yi-Chia, Kraut, Robert E. and Levine, John M. (2012): To stay or leave?: the relationship of emotional and informational support to commitment in online health support groups. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW12 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2012. pp. 833-842.

Today many people with serious diseases use online support groups to seek social support. For these groups to be sustained and effective, member retention and commitment is important. Our study examined how different types and amounts of social support in an online cancer support group are associated with participants' length of membership. We first built machine learning models to automatically identify the extent to which messages contained emotional and informational support. Agreement with human judges was high (r > 0.76). We then used these models to measure the support exchanged in 1.5 million messages. Finally, we applied quantitative event history analysis to assess how exposure to emotional and informational support predicted group members' length of subsequent participation. The results demonstrated that the more emotional support members were exposed to, the lower the risk of dropout. In contrast, informational support did not have the same strong effects on commitment. We speculate that emotional support enhanced members' relationships with one another or the group as a whole, whereas informational support satisfied members' short-term information needs.

© All rights reserved Wang et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Zhu, Haiyi, Kraut, Robert E. and Kittur, Aniket (2012): Organizing without formal organization: group identification, goal setting and social modeling in directing online production. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW12 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2012. pp. 935-944.

A challenge for many online production communities is to direct their members to accomplish tasks that are important to the group, even when these tasks may not match individual members' interests. Here we investigate how combining group identification and direction setting can motivate volunteers in online communities to accomplish tasks important to the success of the group as a whole. We hypothesize that group identity, the perception of belonging to a group, triggers in-group favoritism; and direction setting (including explicit direction from group goals and implicit direction from role models) focuses people's group-oriented motivation towards the group's important tasks. We tested our hypotheses in the context of Wikipedia's Collaborations of the Week (COTW), a group goal setting mechanism and a social event within Wikiprojects. Results demonstrate that 1) publicizing important group goals via COTW can have a strong motivating influence on editors who have voluntarily identified themselves as group members compared to those who have not self-identified; 2) the effects of goals spill over to non-goal related tasks; and 3) editors exposed to group role models in COTW are more likely to perform similarly to the models on group-relevant citizenship behaviors. Finally, we discuss design and managerial implications based on our findings.

© All rights reserved Zhu et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Kittur, Aniket, Khamkar, Susheel, André, Paul and Kraut, Robert E. (2012): CrowdWeaver: visually managing complex crowd work. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW12 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2012. pp. 1033-1036.

Though toolkits exist to create complex crowdsourced workflows, there is limited support for management of those workflows. Managing crowd workers and tasks requires significant iteration and experimentation on task instructions, rewards, and flows. We present CrowdWeaver, a system to visually manage complex crowd work. The system supports the creation and reuse of crowdsourcing and computational tasks into integrated task flows, manages the flow of data between tasks, and allows tracking and notification of task progress, with support for real-time modification. We describe the system and demonstrate its utility through case studies and user feedback.

© All rights reserved Kittur et al. and/or ACM Press

2011
 
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Farzan, Rosta, Dabbish, Laura A., Kraut, Robert E. and Postmes, Tom (2011): Increasing commitment to online communities by designing for social presence. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW11 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2011. pp. 321-330.

The existence and survival of online communities depends upon the commitment and retention of their members. This paper compares alternative ways of designing online sites to increase member commitment. We report the results of two experiments conducted within a Facebook game application. The results show that designs can increase commitment and retention of players either by visually highlighting individual members, or by emphasizing the community as a whole. These designs influence commitment through different routes.

© All rights reserved Farzan et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Burke, Moira, Kraut, Robert E. and Marlow, Cameron (2011): Social capital on Facebook: differentiating uses and users. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 571-580.

Though social network site use is often treated as a monolithic activity, in which all time is equally social and its impact the same for all users, we examine how Facebook affects social capital depending upon: (1) types of site activities, contrasting one-on-one communication, broadcasts to wider audiences, and passive consumption of social news, and (2) individual differences among users, including social communication skill and self-esteem. Longitudinal surveys matched to server logs from 415 Facebook users reveal that receiving messages from friends is associated with increases in bridging social capital, but that other uses are not. However, using the site to passively consume news assists those with lower social fluency draw value from their connections. The results inform site designers seeking to increase social connectedness and the value of those connections.

© All rights reserved Burke et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Zhu, Haiyi, Kraut, Robert E., Wang, Yi-Chia and Kittur, Aniket (2011): Identifying shared leadership in Wikipedia. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 3431-3434.

In this paper, we introduce a method to measure shared leadership in Wikipedia as a step in developing a new model of online leadership. We show that editors with varying degrees of engagement and from peripheral as well as central roles all act like leaders, but that core and peripheral editors show different profiles of leadership behavior. Specifically, we developed machine learning models to automatically identify four types of leadership behaviors from 4 million messages sent between Wikipedia editors. We found strong evidence of shared leadership in Wikipedia, with editors in peripheral roles producing a large proportion of leadership behaviors.

© All rights reserved Zhu et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Hsieh, Gary, Hudson, Scott E. and Kraut, Robert E. (2011): Donate for credibility: how contribution incentives can improve credibility. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 3435-3438.

This study explores whether certain contribution incentives for online user-generated content can undermine or enhance contributor's credibility. In an online experiment, we found that contributors who are rewarded with donations made in their names are perceived to be more credible than contributors who are financially compensated through revenue-sharing or contribute voluntarily. In addition, disclosing the chosen charity for donation can also impact credibility. Content viewer's self-identification with charity and the congruency between charity and content topic are both factors that may enhance credibility. Our findings lead to practical implications on when and how to use contribution incentives to enhance credibility.

© All rights reserved Hsieh et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Wainer, Jaclyn, Dabbish, Laura and Kraut, Robert E. (2011): Should I open this email?: inbox-level cues, curiosity and attention to email. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 3439-3448.

The quantity of email people receive each day can be overwhelming. Previous research suggests that when handling email, individuals prioritize certain messages for attention over others. Since people generally make this decision about which message to read before opening the email, the question largely unanswered in the email literature is: what surface features of an email draw attention to it? In this research, we examined how top-level cues about an email's content influence attention to email. We describe results from a think-aloud study examining people's stated rationale for prioritizing certain emails over others. Based on these results and theory on curiosity, we conducted an experiment examining how message importance, subject line specificity, workload and personal utility influence attention to email. Results suggest that uncertainty about message content at the inbox level increases the likelihood of attention to a message. The influence of uncertainty diminishes, however, in the face of enhanced task and personal utility cues and increased demand, suggesting that curiosity operates in an intrinsic way in the email context. Our results have implications for intelligent email system design, email client interfaces, and reducing email strain.

© All rights reserved Wainer et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Kittur, Aniket, Smus, Boris and Kraut, Robert E. (2011): CrowdForge: crowdsourcing complex work. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 1801-1806.

Micro-task markets such as Amazon's Mechanical Turk represent a new paradigm for accomplishing work, in which employers can tap into a large population of workers around the globe to accomplish tasks in a fraction of the time and money of more traditional methods. However, such markets typically support only simple, independent tasks, such as labeling an image or judging the relevance of a search result. Here we present a general purpose framework for micro-task markets that provides a scaffolding for more complex human computation tasks which require coordination among many individuals, such as writing an article.

© All rights reserved Kittur et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Kittur, Aniket, Smus, Boris, Khamkar, Susheel and Kraut, Robert E. (2011): CrowdForge: crowdsourcing complex work. In: Proceedings of the 2011 ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology 2011. pp. 43-52.

Micro-task markets such as Amazon's Mechanical Turk represent a new paradigm for accomplishing work, in which employers can tap into a large population of workers around the globe to accomplish tasks in a fraction of the time and money of more traditional methods. However, such markets have been primarily used for simple, independent tasks, such as labeling an image or judging the relevance of a search result. Here we present a general purpose framework for accomplishing complex and interdependent tasks using micro-task markets. We describe our framework, a web-based prototype, and case studies on article writing, decision making, and science journalism that demonstrate the benefits and limitations of the approach.

© All rights reserved Kittur et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Pal, Aditya, Farzan, Rosta, Konstan, Joseph A. and Kraut, Robert E. (2011): Early Detection of Potential Experts in Question Answering Communities. In: Proceedings of the 2011 Conference on User Modeling, Adaptation and Personalization 2011. pp. 231-242.

Question answering communities (QA) are sustained by a handful of experts who provide a large number of high quality answers. Identifying these experts during the first few weeks of their joining the community can be beneficial as it would allow community managers to take steps to develop and retain these potential experts. In this paper, we explore approaches to identify potential experts as early as within the first two weeks of their association with the QA. We look at users' behavior and estimate their motivation and ability to help others. These qualities enable us to build classification and ranking models to identify users who are likely to become experts in the future. Our results indicate that the current experts can be effectively identified from their early behavior. We asked community managers to evaluate the potential experts identified by our algorithm and their analysis revealed that quite a few of these users were already experts or on the path of becoming experts. Our retrospective analysis shows that some of these potential experts had already left the community, highlighting the value of early identification and engagement.

© All rights reserved Pal et al. and/or their publisher

2010
 
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Hsieh, Gary, Kraut, Robert E. and Hudson, Scott E. (2010): Why pay?: exploring how financial incentives are used for question & answer. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2010. pp. 305-314.

Electronic commerce has enabled a number of online pay-for-answer services. However, despite commercial interest, we still lack a comprehensive understanding of how financial incentives support question asking and answering. Using 800 questions randomly selected from a pay-for-answer site, along with site usage statistics, we examined what factors impact askers' decisions to pay. We also explored how financial rewards affect answers, and if question pricing can help organize Q&A exchanges for archival purposes. We found that askers' decisions are two-part -- whether or not to pay and how much to pay. Askers are more likely to pay when requesting facts and will pay more when questions are more difficult. On the answer side, our results support prior findings that paying more may elicit a higher number of answers and answers that are longer, but may not elicit higher quality answers (as rated by the askers). Finally, we present evidence that questions with higher rewards have higher archival value, which suggests that pricing can be used to support archival use.

© All rights reserved Hsieh et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Choi, Boreum, Alexander, Kira, Kraut, Robert E. and Levine, John M. (2010): Socialization tactics in wikipedia and their effects. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW10 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2010. pp. 107-116.

Socialization of newcomers is critical both for conventional groups. It helps groups perform effectively and the newcomers develop commitment. However, little empirical research has investigated the impact of specific socialization tactics on newcomers' commitment to online groups. We examined WikiProjects, subgroups in Wikipedia organized around working on common topics or tasks. In study 1, we identified the seven socialization tactics used most frequently: invitations to join, welcome messages, requests to work on project-related tasks, offers of assistance, positive feedback on a new member's work, constructive criticism, and personal-related comments. In study 2, we examined their impact on newcomers' commitment to the project. Whereas most newcomers contributed fewer edits over time, the declines were slowed or reversed for those socialized with welcome messages, assistance, and constructive criticism. In contrast, invitations led to steeper declines in edits. These results suggest that different socialization tactics play different roles in socializing new members in online groups compared to offline ones.

© All rights reserved Choi et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Kittur, Aniket and Kraut, Robert E. (2010): Beyond Wikipedia: coordination and conflict in online production groups. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW10 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2010. pp. 215-224.

Online production groups have the potential to transform the way that knowledge is produced and disseminated. One of the most widely used forms of online production is the wiki, which has been used in domains ranging from science to education to enterprise. We examined the development of and interactions between coordination and conflict in a sample of 6811 wiki production groups. We investigated the influence of four coordination mechanisms: intra-article communication, inter-user communication, concentration of workgroup structure, and policy and procedures. We also examined the growth of conflict, finding the density of users in an information space to be a significant predictor. Finally, we analyzed the effectiveness of the four coordination mechanisms on managing conflict, finding differences in how each scaled to large numbers of contributors. Our results suggest that coordination mechanisms effective for managing conflict are not always the same as those effective for managing task quality, and that designers must take into account the social benefits of coordination mechanisms in addition to their production benefits.

© All rights reserved Kittur and Kraut and/or their publisher

 
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Burke, Moira, Kraut, Robert E. and Williams, Diane (2010): Social use of computer-mediated communication by adults on the autism spectrum. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW10 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2010. pp. 425-434.

The defining characteristics of autism, including difficulty with nonverbal cues and need for structure, and the defining characteristics of computer-mediated communication (CMC), including reduction of extraneous cues and structured exchange, suggest the two would be an ideal match. Interviews and observations of 16 adults on the high-functioning end of the autism spectrum reveal that many seek greater social connectedness and take advantage of interest-based online communities to foster successful, supportive relationships. However, CMC intensifies problems of trust, disclosure, inflexible thinking, and perspective-taking, making it difficult for some to maintain relationships. Interventions in the form of information visualization and CMC-specific social skills training are presented. Intervention considerations and participatory design opportunities are discussed.

© All rights reserved Burke et al. and/or their publisher

2009
 
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Kittur, Aniket, Lee, Bryant and Kraut, Robert E. (2009): Coordination in collective intelligence: the role of team structure and task interdependence. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2009. pp. 1495-1504.

The success of Wikipedia has demonstrated the power of peer production in knowledge building. However, unlike many other examples of collective intelligence, tasks in Wikipedia can be deeply interdependent and may incur high coordination costs among editors. Increasing the number of editors increases the resources available to the system, but it also raises the costs of coordination. This suggests that the dependencies of tasks in Wikipedia may determine whether they benefit from increasing the number of editors involved. Specifically, we hypothesize that adding editors may benefit low-coordination tasks but have negative consequences for tasks requiring a high degree of coordination. Furthermore, concentrating the work to reduce coordination dependencies should enable more efficient work by many editors. Analyses of both article ratings and article review comments provide support for both hypotheses. These results suggest ways to better harness the efforts of many editors in social collaborative systems involving high coordination tasks.

© All rights reserved Kittur et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Lee, Min Kyung, Dillahunt, Tawanna, Pendleton, Bryan, Kraut, Robert E. and Kiesler, Sara (2009): Tailoring websites to increase contributions to online communities. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2009. pp. 4003-4008.

Many online communities experience insufficient contributions from their members. In order to encourage contributions to the community, we examined a website tailoring approach to fit a community's website interface with the motivations of the community. In particular, we used the characteristics of other websites as a method of gauging user motivation. We built two different websites with financial and altruistic themes, and conducted an online experiment with 122 users to test the impact of both segmenting and tailoring on contributions to a recycling community. Preliminary results show that both tailoring and segmenting techniques were effective with altruistic users.

© All rights reserved Lee et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Sutcliffe, Alistair G., Gonzalez, Victor M. and Kraut, Robert E. (2009): Social mediating technologies: developing the research agenda. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2009. pp. 4775-4778.

Social Mediating Technologies (SMTs) range from e-mail to social networking sites and community websites. The popularity of these technologies is increasing rapidly, yet we have little understanding about how and why people find these technologies so appealing. The research challenge is to try to understand the causal drivers for usage of social technologies, and theory-based understanding of how the affordances of such technologies meet with people's cognitive and social needs. This workshop will provide a forum for researchers to synthesise current knowledge on SMTs and map out future research directions.

© All rights reserved Sutcliffe et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Kittur, Aniket, Pendleton, Bryan and Kraut, Robert E. (2009): Herding the cats: the influence of groups in coordinating peer production. In: Proceedings of the 2009 International Symposium on Wikis 2009. p. 7.

Peer production systems rely on users to self-select appropriate tasks and "scratch their personal itch". However, many such systems require significant maintenance work, which also implies the need for collective action, that is, individuals following goals set by the group and performing good citizenship behaviors. How can this paradox be resolved? Here we examine one potential answer: the influence of social identification with the larger group on contributors' behavior. We examine Wikipedia, a highly successful peer production system, and find a significant and growing influence of group structure, with a prevalent example being the WikiProject. Comparison of editors who join projects with those who do not and comparisons of the joiners' behavior before and after they join a project suggest their identification with the group plays an important role in directing them towards group goals and good citizenship behaviors. Upon joining, Wikipedians are more likely to work on project-related content, to shift their contributions towards coordination rather than production work, and to perform maintenance work such as reverting vandalism. These results suggest that group influence can play an important role in maintaining the health of online communities, even when such communities are putatively self-directed peer production systems.

© All rights reserved Kittur et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Halfaker, Aaron, Kittur, Aniket, Kraut, Robert E. and Riedl, John (2009): A jury of your peers: quality, experience and ownership in Wikipedia. In: Proceedings of the 2009 International Symposium on Wikis 2009. p. 15.

Wikipedia is a highly successful example of what mass collaboration in an informal peer review system can accomplish. In this paper, we examine the role that the quality of the contributions, the experience of the contributors and the ownership of the content play in the decisions over which contributions become part of Wikipedia and which ones are rejected by the community. We introduce and justify a versatile metric for automatically measuring the quality of a contribution. We find little evidence that experience helps contributors avoid rejection. In fact, as they gain experience, contributors are even more likely to have their work rejected. We also find strong evidence of ownership behaviors in practice despite the fact that ownership of content is discouraged within Wikipedia.

© All rights reserved Halfaker et al. and/or their publisher

2008
 
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Hsieh, Gary, Lai, Jennifer, Hudson, Scott E. and Kraut, Robert E. (2008): Using tags to assist near-synchronous communication. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2008 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 5-10, 2008. pp. 223-226.

In this work, we introduce the use of tags to support the near synchronous use of instant messaging. As a proof-of-concept, we developed a plug-in in Lotus Sametime, an enterprise IM client. Our plug-in supports tasks that do not need immediate attention and tasks that have deadlines. A trial deployment and survey shows that users can see the potential usefulness of such a tagging system in their IM communication. Furthermore, users rated our design intuitive and easy to use. Longer study is needed to explore communication norms that results from its use.

© All rights reserved Hsieh et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Shklovski, Irina, Kraut, Robert E. and Cummings, Jonathon (2008): Keeping in touch by technology: maintaining friendships after a residential move. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2008 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 5-10, 2008. pp. 807-816.

Many observers have praised new communication technologies for providing convenient and affordable tools for maintaining relationships at a distance. Yet the precise role of mediated communication in relationship maintenance has been difficult to isolate. In this paper, we treat residential moves as natural experiments that threaten existing social relationships and often force people to rely on mediated communication to maintain their old relationships. Results from a 3-wave survey of 900 residential movers describing 1892 relationships shows that email and the telephone play different roles in social relationships. Email helps maintain social relationships, in the sense that relationships decline when email drops after the move. However increases in email are not associated with increases in the depth of the relationship or exchanges of support. In contrast, phone calls help movers grow relationships and exchange social support.

© All rights reserved Shklovski et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Burke, Moira and Kraut, Robert E. (2008): Mind your P's and Q's: when politeness helps and hurts in online communities. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2008 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 5-10, 2008. pp. 3195-3200.

Little is known about the impact of politeness in online communities. This project combines deductive and inductive approaches to automatically model linguistic politeness in online discussion groups and determine the impact of politeness on desired outcomes, such as getting people to reply to one another. We find that politeness triples reply rates in some technical groups, but rudeness is more effective in others. The model can be applied as a "politeness checker" to encourage people to write in ways likely to garner a response from specific communities.

© All rights reserved Burke and Kraut and/or ACM Press

 
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Burke, Moira and Kraut, Robert E. (2008): Taking up the mop: identifying future Wikipedia administrators. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2008 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 5-10, 2008. pp. 3441-3446.

As Wikipedia grows, so do the messy byproducts of collaboration. Backlogs of administrative work are increasing, suggesting the need for more users with privileged admin status. This paper presents a model of editors who have successfully passed the peer review process to become admins. The lightweight model is based on behavioral metadata and comments, and does not require any page text. It demonstrates that the Wikipedia community has shifted in the last two years to prioritizing policymaking and organization experience over simple article-level coordination, and mere edit count does not lead to adminship. The model can be applied as an "AdminFinderBot" to automatically search all editors' histories and pick out likely future admins, as a self-evaluation tool, or as a dashboard of relevant statistics for voters evaluating admin candidates.

© All rights reserved Burke and Kraut and/or ACM Press

 
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Burke, Moira and Kraut, Robert E. (2008): Mopping up: modeling wikipedia promotion decisions. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW08 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2008. pp. 27-36.

This paper presents a model of the behavior of candidates for promotion to administrator status in Wikipedia. It uses a policy capture framework to highlight similarities and differences in the community's stated criteria for promotion decisions to those criteria actually correlated with promotion success. As promotions are determined by the consensus of dozens of voters with conflicting opinions and unwritten expectations, the results highlight the degree to which consensus is truly reached. The model is fast and easily computable on the fly, and thus could be applied as a self-evaluation tool for editors considering becoming administrators, as a dashboard for voters to view a nominee's relevant statistics, or as a tool to automatically search for likely future administrators. Implications for distributed consensus-building in online communities are discussed.

© All rights reserved Burke and Kraut and/or ACM Press

 
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Kittur, Aniket and Kraut, Robert E. (2008): Harnessing the wisdom of crowds in wikipedia: quality through coordination. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW08 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2008. pp. 37-46.

Wikipedia's success is often attributed to the large numbers of contributors who improve the accuracy, completeness and clarity of articles while reducing bias. However, because of the coordination needed to write an article collaboratively, adding contributors is costly. We examined how the number of editors in Wikipedia and the coordination methods they use affect article quality. We distinguish between explicit coordination, in which editors plan the article through communication, and implicit coordination, in which a subset of editors structure the work by doing the majority of it. Adding more editors to an article improved article quality only when they used appropriate coordination techniques and was harmful when they did not. Implicit coordination through concentrating the work was more helpful when many editors contributed, but explicit coordination through communication was not. Both types of coordination improved quality more when an article was in a formative stage. These results demonstrate the critical importance of coordination in effectively harnessing the "wisdom of the crowd" in online production environments.

© All rights reserved Kittur and Kraut and/or ACM Press

 Cited in the following chapters:

Social Computing: [/encyclopedia/social_computing.html]

Contribute to the encyclopedia: [/encyclopedia/contribute.html]


 
 
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Burke, Moira and Kraut, Robert E. (2008): Mind your Ps and Qs: the impact of politeness and rudeness in online communities. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW08 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2008. pp. 281-284.

Little is known about the impact of politeness in online communities. We use an inductive approach to automatically model linguistic politeness in online discussion groups and determine the impact of politeness on desired outcomes, such as increased reply rates. We describe differences in perceived politeness across a variety of groups and find that, controlling for group norms of responsiveness and message length, politeness increases reply rates in some technical groups, but rudeness is more effective in some political groups. The perceived politeness scores will be used to validate linguistic politeness strategies from theory and to inform the creation of a machine learning model of linguistic politeness that can be applied as a "politeness checker" to educate newcomers to write in ways likely to elicit response from specific communities or as a rudeness detection tool for moderators.

© All rights reserved Burke and Kraut and/or ACM Press

 
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Hsieh, Gary, Kraut, Robert E., Hudson, Scott E. and Weber, Roberto (2008): Can markets help?: applying market mechanisms to improve synchronous communication. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW08 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2008. pp. 535-544.

There is a growing interest in applying market mechanisms to tackle everyday communication problems such as communication interruptions and communication overload. Prior analytic proofs have shown that a signaling and screening mechanism can make senders and recipients of messages better off. However, these proofs make certain assumptions that do not hold in real world environments. For example, these prior works assume that there are no transaction costs in a communication market and that monetary incentives are the only motivators in communication between strangers. This research builds upon prior analytic work and empirically tests the validity of the claim that signaling and screening mechanisms will improve communication welfare. Our results show that while these types of markets can indeed improve communication welfare, a simpler, less expressive fixed-price market can lead to higher welfare than a more expressive, variable pricing and screening mechanism. Findings from this study also provide valuable insights for technology designs. For example, these results suggest the need to reduce cognitive overhead in using communication markets.

© All rights reserved Hsieh et al. and/or ACM Press

2007
 
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Seay, A. Fleming and Kraut, Robert E. (2007): Project massive: self-regulation and problematic use of online gaming. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2007 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2007. pp. 829-838.

A longitudinal design was employed to collect three waves of survey data over a 14 month period from 2790 online gamers. Respondents were asked questions about their gaming activity, motivations, personality, social and emotional environment, and the effect gaming has had on their lives. Prospective analysis was used to establish causal and temporal linkages among the repeatedly measured factors. While the data provide some indication that a player's reasons for playing do influence the development of problematic usage, these effects are overshadowed by the central importance of self-regulation in managing both the timing and amount of play. An individual's level of self-regulatory activity is shown to be very important in allowing them to avoid negative outcomes like problematic use. The role of depression is also discussed. With responsible use, online gaming appears to be a healthy recreational activity that provides millions of people with hours of social entertainment and adaptive diversion. However, failure to manage play behavior can lead to feelings of dependency.

© All rights reserved Seay and Kraut and/or ACM Press

 
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Weisz, Justin D., Kiesler, Sara, Zhang, Hui, Ren, Yuqing, Kraut, Robert E. and Konstan, Joseph A. (2007): Watching together: integrating text chat with video. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2007 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2007. pp. 877-886.

Watching video online is becoming increasingly popular, and new video streaming technologies have the potential to transform video watching from a passive, isolating experience into an active, socially engaging experience. However, the viability of an active social experience is unclear: both chatting and watching video require attention, and may interfere with one another and detract from the experience. In this paper, we empirically examine the activity of chatting while watching video online. We examine how groups of friends and strangers interact, and find that chat has a positive influence on social relationships, and people chat despite being distracted. We discuss the benefits and opportunities provided by mixing chat and video, uncover some of the attentional and social challenges inherent in this combination of media, and provide guidance for structuring the viewing experience.

© All rights reserved Weisz et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Gergle, Darren, Rosé, Carolyn P. and Kraut, Robert E. (2007): Modeling the impact of shared visual information on collaborative reference. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2007 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2007. pp. 1543-1552.

A number of recent studies have demonstrated that groups benefit considerably from access to shared visual information. This is due, in part, to the communicative efficiencies provided by the shared visual context. However, a large gap exists between our current theoretical understanding and our existing models. We address this gap by developing a computational model that integrates linguistic cues with visual cues in a way that effectively models reference during tightly-coupled, task-oriented interactions. The results demonstrate that an integrated model significantly outperforms existing language-only and visual-only models. The findings can be used to inform and augment the development of conversational agents, applications that dynamically track discourse and collaborative interactions, and dialogue managers for natural language interfaces.

© All rights reserved Gergle et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Harper, F. Maxwell, Frankowski, Dan, Drenner, Sara, Ren, Yuqing, Kiesler, Sara, Terveen, Loren, Kraut, Robert E. and Riedl, John (2007): Talk amongst yourselves: inviting users to participate in online conversations. In: Proceedings of the 2007 International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces 2007. pp. 62-71.

Many small online communities would benefit from increased diversity or activity in their membership. Some communities run the risk of dying out due to lack of participation. Others struggle to achieve the critical mass necessary for diverse and engaging conversation. But what tools are available to these communities to increase participation? Our goal in this research was to spark contributions to the movielens.org discussion forum, where only 2% of the members write posts. We developed personalized invitations, messages designed to entice users to visit or contribute to the forum. In two field experiments, we ask (1) if personalized invitations increase activity in a discussion forum, (2) how the choice of algorithm for intelligently choosing content to emphasize in the invitation affects participation, and (3) how the suggestion made to the user affects their willingness to act. We find that invitations lead to increased participation, as measured by levels of reading and posting. More surprisingly, we find that invitations emphasizing the social nature of the discussion forum increase user activity, while invitations emphasizing other details of the discussion are less successful.

© All rights reserved Harper et al. and/or ACM Press

2006
 
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Rashid, Al Mamunur, Ling, Kimberly, Tassone, Regina D., Resnick, Paul, Kraut, Robert E. and Riedl, John (2006): Motivating participation by displaying the value of contribution. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2006 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2006. pp. 955-958.

One of the important challenges faced by designers of online communities is eliciting sufficient contributions from community members. Users in online communities may have difficulty either in finding opportunities to add value, or in understanding the value of their contributions to the community. Various social science theories suggest that showing users different perspectives on the value they add to the community will lead to differing amounts of contribution. The present study investigates a design augmentation for an existing community Web site that could benefit from additional contribution. The augmented interface includes individualized opportunities for contribution and an estimate of the value of each contribution to the community. The value is computed in one of four different ways: (1) value to self; (2) value to a small group the user has affinity with; (3) value to a small group the user does not have affinity with; and (4) value to the entire user community. The study compares the effectiveness of the different notions of value to 160 community members.

© All rights reserved Rashid et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Arguello, Jaime, Butler, Brian S., Joyce, Lisa, Kraut, Robert E., Ling, Kimberly S. and Wang, Xiaoqing (2006): Talk to me: foundations for successful individual-group interactions in online communities. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2006 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2006. pp. 959-968.

People come to online communities seeking information, encouragement, and conversation. When a community responds, participants benefit and become more committed. Yet interactions often fail. In a longitudinal sample of 6,172 messages from 8 Usenet newsgroups, 27% of posts received no response. The information context, posters' prior engagement in the community, and the content of their posts all influenced the likelihood that they received a reply, and, as a result, their willingness to continue active participation. Posters were less likely to get a reply if they were newcomers. Posting ontopic, introducing oneself via autobiographical testimonials, asking questions, using less complex language and other features of the messages, increased replies. Results suggest ways that developers might increase the ability of online communities to support successful individual-group interactions.

© All rights reserved Arguello et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Shklovski, Irina, Kraut, Robert E. and Cummings, Jonathon (2006): Routine patterns of internet use & psychological well-being: coping with a residential move. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2006 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2006. pp. 969-978.

In this paper we examine how routine uses of the Internet for communication with family and friends and for entertainment may serve as indicators of overall levels of psychological well-being. Changes in psychological well-being in response to a major life event, such as a residential move, can drive changes in routine uses of the Internet, suggesting Internet-based coping strategies. Specifically, women who report high levels of depressive affect, decrease internet use for communication. Men with similar levels of depressive affect increase internet use for entertainment. We discuss implications of these findings for our understanding of the role of the Internet in everyday behavior and instances of coping with stressful situations.

© All rights reserved Shklovski et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Gergle, Darren, Kraut, Robert E. and Fussell, Susan R. (2006): The impact of delayed visual feedback on collaborative performance. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2006 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2006. pp. 1303-1312.

When pairs work together on a physical task, seeing a common workspace benefits their performance and transforms their use of language. Previous results have demonstrated that visual information helps collaborative pairs to understand the current state of their task, ground their conversations, and communicate efficiently. However, collaborative technologies often impinge on the visual information needed to support successful collaboration. One example of this is the introduction of delayed visual feedback in a collaborative environment. We present results from two studies that detail the form of the function that describes the relationship between visual delay and collaborative task performance. The first study precisely demonstrates how a range of visual delays differentially impact performance and the collaborative strategies employed. The second study describes how parameters of the task, such as the dynamics of the visual environment, reduce the amount of delay that can be tolerated.

© All rights reserved Gergle et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Dabbish, Laura and Kraut, Robert E. (2006): Email overload at work: an analysis of factors associated with email strain. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW06 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2006. pp. 431-440.

Almost every office worker can relate to feelings of email overload and stress, but in reality the concept of email strain is not well understood. In this paper, we describe a large-scale nationwide organizational survey examining the relationship between email use and feelings of email overload and task coordination. We found that higher email volume was associated with increased feelings of email overload, but this relationship was moderated by certain email management strategies. The contribution to the field of CSCW is a better understanding of the concept of email related stress, and initial scale development for the assessment of email-related overload and perceptions of the work-importance of email.

© All rights reserved Dabbish and Kraut and/or ACM Press

 
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Ankolekar, Anupriya, Sycara, Katia, Herbsleb, James, Kraut, Robert E. and Welty, Chris (2006): Supporting online problem-solving communities with the semantic web. In: Proceedings of the 2006 International Conference on the World Wide Web 2006. pp. 575-584.

The Web plays a critical role in hosting Web communities, their content and interactions. A prime example is the open source software (OSS) community, whose members, including software developers and users, interact almost exclusively over the Web, constantly generating, sharing and refining content in the form of software code through active interaction over the Web on code design and bug resolution processes. The Semantic Web is an envisaged extension of the current Web, in which content is given a well-defined meaning, through the specification of metadata and ontologies, increasing the utility of the content and enabling information from heterogeneous sources to be integrated. We developed a prototype Semantic Web system for OSS communities, Dhruv. Dhruv provides an enhanced semantic interface to bug resolution messages and recommends related software objects and artifacts. Dhruv uses an integrated model of the OpenACS community, the software, and the Web interactions, which is semi-automatically populated from the existing artifacts of the community.

© All rights reserved Ankolekar et al. and/or ACM Press

2005
 
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Dabbish, Laura, Kraut, Robert E., Fussell, Susan R. and Kiesler, Sara (2005): Understanding email use: predicting action on a message. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 691-700.

Email consumes significant time and attention in the workplace. We conducted an organizational survey to understand how and why people attend to incoming email messages. We examined people's ratings of message importance and the actions they took on specific email messages, based on message characteristics and characteristics of receivers and senders. Respondents kept half of their new messages in the inbox and replied to about a third of them. They rated messages as important if they were about work and required action. Importance, in turn, had a modest impact on whether people replied to their incoming messages and whether they saved them. The results indicate that factors other than message importance (e.g., their social nature) also determine how people handle email. Overall, email usage reflects attentional differences due both to personal propensities and to work demands and relationships.

© All rights reserved Dabbish et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Kraut, Robert E., Sunder, Shyam, Telang, Rahul and Morris, James (2005): Pricing Electronic Mail to Solve the Problem of Spam. In Human-Computer Interaction, 20 (1) pp. 195-223.

Junk e-mail or spam is rapidly choking off e-mail as a reliable and efficient means of communication over the Internet. Although the demand for human attention increases rapidly with the volume of information and communication, the supply of attention hardly changes. Markets are a social institution for efficiently allocating supply and demand of scarce resources. Charging a price for sending messages may help discipline senders from demanding more attention than they are willing to pay for. Price may also credibly inform recipients about the value of a message to the sender before they read it. This article examines economic approaches to the problem of spam and the results of two laboratory experiments to explore the consequences of a pricing system for electronic mail. Charging postage for e-mail causes senders to be more selective and to send fewer messages. However, recipients did not interpret the postage paid by senders as a signal of the importance of the messages. These results suggest that markets for attention have the potential for addressing the problem of spam but their design needs further development and testing.

© All rights reserved Kraut et al. and/or Taylor and Francis

2004
 
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Gergle, Darren, Millen, David R., Kraut, Robert E. and Fussell, Susan R. (2004): Persistence matters: making the most of chat in tightly-coupled work. In: Dykstra-Erickson, Elizabeth and Tscheligi, Manfred (eds.) Proceedings of ACM CHI 2004 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 24-29, 2004, Vienna, Austria. pp. 431-438.

How much history of the dialogue should a chat client include? Some chat clients have minimized the dialogue history to deploy the space for other purposes. A theory of conversational coordination suggests that stripping away history raises the cost of conversational grounding, creating problems for both writers and readers. To test this proposition and inform design, we conducted an experiment in which one person instructed another on how to solve a simple puzzle. Participants had chat clients that showed either a single conversational turn or six of them. Having the dialogue history helped collaborators communicate efficiently and led to faster and better task performance. The dialogue history was most useful when the puzzles were more linguistically complex and when instructors could not see the work area. We present evidence of participants adapting their discourse to partially compensate for deficits in the communication media.

© All rights reserved Gergle et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Barley, Stephen R., Dutton, William H., Kiesler, Sara, Resnick, Paul, Kraut, Robert E. and Yates, JoAnne (2004): Does CSCW need organization theory?. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW04 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2004. pp. 122-124.

CSCW as a field has been driven primarily by researchers' desire to solve real world problems of groups and organizations, and to use new technology to solve these problems. The field has accumulated a set of empirically-based interdisciplinary studies and many interesting new applications. The question to be addressed in this panel is whether CSCW as a field is ready for theory--whether theory is needed to move the field along, or on the contrary, whether the problems and the technology are still too new or are changing too fast to accommodate theory. The panelists will describe some of the organization theories that could be applied to CSCW, and debate their usefulness, taking both sides of the question.

© All rights reserved Barley et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Dabbish, Laura and Kraut, Robert E. (2004): Controlling interruptions: awareness displays and social motivation for coordination. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW04 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2004. pp. 182-191.

Spontaneous communication is common in the workplace but can be disruptive. Such communication usually benefits the initiator more than the target of the disruption. Previous research has indicated that awareness displays showing the workload of a target can reduce the harm interruptions inflict, but can increase the cognitive load on interrupters. This paper describes an experiment testing whether team membership influences interrupters' motivation to use awareness displays and whether the informational-intensity of a display influences its utility and cost. Results indicate interrupters use awareness displays to time communication only when they and their partners are rewarded as a team and that this timing improves the target's performance on a continuous attention task. Eye-tracking data shows that monitoring an information-rich display imposes a substantial attentional cost on the interrupters, and that an abstract display provides similar benefit with less distraction.

© All rights reserved Dabbish and Kraut and/or ACM Press

 
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Beenen, Gerard, Ling, Kimberly, Wang, Xiaoqing, Chang, Klarissa, Frankowski, Dan, Resnick, Paul and Kraut, Robert E. (2004): Using social psychology to motivate contributions to online communities. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW04 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2004. pp. 212-221.

Under-contribution is a problem for many online communities. Social psychology theories of social loafing and goal-setting can provide mid-level design principles to address this problem. We tested the design principles in two field experiments. In one, members of an online movie recommender community were reminded of the uniqueness of their contributions and the benefits that follow from them. In the second, they were given a range of individual or group goals for contribution. As predicted by theory, individuals contributed when they were reminded of their uniqueness and when they were given specific and challenging goals, but other predictions were not borne out. The paper ends with suggestions and challenges for mining social science theories as well as implications for design.

© All rights reserved Beenen et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Gergle, Darren, Kraut, Robert E. and Fussell, Susan R. (2004): Action as language in a shared visual space. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW04 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2004. pp. 487-496.

A shared visual workspace allows multiple people to see similar views of objects and environments. Prior empirical literature demonstrates that visual information helps collaborators understand the current state of their task and enables them to communicate and ground their conversations efficiently. We present an empirical study that demonstrates how action replaces explicit verbal instruction in a shared visual workspace. Pairs performed a referential communication task with and without a shared visual space. A detailed sequential analysis of the communicative content reveals that pairs with a shared workspace were less likely to explicitly verify their actions with speech. Rather, they relied on visual information to provide the necessary communicative and coordinative cues.

© All rights reserved Gergle et al. and/or ACM Press

2003
 
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Kraut, Robert E. (2003): Applying Social Psychological Theory to the Problem of Group Work. In: Carroll, John M. (ed.). "HCI Models, Theories, and Frameworks". San Francisco: Morgan Kaufman Publisherspp. 325-353

 
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Fussell, Susan R., Setlock, Leslie D. and Kraut, Robert E. (2003): Effects of head-mounted and scene-oriented video systems on remote collaboration on physical tasks. In: Cockton, Gilbert and Korhonen, Panu (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2003 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 5-10, 2003, Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, USA. pp. 513-520.

 
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Kraut, Robert E., Fussell, Susan R. and Siegel, Jane (2003): Visual Information as a Conversational Resource in Collaborative Physical Tasks. In Human-Computer Interaction, 18 (1) pp. 13-49.

In this article we consider the ways in which visual information is used as a conversational resource in the accomplishment of collaborative physical tasks. We focus on the role of visual information in maintaining task awareness and in achieving mutual understanding in conversation. We first describe the theoretical framework we use to analyze the role of visual information in physical collaboration. Then, we present two experiments that vary the amount and quality of the visual information available to participants during a collaborative bicycle repair task. We examine the effects of this visual information on performance and on conversational strategies. We conclude with a general discussion of how situational awareness and conversational grounding are achieved in collaborative tasks and with some design considerations for systems to support remote collaborative repair.

© All rights reserved Kraut et al. and/or Taylor and Francis

 
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Kraut, Robert E. (2003): Applying social psychological theory to the problems of group work. In: Carroll, John M. (ed.). "HCI Models, Theories, and Frameworks: Toward a Multidisciplinary Science (Interactive Technologies)". Morgan Kaufmann

 Cited in the following chapter:

Computer Supported Cooperative Work: [/encyclopedia/cscw_computer_supported_cooperative_work.html]


 
2002
 
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Kraut, Robert E., Gergle, Darren and Fussell, Susan R. (2002): The use of visual information in shared visual spaces: informing the development of virtual co-presence. In: Churchill, Elizabeth F., McCarthy, Joe, Neuwirth, Christine and Rodden, Tom (eds.) Proceedings of the 2002 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work November 16 - 20, 2002, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. pp. 31-40.

A shared visual workspace is one where multiple people can see the same objects at roughly the same time. We present findings from an experiment investigating the effects of shared visual space on a collaborative puzzle task. We show that having the shared visual space helps collaborators understand the current state of their task and enables them to communicate and ground their conversations efficiently. These processes are associated with faster and better task performance. Delaying the visual update in the space reduces benefits and degrades performance. The shared visual space is more useful when tasks are visually complex or when actors have no simple vocabulary for describing their world. We find evidence for the ways in which participants adapt their discourse processes to their level of shared visual information.

© All rights reserved Kraut et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Kraut, Robert E., Morris, James H., Telang, Rahul, Filer, Darrin, Cronin, Matt and Sunder, Shyam (2002): Markets for attention: will postage for email help?. In: Churchill, Elizabeth F., McCarthy, Joe, Neuwirth, Christine and Rodden, Tom (eds.) Proceedings of the 2002 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work November 16 - 20, 2002, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. pp. 206-215.

Balancing the needs of information distributors and their audiences has grown harder in the age of the Internet. While the demand for attention continues to increase rapidly with the volume of information and communication, the supply of human attention is relatively fixed. Markets are a social institution for efficiently balancing supply and demand of scarce resources. Charging a price for sending messages may help discipline senders from demanding more attention than they are willing to pay for. Price may also help recipients estimate the value of a message before reading it. We report the results of two laboratory experiments to explore the consequences of a pricing system for electronic mail. Charging postage for email causes senders to be more selective and send fewer messages. However, recipients did not use the postage paid by senders as a signal of importance. These studies suggest markets for attention have potential, but their design needs more work.

© All rights reserved Kraut et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Cummings, Jonathon N. and Kraut, Robert E. (2002): Domesticating Computers and the Internet. In The Information Society, 18 (3) .

 
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Cummings, Jonathon N., Butler, Brian S. and Kraut, Robert E. (2002): The quality of online social relationships. In Communications of the ACM, 45 (7) pp. 103-108.

2001
 
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Monk, Andrew and Kraut, Robert E. (2001): Editorial: Home Use of Information and Communications Technology. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 54 (5) pp. 663-664.

 
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Christ, Mario, Krishnan, Ramayya, Nagin, Daniel, Kraut, Robert E. and Günther, Oliver (2001): Trajectories of Individual WWW Usage: Implications for Electronic Commerce. In: HICSS 2001 2001. .

2000
 
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Espinosa, Alberto, Cadiz, Jonathan J., Rico-Gutierrez, Luis, Kraut, Robert E., Scherlis, William and Lautenbacher, Glenn (2000): Coming to the Wrong Decision Quickly: Why Awareness Tools Must be Matched with Appropriate Tasks. In: Turner, Thea, Szwillus, Gerd, Czerwinski, Mary, Peterno, Fabio and Pemberton, Steven (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2000 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 1-6, 2000, The Hague, The Netherlands. pp. 392-399.

This paper presents an awareness tool designed to help distributed, asynchronous groups solve problems quickly. Using a lab study, it was found that groups that used the awareness tool tended to converge and agree upon a solution more quickly. However, it was also found that individuals who did not use the awareness tool got closer to the correct solution. Implications for the design of awareness tools are discussed, with particular attention paid to the importance of matching the features of an awareness tool with a workgroup's tasks and goals.

© All rights reserved Espinosa et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Fussell, Susan R., Kraut, Robert E. and Siegel, Jane (2000): Coordination of Communication: Effects of Shared Visual Context on Collaborative Work. In: Kellogg, Wendy A. and Whittaker, Steve (eds.) Proceedings of the 2000 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work 2000, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States. pp. 21-30.

We outline some of the benefits of shared visual information for collaborative repair tasks and report on a study comparing collaborative performance on a manual task by workers and helpers who are located side-by-side or connected via audio-video or audio-only links. Results show that the dyads complete the task more quickly and accurately when helpers are co-located than when they are connected via an audio link. However, they didn't achieve similar efficiency gains when they communicated through an audio/video link. These results demonstrate the value of a shared visual work space, but raise questions about the adequacy of current video communication technology for implementing it.

© All rights reserved Fussell et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Kiesler, Sara, Zdaniuk, Bozena, Lundmark, Vicki and Kraut, Robert E. (2000): Troubles With the Internet: The Dynamics of Help at Home. In Human-Computer Interaction, 15 (4) pp. 323-351.

Despite advances in technology, nearly everyone experiences technical challenges using home computers and the Internet. In a field trial of household Internet usage, 89% of 93 families needed support from a computer help desk in the 1st year they used the Internet. However, usually only the most technically involved members of the family requested external technical support, and this behavior was associated with other computer-related behaviors in the household. We explore the process by which a family member with comparatively high technical skill or enthusiasm, often a teenager, becomes the family guru, makes external support requests, and becomes the person in the family to whom others turn for technical help. The family guru benefits from this role, influences the household's adoption of technology, and represents an important link between households and computer support professionals. The role also is a fascinating example of the evolution of intergeneration relationships.

© All rights reserved Kiesler et al. and/or Taylor and Francis

 
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Steinfield, Charles W., Chan, Alice P. and Kraut, Robert E. (2000): Computer Mediated Markets: An Introduction and Preliminary Test of Market Structure Impacts. In J. Computer-Mediated Communication, 5 (3) .

1998
 
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Kraut, Robert E., Mukhopadhyay, Tridas, Szczypula, Janusz, Kiesler, Sara and Scherlis, William (1998): Communication and Information: Alternative Uses of the Internet in Households. In: Karat, Clare-Marie, Lund, Arnold, Coutaz, Joëlle and Karat, John (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 98 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 18-23, 1998, Los Angeles, California. pp. 368-375.

The Internet has been characterized as a superhighway to information and as a high-tech extension of the home telephone. How are people really using the Internet? The history of previous technologies that support interpersonal communication suggests that communication may be a more important use and determinant of participants' commitment to the Internet than is information acquisition and entertainment. Operationalizing interpersonal communication as the use of electronic mail and information acquisition and entertainment as the use of the World Wide Web, we analyzed longitudinal data from a field trial of 229 individuals in 110 households during their first year on the Internet. The results show that interpersonal communication is a stronger driver of Internet use than are information and entertainment applications.

© All rights reserved Kraut et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Fussell, Susan R., Kraut, Robert E., Lerch, F. Javier, Scherlis, William, McNally, Matthew M. and Cadiz, Jonathan J. (1998): Coordination, Overload and Team Performance: Effects of Team Communication Strategies. In: Poltrock, Steven and Grudin, Jonathan (eds.) Proceedings of the 1998 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work November 14 - 18, 1998, Seattle, Washington, United States. pp. 275-284.

The goal of this paper is to identify the communication tactics that allow management teams to successfully coordinate without becoming overloaded, and to see whether successful coordination and freedom from overload independently influence team performance. We found that how much teams communicated, what they communicated about, and the technologies they used to communicate predicted coordination and overload. Team coordination but not overload predicted team success.

© All rights reserved Fussell et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Kiesler, Sara, Kraut, Robert E., Donath, Judith S., Wellman, Barry and Rheingold, Howard (1998): An Internet Paradox: A Social Medium That May Undermine Sociability. In: Poltrock, Steven and Grudin, Jonathan (eds.) Proceedings of the 1998 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work November 14 - 18, 1998, Seattle, Washington, United States. pp. 403-404.

Is the current Internet leading people to have strong connections to others or is it working against this? New empirical results suggest that using the Internet leads to less social involvement, more loneliness, less communication within the family, and more depression. The panel will assess whether these results are believable, and if so whether new services on the Internet can be designed to support strong social ties. The second goal of the panel is to outline these good designs.

© All rights reserved Kiesler et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Kraut, Robert E., Steinfield, Charles, Chan, Alice P., Butler, Brian S. and Hoag, Anne (1998): Coordination and Virtualization: The Role of Electronic Networks and Personal Relationships. In J. Computer-Mediated Communication, 3 (4) .

 
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Kraut, Robert E., Kiesler, Sara B., Mukhopadhyay, Tridas, Scherlis, William L. and Patterson, Michael (1998): Social Impact of the Internet: What Does It Mean?. In Communications of the ACM, 41 (12) pp. 21-22.

1997
 
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Kiesler, Sara, Kraut, Robert E., Lundmark, Vicki, Scherlis, William and Mukhopadhyay, Tridas (1997): Usability, Help Desk Calls, and Residential Internet Usage. In: Pemberton, Steven (ed.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 97 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference March 22-27, 1997, Atlanta, Georgia. pp. 536-537.

For the average person, the Internet is still too hard to use. We report evidence from HomeNet, a field trial in Pittsburgh that tries to understand how people use the Internet. Despite our reducing technological and economic barriers to use, families had problems connecting and using the Internet. We show that help calls, however, are not a good indicator of usability, since it is the "enthusiasts" and people with instrumental tasks to accomplish who call.

© All rights reserved Kiesler et al. and/or ACM Press

1996
 
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Kraut, Robert E., Scherlis, William, Mukhopadhyay, Tridas, Manning, Jane and Kiesler, Sara (1996): HomeNet: A Field Trial of Residential Internet Services. In: Tauber, Michael J., Bellotti, Victoria, Jeffries, Robin, Mackinlay, Jock D. and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 96 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 14-18, 1996, Vancouver, Canada. pp. 284-291.

HomeNet is a field trial of residential Internet use with lowered barriers to use. We use multiple longitudinal data collection techniques, including server-side instrumentation. This paper is an initial description of how diverse families used the Internet in the first five months of the trial, and of variables that predicted this usage. The results have implications for design (e.g., provide more help for adults to get started), for marketing (e.g., lower income people have as much desire for on-line services as do upper income people), and for research (e.g., understand why teenagers' lead family computing).

© All rights reserved Kraut et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Kraut, Robert E., Miller, Mark D. and Siegel, Jane (1996): Collaboration in Performance of Physical Tasks: Effects on Outcomes and Communication. In: Olson, Gary M., Olson, Judith S. and Ackerman, Mark S. (eds.) Proceedings of the 1996 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work November 16 - 20, 1996, Boston, Massachusetts, United States. pp. 57-66.

We report an empirical study of people using mobile collaborative systems to support maintenance tasks on a bicycle. Results show that field workers make repairs more quickly and accurately when they have a remote expert helping them. Some pairs were connected by a shared video system, where the video camera focused on the active workspace and they communicated with full duplex audio. For other pairs, either the video was eliminated or the audio was reduced to half duplex (but not both). Pairs' success at collaboration did not vary with the communication technology. However, the manner in which they coordinated advice-giving did vary with the communication technology. In particular, help was more proactive and coordination was less explicit when the pairs had video connections. The results show the value of collaboration, but raise questions about the interaction of communication media and conversational coordination on task performance.

© All rights reserved Kraut et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Kraut, Robert E. (1996): The Internet @ Home (Introduction to the Special Section). In Communications of the ACM, 39 (12) pp. 33-35.

 
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Kraut, Robert E., Scherlis, William L., Mukhopadhyay, Tridas, Manning, Jane and Kiesler, Sara B. (1996): The HomeNet Field Trial of Residential Internet Services. In Communications of the ACM, 39 (12) pp. 55-63.

 
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Streeter, Lynn A., Kraut, Robert E., Jr., Henry C. Lucas and Caby, Laurence (1996): How Open Data Networks Influence Business Performance and Market Structure. In Communications of the ACM, 39 (7) pp. 62-73.

1995
 
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Steinfield, Charles, Kraut, Robert E. and Plummer, Alice (1995): The Impact Of Electronic Commerce On Buyer-Seller Relationships. In J. Computer-Mediated Communication, 1 (3) .

 
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Kraut, Robert E. and Streeter, Lynn A. (1995): Coordination in Software Development. In Communications of the ACM, 38 (3) pp. 69-81.

1994
 
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Kraut, Robert E., Cool, C., Rice, Ronald E. and Fish, Robert S. (1994): Life and Death of New Technology: Task, Utility and Social Influences on the Use of a Communication Medium. In: Proceedings of the 1994 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work October 22 - 26, 1994, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States. pp. 13-21.

This field experiment investigates individual, structural and social influences on the use of two video telephone systems. One system flourished, while an equivalent system died. We use a time series design and multiple data sources to test media richness theory, critical mass theory, and social influence theories about new media use. Results show that the fit between tasks and features of the communications medium influences use to a degree, but cannot explain why only one system survived. Critical mass -- the numbers of people one can reach on a system -- and social influence -- the norms that grow up around a new medium -- can explain this phenomenon.

© All rights reserved Kraut et al. and/or ACM Press

1993
 
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Fish, Robert S., Kraut, Robert E., Root, Robert W. and Rice, Ronald E. (1993): Video as a Technology for Informal Communication. In Communications of the ACM, 36 (1) pp. 48-61.

1992
 
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Fish, Robert S., Kraut, Robert E., Root, Robert W. and Rice, Ronald E. (1992): Evaluating Video as a Technology for Informal Communication. In: Bauersfeld, Penny, Bennett, John and Lynch, Gene (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 92 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference June 3-7, 1992, Monterey, California. pp. 37-48.

Collaborations in organizations thrive on communication that is informal because informal communication is frequent, interactive, and expressive. Informal communication is crucial for the coordination of work, learning an organization's culture, the perpetuation of the social relations that underlie collaboration, and, in general, any situation that requires communication to resolve ambiguity. Informal communication is traditionally mediated by physical proximity, but physical proximity cannot mediate in geographically distributed organizations. The research described here evaluates the adequacy of a version of a desktop video/audio conferencing system for supporting informal communication in a research and development laboratory. The evaluation took place during a trial in which the system was used by summer employees and their supervisor-mentors. While the system was used frequently, the most common uses and users' assessments suggest that it was used more like a telephone or electronic mail than like physically mediated face-to-face communication. However, some features of its use transcended traditional media and allowed users to gain awareness of their work environment. The paper concludes with a discussion of requirements for successful technology to support informal communication.

© All rights reserved Fish et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Cool, C., Fish, Robert S., Kraut, Robert E. and Lowery, C. M. (1992): Iterative Design of Video Communication Systems. In: Proceedings of the 1992 ACM conference on Computer-supported cooperative work November 01 - 04, 1992, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. pp. 25-32.

This paper reviews the design and implementation of several video telephony systems at Bellcore as a case study in iterative design. In contrast to single user computer applications, communication systems consists of both the interconnection technology and the people who are interconnected. From a user's point of view, the capabilities provided by the system, the rules for its use, and its reaction to their actions depend jointly on what its developers implemented and how other users behave. This fact has wide-ranging implications for system design, use, and evaluation. In reviewing our design experience, we identify four dilemmas for iterative design that flow from the inherently social nature of communication systems. We conclude with methodological and theoretical suggestions to supplement conventional iterative design principles as applied to communications systems.

© All rights reserved Cool et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Galegher, Jolene and Kraut, Robert E. (1992): Computer-Mediated Communication and Collaborative Writing: Media Influence and Adaptation to Communication Constraints. In: Proceedings of the 1992 ACM conference on Computer-supported cooperative work November 01 - 04, 1992, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. pp. 155-162.

According to contingency theory, tasks involving high levels of uncertainty and equivocality require a communication medium that permits interactive, expressive communication. The theory of adaptive structuration, however, takes a more dynamic view of the relationship between communication technology and communication behavior, recognizing the malleability of human behavior as well as the adaptability of technology. According to the structuration perspective, individuals can adapt their behavior to achieve their goals despite obstacles in the technological environment. To assess the relative validity of these formulations, we examined media choices and responses to communication constraints in a collaborative writing task. The results of this experiment indicate that contingency theory has some general validity in that the task/technology matches it defines do, indeed, occur spontaneously and do contribute to ease and efficiency in task performance. However, the results also draw attention to the human potential for behavioral adaptation, and imply a need for further research designed to identify likely patterns of adaptation in particular technological environments.

© All rights reserved Galegher and Kraut and/or ACM Press

 
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Olson, Gary M., Olson, Judith S. and Kraut, Robert E. (1992): Introduction to This Special Issue on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work. In Human-Computer Interaction, 7 (3) pp. 251-256.

 
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Kraut, Robert E., Galegher, Jolene, Fish, Robert S. and Chalfonte, Barbara L. (1992): Task Requirements and Media Choice in Collaborative Writing. In Human-Computer Interaction, 7 (4) pp. 375-407.

Modalities such as face-to-face meetings permit rich communication, which involves both expressiveness and interactivity. Modalities such as text annotation or electronic mail, however, limit both. Contingency theory, as applied to collaborative writing, says that as the equivocality of the writing task increases, communication modalities that support rich communication are more likely to be used. In addition, it says that if these modalities are used, equivocal tasks can be carried out with greater ease and better results. This article explores these hypotheses using multiple data sources: an interview study tracing the history of 55 published collaborative articles, two field experiments comparing the use of face-to-face communication and electronic mail as media for collaborative writing, and a laboratory experiment comparing voice and text as media for annotating documents. Taken together, the findings of these investigations are loosely consistent with a contingency theory of media use, but they suggest that careful measures of task characteristics are needed to obtain a detailed understanding of the effects of particular task/technology combinations. Further, they indicate that it may be important to consider the distinction between the interactivity and expressiveness components of media richness in making decisions about what technologies to buy or build.

© All rights reserved Kraut et al. and/or Taylor and Francis

1991
 
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Chalfonte, Barbara L., Fish, Robert S. and Kraut, Robert E. (1991): Expressive Richness: A Comparison of Speech and Text as Media for Revision. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 21-26.

Both theory and data suggest that richer, more informal, and more interactive media should be better suited for handling the more complex, equivocal, and emotional aspects of collaborative tasks. To test this hypothesis, we constructed an experiment in which participants were required to make either written or spoken annotations to a document to help a fictional co-author revise it. We seeded relatively error-free texts with errors of different scope. The results provide strong evidence that a richer -- in the sense of a more expressive -- medium is especially valuable for the more complex, controversial, and social aspects of a collaborative task. Subjects stated that they preferred to use voice to comment on higher-level issues in a document and to use text to deal with lower-level problems of spelling and grammar. When subjects' annotation modalities were restricted, using written annotations led them to comment on more local problems in the text, while using speech led them to comment on higher level concerns. When they did use written annotations to comment on global problems, they were less successful than when they used spoken annotations. Finally, when they offered spoken annotations, they were more likely to add features, such as personal pronouns and explanation, that made their comments more equivocal and socially communicative. These results indicate the uses to which systems that provide voice annotation are likely to be put.

© All rights reserved Chalfonte et al. and/or ACM Press

1990
 
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Fish, Robert S., Kraut, Robert E. and Chalfonte, Barbara L. (1990): The VideoWindow System in Informal Communications. In: Halasz, Frank (ed.) Proceedings of the 1990 ACM conference on Computer-supported cooperative work October 07 - 10, 1990, Los Angeles, California, United States. pp. 1-11.

 
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Galegher, Jolene and Kraut, Robert E. (1990): Computer-Mediated Communication for Intellectual Teamwork: A Field Experiment in Group Writing. In: Halasz, Frank (ed.) Proceedings of the 1990 ACM conference on Computer-supported cooperative work October 07 - 10, 1990, Los Angeles, California, United States. pp. 65-78.

 
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Landauer, Thomas K. and Kraut, Robert E. (1990): CHI in the Applied Research Divisions at Bellcore. In: Carrasco, Jane and Whiteside, John (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 90 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference 1990, Seattle, Washington,USA. pp. 285-286.

Bellcore has several active research programs relevant to human-computer interaction. This talk describes research conducted in the Cognitive Science and Interpersonal Communications Research Groups. We describe their research on information retrieval and on collaboration and pay particular attention to the styles of research employed in these groups and to the way in which behavioral investigations have guided technical invention.

© All rights reserved Landauer and Kraut and/or ACM Press

 
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Kraut, Robert E. and Streeter, Lynn A. (1990): Satisfying the Need to Know: Interpersonal Information Access. In: Diaper, Dan, Gilmore, David J., Cockton, Gilbert and Shackel, Brian (eds.) INTERACT 90 - 3rd IFIP International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction August 27-31, 1990, Cambridge, UK. pp. 909-915.

We examine the ability of traditional and computer-based communication technologies to spread organizational and task knowledge in large scale software development environments. It is our contention that the principal problems in software development are social and organizational, rather than cognitive. We review: (1) factors that make improving software development formidable, and (2) technological aids and project management methods that have been tried as possible "solutions," (3) a survey we are conducting on coordination techniques in large projects and conclude by (4) discussing candidate information/communication technologies to support coordination.

© All rights reserved Kraut and Streeter and/or North-Holland

 
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Kraut, Robert E. and Dumais, Susan (1990): Computerization and the Quality of Working Life: The Role of Control. In: Lochovsky, Frederick H. and Allen, Robert (eds.) Proceedings of the Conference on Office Information Systems 1990 April 25-27, 1990, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. pp. 56-68.

Does the degree of control people have over their work environments moderate the impact of computerization in organizations? This paper addresses this question with a quantitative case study and a national survey. Results of the case study show that clerical workers with more control over the day-to-day aspects of their jobs had better experiences with computing. However, the national sample provides no evidence to support the control hypothesis. In this study, women using computers had slightly worse jobs and more stress-related symptoms than those not using computers, and these negative associations with computerization weren't reduced if they had more control. It is likely that factors other than control had important impact on how computering technology was designed, deployed and used. Good design and good implementation, however they come about, may be more important that the users' control per se.

© All rights reserved Kraut and Dumais and/or ACM Press

 
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Galegher, Jolene, Kraut, Robert E. and Egido, Carmen (eds.) (1990): Intellectual Teamwork: Social and Technological Foundations of Cooperative Work. Hillsdale, NJ, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

1989
 
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Kraut, Robert E., Dumais, Susan and Koch, Susan (1989): Computerization, Productivity, and Quality of Work-Life. In Communications of the ACM, 32 (2) pp. 220-238.

1988
 
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Kraut, Robert E., Egido, Carmen and Galegher, Jolene (1988): Patterns of Contact and Communication in Scientific Research Collaboration. In: Greif, Irene (ed.) Proceedings of the 1988 ACM conference on Computer-supported cooperative work September 26 - 28, 1988, Portland, Oregon, United States. pp. 1-12.

In this paper, we describe the influence of physical proximity on the development of collaborative relationships between scientific researchers and on the execution of their work. Our evidence is drawn from our own studies of scientific collaborators, as well as from observations of research and development activities collected by other investigators. These descriptions provide the foundation for a discussion of the actual and potential role of communications technology in professional work, especially for collaborations carried out at a distance.

© All rights reserved Kraut et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Leland, Mary D. P., Fish, Robert S. and Kraut, Robert E. (1988): Collaborative Document Production Using Quilt. In: Greif, Irene (ed.) Proceedings of the 1988 ACM conference on Computer-supported cooperative work September 26 - 28, 1988, Portland, Oregon, United States. pp. 206-215.

Quilt is a computer-based tool for collaborative document production. It provides annotation, messaging, computer conferencing, and notification facilities to support communication and information sharing among the collaborators on a document. Views of a document tailored to individual collaborators or to other of the document's users are provided by Quilt based on the user's position in a permission hierarchy that reflects an extensible set of social roles and communication types. This paper illustrates how Quilt could be used by collaborators to produce a document.

© All rights reserved Leland et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Fish, Robert S., Kraut, Robert E. and Leland, Mary D. P. (1988): Quilt: A Collaborative Tool for Cooperative Writing. In: Allen, Robert (ed.) Proceedings of the Conference on Office Information Systems 1988 March 23-25, 1988, Palo Alto, California, USA. pp. 30-37.

Quilt is a computer-based tool for collaborative writing, which provides annotation, messaging, computer conferencing, and notification facilities to support communication and information sharing among the collaborators on a document. In addition, extensible sets of social roles and communication types are used to provide views of a document tailored to individual collaborators or to other users of the document based upon their position in a permission hierarchy. This paper describes the rationale for and design of Quilt.

© All rights reserved Fish et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Dumais, Susan, Kraut, Robert E. and Koch, Susan (1988): Computers' Impact on Productivity and Work Life. In: Allen, Robert (ed.) Proceedings of the Conference on Office Information Systems 1988 March 23-25, 1988, Palo Alto, California, USA. pp. 88-95.

Rapid spread of computer and telecommunication technologies throughout white-collar work has forced researchers to consider their impacts on the people who use them. The present study uses a multi-method, lagged, time-series design to examine the impact of a computerized record system on the work life of customer service representatives in a large utility company. Results show that the computer technology had mixed effects in terms of both productivity and quality of working life, and that these effects varied depending on local organizational culture, management quality, type of worker and their detailed work tasks. Furthermore, during the year in which the computer system was being introduced, the computer system itself, its methods of use, and the managerial goals that spawned it all evolved in response to workers and other factors. These results are used to illustrate the conceptual and methodological complexities involved in establishing the causal impact of computer technology, and to suggest alternate methods for thinking about and measuring technological impact.

© All rights reserved Dumais et al. and/or ACM Press

1987
 
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Kraut, Robert E., Galegher, Jolene and Egido, Carmen (1987): Relationships and Tasks in Scientific Research Collaboration. In Human-Computer Interaction, 3 (1) pp. 31-58.

What are the requirements on computer- and telecommunications-based tools to aid groups in producing intellectual products? In this article we examine research collaborations as a particularly informative example of group work and propose a framework for describing research collaboration that should provide guidance to those developing technology to support collaborative work. The framework is based on 50 semistructured interviews with researchers in psychology, management science, and computer science. It focuses on the problems in forming and maintaining personal relationships and completing tasks that researchers must solve to have a successful collaboration. These problems occur when collaborators are initiating projects, executing them, and documenting results.

© All rights reserved Kraut et al. and/or Taylor and Francis

1984
 
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Hanson, Stephen J., Kraut, Robert E. and Farber, James M. (1984): Interface Design and Multivariate Analysis of UNIX Command Use. In ACM Transactions on Information Systems, 2 (1) pp. 42-57.

To understand how people interact with powerful computer systems, we analyzed, using several multivariate statistical analyses, the commands people use and the errors they made when performing office work with the UNIX operating system. The frequency of use across commands was very uneven. User's most frequent commands were those that performed editing-like functions on text and other objects (e.g., UNIX directories), those that returned orienting information to users, and those that helped to control and sequence other commands. People made mistakes frequently, and made them most, when they needed information about the command and file context in which they were working, and when they had to plan long sequences of commands without feedback. From these analyses we make several recommendations for a human-computer interface.

© All rights reserved Hanson et al. and/or ACM Press

1983
 
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Kraut, Robert E., Hanson, Stephen J. and Farber, James M. (1983): Command Use and Interface Design. In: Smith, Raoul N., Pew, Richard W. and Janda, Ann (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 83 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conferenc December 12-15, 1983, Boston, Massachusetts, United States. pp. 120-124.

 
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Page Information

Page maintainer: The Editorial Team
URL: http://www.interaction-design.org/references/authors/robert_e__kraut.html

Publication statistics

Pub. period:1983-2012
Pub. count:98
Number of co-authors:126



Co-authors

Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Aniket Kittur:11
Sara Kiesler:10
Robert S. Fish:9

 

 

Productive colleagues

Robert E. Kraut's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Alistair G. Sutcli..:148
Scott E. Hudson:113
Susan Dumais:74
 
 
 

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