Publication statistics

Pub. period:1996-2012
Pub. count:42
Number of co-authors:75



Co-authors

Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Greg Little:9
David R. Karger:9
Brad A. Myers:7

 

 

Productive colleagues

Robert C. Miller's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Brad A. Myers:154
James A. Landay:91
Jacob O. Wobbrock:71
 
 
 
Jul 29

There is an old English folk saying that goes, "If you can't stand the heat, get out of the kitchen." I have a different approach: Do something about the heat. The folk saying would have us accept the poor designs of the world. Why? After all, if people were responsible for the "heat" in the first place, then people should be able to do something about it. Is the kitchen too hot? Redesign it.

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Robert C. Miller

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2012
 
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Kim, Juho, Malley, Benjamin, Brandt, Joel, Dontcheva, Mira, Joseph, Diana, Gajos, Krzysztof Z. and Miller, Robert C. (2012): Photoshop with friends: a synchronous learning community for graphic design. In: Companion Proceedings of ACM CSCW12 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2012. pp. 271-272.

Photoshop with Friends is an online community of learners exchanging just-in-time help on graphic design tasks. The system attempts to provide an interactive, visual, context-aware, and personalized mode of learning. Developed as a Facebook application, Photoshop with Friends allows users to help each other in live sessions, with built-in screen sharing, recording, and voice chat support. Major design decisions are guided by two laboratory studies that identified challenges in learning graphic design skills on the web.

© All rights reserved Kim et al. and/or ACM Press

2011
 
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Marcus, Adam, Bernstein, Michael S., Badar, Osama, Karger, David R., Madden, Samuel and Miller, Robert C. (2011): Twitinfo: aggregating and visualizing microblogs for event exploration. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 227-236.

Microblogs are a tremendous repository of user-generated content about world events. However, for people trying to understand events by querying services like Twitter, a chronological log of posts makes it very difficult to get a detailed understanding of an event. In this paper, we present TwitInfo, a system for visualizing and summarizing events on Twitter. TwitInfo allows users to browse a large collection of tweets using a timeline-based display that highlights peaks of high tweet activity. A novel streaming algorithm automatically discovers these peaks and labels them meaningfully using text from the tweets. Users can drill down to subevents, and explore further via geolocation, sentiment, and popular URLs. We contribute a recall-normalized aggregate sentiment visualization to produce more honest sentiment overviews. An evaluation of the system revealed that users were able to reconstruct meaningful summaries of events in a small amount of time. An interview with a Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist suggested that the system would be especially useful for understanding a long-running event and for identifying eyewitnesses. Quantitatively, our system can identify 80-100% of manually labeled peaks, facilitating a relatively complete view of each event studied.

© All rights reserved Marcus et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Bernstein, Michael, Chilton, Lydia, Hartmann, Björn, Kittur, Aniket and Miller, Robert C. (2011): Crowdsourcing and human computation: systems, studies and platforms. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 53-56.

Crowdsourcing and human computation are transforming human-computer interaction, and CHI has led the way. The seminal publication in human computation was initially published in CHI in 2004 [1], and the first paper investigating Mechanical Turk as a user study platform has amassed over one hundred citations in two years [5]. However, we are just beginning to stake out a coherent research agenda for the field. This workshop will bring together researchers in the young field of crowdsourcing and human computation and produce three artifacts: a research agenda for the field, a vision for ideal crowdsourcing platforms, and a group-edited bibliography. These resources will be publically disseminated on the web and evolved and maintained by the community.

© All rights reserved Bernstein et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Bernstein, Michael S., Ackerman, Mark S. and Miller, Robert C. (2011): The trouble with social computing systems research. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 389-398.

Social computing has led to an explosion of research in understanding users, and it has the potential to similarly revolutionize systems research. However, the number of papers designing and building new sociotechnical systems has not kept pace. We analyze challenges facing social computing systems research, ranging from misaligned methodological incentives, evaluation expectations, double standards, and relevance compared to industry. We suggest improvements for the community to consider so that we can chart the future of our field.

© All rights reserved Bernstein et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Yu, Chen-Hsiang and Miller, Robert C. (2011): Enhancing mobile browsing and reading. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 1783-1788.

Although the web browser has become a standard interface for information access on the Web, the mobile web browser on the smartphone does not hold the same interest to mobile users. A survey with 11 mobile users shows that only 18% of the participants like mobile web browsers, whereas 82% of them like other mobile applications. This research focuses on understanding mobile users' difficulties and proposes innovative ideas to enhance mobile web browsing. This research enhances mobile browsing and reading in three directions: (1) dynamically generating mobile web sites for browsing (2) using orientation sensor information to detect natural interactions and text-to-speech (TTS) to continue reading between different activities, and (3) providing a speech interface to ease web navigation and supporting dialog programming for repetitive tasks. The Read4Me Browser is a prototype system built to demonstrate the proposed ideas.

© All rights reserved Yu and Miller and/or their publisher

 
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Goldman, Max, Little, Greg and Miller, Robert C. (2011): Collabode: collaborative coding in the browser. In: Proceedings of the 2011 International Workshop on Cooperative and Human Aspects of Software Engineering 2011. pp. 65-68.

Collaborating programmers should use a development environment designed specifically for collaboration, not the same one designed for solo programmers with a few collaborative processes and tools tacked on. This paper describes Collabode, a web-based Java integrated development environment built to support close, synchronous collaboration between programmers. We discuss three collaboration models in which participants take on distinct roles: micro-outsourcing to combine small contributions from many assistants; test-driven pair programming for effective pairwise development; and a mobile instructor connected to the work of many students. In particular, we report very promising preliminary results using Collabode to support micro-outsourcing.

© All rights reserved Goldman et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Lasecki, Walter S., Murray, Kyle I., White, Samuel, Miller, Robert C. and Bigham, Jeffrey P. (2011): Real-time crowd control of existing interfaces. In: Proceedings of the 2011 ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology 2011. pp. 23-32.

Crowdsourcing has been shown to be an effective approach for solving difficult problems, but current crowdsourcing systems suffer two main limitations: (i) tasks must be repackaged for proper display to crowd workers, which generally requires substantial one-off programming effort and support infrastructure, and (ii) crowd workers generally lack a tight feedback loop with their task. In this paper, we introduce Legion, a system that allows end users to easily capture existing GUIs and outsource them for collaborative, real-time control by the crowd. We present mediation strategies for integrating the input of multiple crowd workers in real-time, evaluate these mediation strategies across several applications, and further validate Legion by exploring the space of novel applications that it enables.

© All rights reserved Lasecki et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Bernstein, Michael S., Brandt, Joel, Miller, Robert C. and Karger, David R. (2011): Crowds in two seconds: enabling realtime crowd-powered interfaces. In: Proceedings of the 2011 ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology 2011. pp. 33-42.

Interactive systems must respond to user input within seconds. Therefore, to create realtime crowd-powered interfaces, we need to dramatically lower crowd latency. In this paper, we introduce the use of synchronous crowds for on-demand, realtime crowdsourcing. With synchronous crowds, systems can dynamically adapt tasks by leveraging the fact that workers are present at the same time. We develop techniques that recruit synchronous crowds in two seconds and use them to execute complex search tasks in ten seconds. The first technique, the retainer model, pays workers a small wage to wait and respond quickly when asked. We offer empirically derived guidelines for a retainer system that is low-cost and produces on-demand crowds in two seconds. Our second technique, rapid refinement, observes early signs of agreement in synchronous crowds and dynamically narrows the search space to focus on promising directions. This approach produces results that, on average, are of more reliable quality and arrive faster than the fastest crowd member working alone. To explore benefits and limitations of these techniques for interaction, we present three applications: Adrenaline, a crowd-powered camera where workers quickly filter a short video down to the best single moment for a photo; and Puppeteer and A|B, which examine creative generation tasks, communication with workers, and low-latency voting.

© All rights reserved Bernstein et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Goldman, Max, Little, Greg and Miller, Robert C. (2011): Real-time collaborative coding in a web IDE. In: Proceedings of the 2011 ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology 2011. pp. 155-164.

This paper describes Collabode, a web-based Java integrated development environment designed to support close, synchronous collaboration between programmers. We examine the problem of collaborative coding in the face of program compilation errors introduced by other users which make collaboration more difficult, and describe an algorithm for error-mediated integration of program code. Concurrent editors see the text of changes made by collaborators, but the errors reported in their view are based only on their own changes. Editors may run the program at any time, using only error-free edits supplied so far, and ignoring incomplete or otherwise error-generating changes. We evaluate this algorithm and interface on recorded data from previous pilot experiments with Collabode, and via a user study with student and professional programmers. We conclude that it offers appreciable benefits over naive continuous synchronization without regard to errors and over manual version control.

© All rights reserved Goldman et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Pham, Hubert, Paluska, Justin Mazzola, Miller, Robert C. and Ward, Steve (2011): Cloudtop: a workspace for the cloud. In: Proceedings of the 2011 ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology 2011. pp. 69-70.

Even as users rely more on the web for their computing needs, they continue to depend on a desktop-like area for quick access to in-use resources. The traditional desktop is file-centric and prone to clutter, making it suboptimal for use in a web-dominated world. This paper introduces Cloudtop, a browser plugin that offers a lightweight workplace for temporary items, optimized around the idea that its contents originate from and will ultimately return to the web. Cloudtop improves upon the desktop by 1) implementing a simple, time-based notebook metaphor for managing clutter, 2) capturing and bundling extensible metadata for web resources, and 3) providing a platform for greater interface uniformity across sites.

© All rights reserved Pham et al. and/or ACM Press

2010
 
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Bernstein, Michael S., Marcus, Adam, Karger, David R. and Miller, Robert C. (2010): Enhancing directed content sharing on the web. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2010. pp. 971-980.

To find interesting, personally relevant web content, people rely on friends and colleagues to pass links along as they encounter them. In this paper, we study and augment link-sharing via e-mail, the most popular means of sharing web content today. Armed with survey data indicating that active sharers of novel web content are often those that actively seek it out, we developed FeedMe, a plug-in for Google Reader that makes directed sharing of content a more salient part of the user experience. FeedMe recommends friends who may be interested in seeing content that the user is viewing, provides information on what the recipient has seen and how many emails they have received recently, and gives recipients the opportunity to provide lightweight feedback when they appreciate shared content. FeedMe introduces a novel design space within mixed-initiative social recommenders: friends who know the user voluntarily vet the material on the user's behalf. We performed a two-week field experiment (N=60) and found that FeedMe made it easier and more enjoyable to share content that recipients appreciated and would not have found otherwise.

© All rights reserved Bernstein et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Chang, Tsung-Hsiang, Yeh, Tom and Miller, Robert C. (2010): GUI testing using computer vision. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2010. pp. 1535-1544.

Testing a GUI's visual behavior typically requires human testers to interact with the GUI and to observe whether the expected results of interaction are presented. This paper presents a new approach to GUI testing using computer vision for testers to automate their tasks. Testers can write a visual test script that uses images to specify which GUI components to interact with and what visual feedback to be observed. Testers can also generate visual test scripts by demonstration. By recording both input events and screen images, it is possible to extract the images of components interacted with and the visual feedback seen by the demonstrator, and generate a visual test script automatically. We show that a variety of GUI behavior can be tested using this approach. Also, we show how this approach can facilitate good testing practices such as unit testing, regression testing, and test-driven development.

© All rights reserved Chang et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Yu, Chen-Hsiang and Miller, Robert C. (2010): Enhancing web page readability for non-native readers. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2010. pp. 2523-2532.

Readers face many obstacles on today's Web, including distracting content competing for the user's attention and other factors interfering with comfortable reading. On today's primarily English-language Web, non-native readers encounter even more problems, even if they have some fluency in English. In this paper, we focus on the presentation of content and propose a new transformation method, Jenga Format, to enhance web page readability. To evaluate the Jenga Format, we conducted a user study on 30 Asian users with moderate English fluency and the results indicated that the proposed transformation method improved reading comprehension without negatively affecting reading speed. We also describe Froggy, a Firefox extension which implements the Jenga format.

© All rights reserved Yu and Miller and/or their publisher

 
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Bigham, Jeffrey P., Jayant, Chandrika, Ji, Hanjie, Little, Greg, Miller, Andrew, Miller, Robert C., Tatarowicz, Aubrey, White, Brandyn, White, Samuel and Yeh, Tom (2010): VizWiz: nearly real-time answers to visual questions. In: Proceedings of the 2010 International Cross-Disciplinary Conference on Web Accessibility W4A 2010. p. 24.

Visual information pervades our environment. Vision is used to decide everything from what we want to eat at a restaurant and which bus route to take to whether our clothes match and how long until the milk expires. Individually, the inability to interpret such visual information is a nuisance for blind people who often have effective, if inefficient, work-arounds to overcome them. Collectively, however, they can make blind people less independent. Specialized technology addresses some problems in this space, but automatic approaches cannot yet answer the vast majority of visual questions that blind people may have. VizWiz addresses this shortcoming by using the Internet connections and cameras on existing smartphones to connect blind people and their questions to remote paid workers' answers. VizWiz is designed to have low latency and low cost, making it both competitive with expensive automatic solutions and much more versatile.

© All rights reserved Bigham et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Little, Greg, Chilton, Lydia B., Goldman, Max and Miller, Robert C. (2010): TurKit: human computation algorithms on mechanical turk. In: Proceedings of the 2010 ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology 2010. pp. 57-66.

Mechanical Turk (MTurk) provides an on-demand source of human computation. This provides a tremendous opportunity to explore algorithms which incorporate human computation as a function call. However, various systems challenges make this difficult in practice, and most uses of MTurk post large numbers of independent tasks. TurKit is a toolkit for prototyping and exploring algorithmic human computation, while maintaining a straight-forward imperative programming style. We present the crash-and-rerun programming model that makes TurKit possible, along with a variety of applications for human computation algorithms. We also present case studies of TurKit used for real experiments across different fields.

© All rights reserved Little et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Bernstein, Michael S., Little, Greg, Miller, Robert C., Hartmann, Björn, Ackerman, Mark S., Karger, David R., Crowell, David and Panovich, Katrina (2010): Soylent: a word processor with a crowd inside. In: Proceedings of the 2010 ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology 2010. pp. 313-322.

This paper introduces architectural and interaction patterns for integrating crowdsourced human contributions directly into user interfaces. We focus on writing and editing, complex endeavors that span many levels of conceptual and pragmatic activity. Authoring tools offer help with pragmatics, but for higher-level help, writers commonly turn to other people. We thus present Soylent, a word processing interface that enables writers to call on Mechanical Turk workers to shorten, proofread, and otherwise edit parts of their documents on demand. To improve worker quality, we introduce the Find-Fix-Verify crowd programming pattern, which splits tasks into a series of generation and review stages. Evaluation studies demonstrate the feasibility of crowdsourced editing and investigate questions of reliability, cost, wait time, and work time for edits.

© All rights reserved Bernstein et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Bigham, Jeffrey P., Jayant, Chandrika, Ji, Hanjie, Little, Greg, Miller, Andrew, Miller, Robert C., Miller, Robin, Tatarowicz, Aubrey, White, Brandyn, White, Samual and Yeh, Tom (2010): VizWiz: nearly real-time answers to visual questions. In: Proceedings of the 2010 ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology 2010. pp. 333-342.

The lack of access to visual information like text labels, icons, and colors can cause frustration and decrease independence for blind people. Current access technology uses automatic approaches to address some problems in this space, but the technology is error-prone, limited in scope, and quite expensive. In this paper, we introduce VizWiz, a talking application for mobile phones that offers a new alternative to answering visual questions in nearly real-time -- asking multiple people on the web. To support answering questions quickly, we introduce a general approach for intelligently recruiting human workers in advance called quikTurkit so that workers are available when new questions arrive. A field deployment with 11 blind participants illustrates that blind people can effectively use VizWiz to cheaply answer questions in their everyday lives, highlighting issues that automatic approaches will need to address to be useful. Finally, we illustrate the potential of using VizWiz as part of the participatory design of advanced tools by using it to build and evaluate VizWiz::LocateIt, an interactive mobile tool that helps blind people solve general visual search problems.

© All rights reserved Bigham et al. and/or their publisher

2009
 
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Yeh, Tom, Chang, Tsung-Hsiang and Miller, Robert C. (2009): Sikuli: using GUI screenshots for search and automation. In: Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology 2009. pp. 183-192.

We present Sikuli, a visual approach to search and automation of graphical user interfaces using screenshots. Sikuli allows users to take a screenshot of a GUI element (such as a toolbar button, icon, or dialog box) and query a help system using the screenshot instead of the element's name. Sikuli also provides a visual scripting API for automating GUI interactions, using screenshot patterns to direct mouse and keyboard events. We report a web-based user study showing that searching by screenshot is easy to learn and faster to specify than keywords. We also demonstrate several automation tasks suitable for visual scripting, such as map navigation and bus tracking, and show how visual scripting can improve interactive help systems previously proposed in the literature.

© All rights reserved Yeh et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Goldman, Max and Miller, Robert C. (2009): Codetrail: Connecting source code and web resources. In J. Vis. Lang. Comput., 20 (4) pp. 223-235.

2008
 
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Goldman, Max and Miller, Robert C. (2008): Codetrail: Connecting source code and web resources. In: VL-HCC 2008 - IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages and Human-Centric Computing 15-19 September, 2008, Herrsching am Ammersee, Germany. pp. 65-72.

 
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Miller, Robert C., Chou, Victoria H., Bernstein, Michael S., Little, Greg, Kleek, Max Van, Karger, David R. and Schraefel, M. C. (2008): Inky: a sloppy command line for the web with rich visual feedback. In: Cousins, Steve B. and Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel (eds.) Proceedings of the 21st Annual ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology October 19-22, 2008, Monterey, CA, USA. pp. 131-140.

2007
 
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Huynh, David, Karger, David R. and Miller, Robert C. (2007): Exhibit: lightweight structured data publishing. In: Proceedings of the 2007 International Conference on the World Wide Web 2007. pp. 737-746.

The early Web was hailed for giving individuals the same publishing power as large content providers. But over time, large content providers learned to exploit the structure in their data, leveraging databases and server side technologies to provide rich browsing and visualization. Individual authors fall behind once more: neither old-fashioned static pages nor domain-specific publishing frameworks supporting limited customization can match custom database-backed web applications. In this paper, we propose Exhibit, a lightweight framework for publishing structured data on standard web servers that requires no installation, database administration, or programming. Exhibit lets authors with relatively limited skills-those same enthusiasts who could write HTML pages for the early Web-publish richly interactive pages that exploit the structure of their data for better browsing and visualization. Such structured publishing in turn makes that data more useful to all of its consumers: individual readers get more powerful interfaces, mashup creators can more easily repurpose the data, and Semantic Web enthusiasts can feed the data to the nascent Semantic Web.

© All rights reserved Huynh et al. and/or International World Wide Web Conference Committee

 
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Lieberman, Eric and Miller, Robert C. (2007): Facemail: showing faces of recipients to prevent misdirected email. In: Proceedings of the 2007 Symposium on Usable Privacy and Security 2007. pp. 122-131.

Users occasionally send email to the wrong recipients -- clicking Reply To All instead of Reply, mistyping an email address, or guessing an email address and getting it wrong - and suffer violations of security or privacy as a result. Facemail is an extension to a webmail system that aims to alleviate this problem by automatically displaying pictures of the selected recipients in a peripheral display, while the user is composing an email message. We describe techniques for obtaining faces from email addresses, and discovering mailing list memberships from existing web data sources, and a user interface design that keeps important faces recognizable while scaling up to hundreds or thousands of recipients. Preliminary experiments suggest that faces significantly improve users' ability to detect misdirected emails with only a brief glance.

© All rights reserved Lieberman and Miller and/or ACM Press

 
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Hupp, Darris and Miller, Robert C. (2007): Smart bookmarks: automatic retroactive macro recording on the web. In: Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology October 7-10, 2007, Newport, Rhode Island, USA. pp. 81-90.

We present a new web automation system that allows users to create a smart bookmark, consisting of a starting URL plus a script of commands that returns to a particular web page or state of a web application. A smart bookmark can be requested for any page, and the necessary commands are automatically extracted from the user's interaction history. Unlike other web macro recorders, which require the user to start recording before navigating to the desired page, smart bookmarks are generated retroactively, after the user has already reached a page, and the starting point of the macro is found automatically. Smart bookmarks have a rich graphical visualization that combines textual commands, web page screenshots, and animations to explain what the bookmark does. A bookmark's script consists of keyword commands, interpreted without strict reliance on syntax, allowing bookmarks to be easily edited and shared.

© All rights reserved Hupp and Miller and/or ACM Press

2006
 
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Wu, Min, Miller, Robert C. and Garfinkel, Simson L. (2006): Do security toolbars actually prevent phishing attacks?. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2006 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2006. pp. 601-610.

Security toolbars in a web browser show security-related information about a website to help users detect phishing attacks. Because the toolbars are designed for humans to use, they should be evaluated for usability -- that is, whether these toolbars really prevent users from being tricked into providing personal information. We conducted two user studies of three security toolbars and other browser security indicators and found them all ineffective at preventing phishing attacks. Even though subjects were asked to pay attention to the toolbar, many failed to look at it; others disregarded or explained away the toolbars' warnings if the content of web pages looked legitimate. We found that many subjects do not understand phishing attacks or realize how sophisticated such attacks can be.

© All rights reserved Wu et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Huynh, David, Miller, Robert C. and Karger, David R. (2006): Enabling web browsers to augment web sites' filtering and sorting functionalities. In: Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology 2006. pp. 125-134.

Existing augmentations of web pages are mostly small cosmetic changes (e.g., removing ads) and minor addition of third-party content (e.g., product prices from competing sites). None leverages the structured data presented in web pages. This paper describes Sifter, a web browser extension that can augment a well-structured web site with advanced filtering and sorting functionality. These added features work inside the site's own pages, preserving the site's presentational style and the user's context. Sifter contains an algorithm that scrapes structured data out of well-structured web pages while usually requiring no user intervention. We tested Sifter on real web sites and real users and found that people could use Sifter to perform sophisticated queries and high-level analyses on sizable data collections on the Web. We propose that web sites can be similarly augmented with other sophisticated data-centric functionality, giving users new benefits over the existing Web.

© All rights reserved Huynh et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Little, Greg and Miller, Robert C. (2006): Translating keyword commands into executable code. In: Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology 2006. pp. 135-144.

Modern applications provide interfaces for scripting, but many users do not know how to write script commands. However, many users are familiar with the idea of entering keywords into a web search engine. Hence, if a user is familiar with the vocabulary of an application domain, we anticipate that they could write a set of keywords expressing a command in that domain. For instance, in the web browsing domain, a user might enter "click search button". We call expressions of this form keyword commands, and we present a novel approach for translating keyword commands directly into executable code. Our prototype of this system in the web browsing domain translates "click search button" into the Chickenfoot code click(findButton("search")). This code is then executed in the context of a web browser to carry out the effect. We also present an implementation of this system in the domain of Microsoft Word. A user study revealed that subjects could use keyword commands to successfully complete 90% of the web browsing tasks in our study without instructions or training. Conversely, we would expect users to complete close to 0% of the tasks if they had to guess the underlying JavaScript commands with no instructions or training.

© All rights reserved Little and Miller and/or ACM Press

 
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Wu, Min, Miller, Robert C. and Little, Greg (2006): Web wallet: preventing phishing attacks by revealing user intentions. In: Proceedings of the 2006 Symposium on Usable Privacy and Security 2006. pp. 102-113.

We introduce a new anti-phishing solution, the Web Wallet. The Web Wallet is a browser sidebar which users can use to submit their sensitive information online. It detects phishing attacks by determining where users intend to submit their information and suggests an alternative safe path to their intended site if the current site does not match it. It integrates security questions into the user's workflow so that its protection cannot be ignored by the user. We conducted a user study on the Web Wallet prototype and found that the Web Wallet is a promising approach. In the study, it significantly decreased the

© All rights reserved Wu et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Huynh, David, Miller, Robert C. and Karger, David R. (2006): Enabling web browsers to augment web sites' filtering and sorting functionalities. In: Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology 2006. pp. 125-134.

Existing augmentations of web pages are mostly small cosmetic changes (e.g., removing ads) and minor addition of third-party content (e.g., product prices from competing sites). None leverages the structured data presented in web pages. This paper describes Sifter, a web browser extension that can augment a well-structured web site with advanced filtering and sorting functionality. These added features work inside the site's own pages, preserving the site's presentational style and the user's context. Sifter contains an algorithm that scrapes structured data out of well-structured web pages while usually requiring no user intervention. We tested Sifter on real web sites and real users and found that people could use Sifter to perform sophisticated queries and high-level analyses on sizable data collections on the Web. We propose that web sites can be similarly augmented with other sophisticated data-centric functionality, giving users new benefits over the existing Web.

© All rights reserved Huynh et al. and/or ACM Press

2005
 
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Bolin, Michael, Webber, Matthew, Rha, Philip, Wilson, Tom and Miller, Robert C. (2005): Automation and customization of rendered web pages. In: Proceedings of the 2005 ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology 2005. pp. 163-172.

On the desktop, an application can expect to control its user interface down to the last pixel, but on the World Wide Web, a content provider has no control over how the client will view the page, once delivered to the browser. This creates an opportunity for end-users who want to automate and customize their web experiences, but the growing complexity of web pages and standards prevents most users from realizing this opportunity. We describe Chickenfoot, a programming system embedded in the Firefox web browser, which enables end-users to automate, customize, and integrate web applications without examining their source code. One way Chickenfoot addresses this goal is a novel technique for identifying page components by keyword pattern matching. We motivate this technique by studying how users name web page components, and present a heuristic keyword matching algorithm that identifies the desired component from the user\'s name.

© All rights reserved Bolin et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Garfinkel, Simson L., Margrave, David, Schiller, Jeffrey I., Nordlander, Erik and Miller, Robert C. (2005): How to make secure email easier to use. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 701-710.

Cryptographically protected email has a justly deserved reputation of being difficult to use. Based on an analysis of the PEM, PGP and S/MIME standards and a survey of 470 merchants who sell products on Amazon.com, we argue that the vast majority of Internet users can start enjoying digitally signed email today. We present suggestions for the use of digitally signed mail in e-commerce and simple modifications to webmail systems that would significantly increase integrity, privacy and authorship guarantees that those systems make. We then show how to use the S/MIME standard to extend such protections Internet-wide. Finally, we argue that software vendors must make minor changes to the way that mail clients store email before unsophisticated users can safely handle mail that is sealed with encryption.

© All rights reserved Garfinkel et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Garfinkel, Simson L. and Miller, Robert C. (2005): Johnny 2: a user test of key continuity management with S/MIME and Outlook Express. In: Proceedings of the 2005 Symposium on Usable Privacy and Security 2005. pp. 13-24.

Secure email has struggled with significant obstacles to adoption, among them the low usability of encryption software and the cost and overhead of obtaining public key certificates. Key continuity management (KCM) has been proposed as a way to lower these barriers to adoption, by making key generation, key management, and message signing essentially automatic. We present the first user study of KCM-secured email, conducted on naive users who had no previous experience with secure email. Our secure email prototype, CoPilot, color-codes messages depending on whether they were signed and whether the signer was previously known or unknown. This interface makes users significantly less susceptible to social engineering attacks overall, but new-identity attacks (from email addresses never seen before) are still effective. Also, naive users do use the Sign and Encrypt button on the Outlook Express toolbar when the situation seems to warrant it, even without explicit instruction, although some falsely hoped that Encrypt would protect a secret message even when sent directly to an attacker. We conclude that KCM is a workable model for improving email security today, but work is needed to alert users to "phishing" attacks.

© All rights reserved Garfinkel and Miller and/or ACM Press

 
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Stahovich, Thomas F., Davis, Randall, Miller, Robert C., Landay, James A. and Saund, Eric (2005): Pen-based computing. In Computers & Graphics, 29 (4) pp. 477-479.

2004
 
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Miller, Robert C. and Marshall, Alisa M. (2004): Cluster-based find and replace. In: Dykstra-Erickson, Elizabeth and Tscheligi, Manfred (eds.) Proceedings of ACM CHI 2004 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 24-29, 2004, Vienna, Austria. pp. 57-64.

In current text editors, the find&replace command offers only two options: replace one match at a time prompting for confirmation, or replace all matches at once without any confirmation. Both approaches are prone to errors. This paper explores a third way: cluster-based find&replace, in which the matches are clustered by similarity and whole clusters can be replaced at once. We hypothesized that cluster-based find&replace would make find&replace tasks both faster and more accurate, but initial user studies suggest that clustering may improve speed on some tasks but not accuracy. Users also prefer using a perfect-selection strategy for find&replace, rather than an interleaved decision-action strategy.

© All rights reserved Miller and Marshall and/or ACM Press

 
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Myers, Brad A., Nichols, Jeffrey, Wobbrock, Jacob O. and Miller, Robert C. (2004): Taking Handheld Devices to the Next Level. In IEEE Computer, 37 (12) pp. 36-43.

2003
 
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Quan, Dennis, Huynh, David, Karger, David R. and Miller, Robert C. (2003): User interface continuations. In: Proceedings of the 16th annural ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology November, 2-5, 2003, Vancouver, Canada. pp. 145-148.

Dialog boxes that collect parameters for commands often create ephemeral, unnatural interruptions of a program's normal execution flow, encouraging the user to complete the dialog box as quickly as possible in order for the program to process that command. In this paper we examine the idea of turning the act of collecting parameters from a user into a first class object called a user interface continuation. Programs can create user interface continuations by specifying what information is to be collected from the user and supplying a callback (i.e., a continuation) to be notified with the collected information. A partially completed user interface continuation can be saved as a new command, much as currying and partially evaluating a function with a set of parameters produces a new function. Furthermore, user interface continuations, like other continuation-passing paradigms, can be used to allow program execution to continue uninterrupted while the user determines a command's parameters at his or her leisure.

© All rights reserved Quan et al. and/or ACM Press

2002
 
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Miller, Robert C. and Myers, Brad A. (2002): Multiple selections in smart text editing. In: Gil, Yolanda and Leake, David (eds.) International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces 2002 January 13-16, 2002, San Francisco, California, USA. pp. 103-110.

Multiple selections, though heavily used in file managers and drawing editors, are virtually nonexistent in text editing. This paper describes how multiple selections can automate repetitive text editing. Selection guessing infers a multiple selection from positive and negative examples provided by the user. The multiple selection can then be used for inserting, deleting, copying, pasting, or other editing commands. Simultaneous editing uses two levels of inference, first inferring a group of records to be edited, then inferring multiple selections with exactly one selection in each record. Both techniques have been evaluated by user studies and shown to be fast and usable for novices. Simultaneous editing required only 1.26 examples per selection in the user study, approaching the ideal of 1-example PBD. Multiple selections bring many benefits, including better user feedback, fast, accurate inference, novel forms of intelligent assistance, and the ability to override system inferences with manual corrections.

© All rights reserved Miller and Myers and/or ACM Press

 
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Myers, Brad A., Malkin, Robert, Bett, Michael, Waibel, Alex, Bostwick, Ben, Miller, Robert C., Yang, Jie, Denecke, Matthias, Seemann, Edgar, Zhu, Jie, Peck, Choon Hong, Kong, Dave, Nichols, Jeffrey and Scherlis, William L. (2002): Flexi-Modal and Multi-Machine User Interfaces. In: 4th IEEE International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces - ICMI 2002 14-16 October, 2002, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. pp. 343-348.

2001
 
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Miller, Robert C. and Myers, Brad A. (2001): Outlier finding: focusing user attention on possible errors. In: Marks, Joe and Mynatt, Elizabeth D. (eds.) Proceedings of the 14th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 11 - 14, 2001, Orlando, Florida. pp. 81-90.

When users handle large amounts of data, errors are hard to notice. Outlier finding is a new way to reduce errors by directing the user's attention to inconsistent data which may indicate errors. We have implemented an outlier finder for text, which can detect both unusual matches and unusual mismatches to a text pattern. When integrated into the user interface of a PBD text editor and tested in a user study, outlier finding substantially reduced errors.

© All rights reserved Miller and Myers and/or ACM Press

 
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Myers, Brad A., Peck, Choon Hong, Nichols, Jeffrey, Kong, Dave and Miller, Robert C. (2001): Interacting at a Distance Using Semantic Snarfing. In: Abowd, Gregory D., Brumitt, Barry and Shafer, Steven A. (eds.) Ubicomp 2001 Ubiquitous Computing - Third International Conference September 30 - October 2, 2001, Atlanta, Georgia, USA. pp. 305-314.

1999
 
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Miller, Robert C. and Myers, Brad A. (1999): Synchronizing Clipboards of Multiple Computers. In: Zanden, Brad Vander and Marks, Joe (eds.) Proceedings of the 12th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 07 - 10, 1999, Asheville, North Carolina, United States. pp. 65-66.

This paper describes a new technique for transferring data between computers, the synchronized clipboard. Multiple computers can share a synchronized clipboard for all clipboard operations, so that data copied to the clipboard from one computer, using the standard Copy command, can be pasted directly on another computer using the standard Paste command. Synchronized clipboards are well-suited for a single user moving data among several computers in close proximity. We describe an implementation of synchronized clipboards that works across a wide range of existing systems, including 3Com PalmPilots, Microsoft Windows PCs, Unix workstations, and other Java-capable platforms. Our implementation adds no noticeable overhead to local copy and paste operations.

© All rights reserved Miller and Myers and/or ACM Press

1996
 
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Myers, Brad A., Miller, Robert C., McDaniel, Rich and Ferrency, Alan (1996): Easily Adding Animations to Interfaces Using Constraints. In: Kurlander, David, Brown, Marc and Rao, Ramana (eds.) Proceedings of the 9th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 06 - 08, 1996, Seattle, Washington, United States. pp. 119-128.

Adding animation to interfaces is a very difficult task with today's toolkits, even though there are many situations in which it would be useful and effective. The Amulet toolkit contains a new form of animation constraint that allows animations to be added to interfaces extremely easily without changing the logic of the application or the graphical objects themselves. An animation constraint detects changes to the value of the slot to which it is attached, and causes the slot to instead take on a series of values interpolated between the original and new values. The advantage over previous approaches is that animation constraints provide significantly better modularity and reuse. The programmer has independent control over the graphics to be animated, the start and end values of the animation, the path through value space, and the timing of the animation. Animations can be attached to any object, even existing widgets from the toolkit, and any type of value can be animated: scalars, coordinates, fonts, colors, line widths, point lists (for polygons), booleans (for visibility), etc. A library of useful animation constraints is provided in the toolkit, including support for exaggerated, cartoon-style effects such as slow-in-slow-out, anticipation, and followthrough. Because animations can be added to an existing application with only a single extra line of code, we expect that this new mechanism will make it easy for researchers and developers to investigate the use of animations in a wide variety of applications.

© All rights reserved Myers et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Page Information

Page maintainer: The Editorial Team
URL: http://www.interaction-design.org/references/authors/robert_c__miller.html

Publication statistics

Pub. period:1996-2012
Pub. count:42
Number of co-authors:75



Co-authors

Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Greg Little:9
David R. Karger:9
Brad A. Myers:7

 

 

Productive colleagues

Robert C. Miller's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Brad A. Myers:154
James A. Landay:91
Jacob O. Wobbrock:71
 
 
 
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