Number of co-authors:13
Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:Bill Curtis:3Herb Krasner:2Michael E. Atwood:1
Raymonde Guindon's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:Wendy E. Mackay:61Michael E. Atwood:48Wayne D. Gray:44
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Publications by Raymonde Guindon (bibliography)
Guindon, Raymonde (1992): Requirements and Design of DesignVision, An Object-Oriented Graphical Interface to an Intelligent Software Design Assistant. In: Bauersfeld, Penny, Bennett, John and Lynch, Gene (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 92 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference June 3-7, 1992, Monterey, California. pp. 499-506.
Key findings from empirical studies -- early design is opportunistic; critical role of pictures in design conception; impact of various cognitive limitations -- have very effectively determined requirements and design for a set of tools to support early design. Key design features of the tools include respectively: (1) The (simultaneous) display of any software modules at arbitrary levels of abstraction and from any subsystems. The unrestricted, smooth navigation between these software modules. (2) Multiple design notations -- pictorial and symbolic -- cross-referenced, editable, and maintained consistent across all views. Integrated views of control flow, data flow, and functional decomposition. (3) Automatic layout at arbitrary levels of nesting. Visual display of execution paths in the solution. Automatic completeness and consistency check. Automatic visual indication and listing of modules with constraint violations.
© All rights reserved Guindon and/or ACM Press
Guindon, Raymonde (1991): Users Request Help from Advisory Systems with Simple and Restricted Language: Effects of Real-Time Constraints and Limited Shared Context. In Human-Computer Interaction, 6 (1) pp. 47-75.
In this descriptive and exploratory study, 32 users type help requests to what they believe is a computerized advisor. In fact, the advisor is a human mimicking realistic levels of intelligence and knowledge that can be expected from a computerized advisor. Results show that users request help with a very simple and restricted language that is characteristic of language generated under real-time production constraints and of child language. Moreover, users' utterances are frequently ungrammatical. It is hypothesized that these features arise from factors intrinsic to typed advisory situations: Users are performing a primary task under real-time constraints, and typing help requests is a secondary task. On the other hand, users refer to objects and events with very precise descriptions instead of faster-to-type pronouns; they produce very few ellipses and deictic expressions. Future research should elucidate whether shared context between users and computerized advisors needs to be richer than created in this study to sustain the use of expressions whose interpretations depend on context. The tuning of natural language interfaces to the features observed in this study may increase the usefulness of natural language interfaces to advisory systems. The presented methodology is a promising tool for further studies of these factors on users' language.
© All rights reserved Guindon and/or Taylor and Francis
Guindon, Raymonde (1990): Designing the Design Process: Exploiting Opportunistic Thoughts. In Human-Computer Interaction, 5 (2) pp. 305-344.
This study shows that top-down decomposition is problematic in the early stages of design. Instead, an opportunistic decomposition is better suited to handle the ill-structuredness of design problems. Designers are observed interleaving decisions at various levels of abstraction in the solution decomposition. The verbal protocols of three professionals designing a software system of realistic complexity are analyzed to determine the frequency and causes of opportunistic decompositions. The sudden discovery of new requirements and partial solutions triggered by data-driven rules and associations, the immediate development of solutions for newly discovered requirements, and drifting through partial solutions are shown to be important causes of opportunistic design. A top-down decomposition appears to be a special case for well-structured problems when the designer already knows the correct decomposition. Two cognitive models are briefly discussed in relation to opportunistic design. Finally, implications for training, methods, and computational environments to support the early stages of design are outlined.
© All rights reserved Guindon and/or Taylor and Francis
Guindon, Raymonde (1990): Knowledge Exploited by Experts during Software System Design. In International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 33 (3) pp. 279-304.
High-level software design is characterized by incompletely specified requirements, no predetermined solution path, and by the integration of multiple domains of knowledge at various levels of abstraction. The application of data-driven knowledge rules characterizes expertise. A verbal protocol study describes these domains of knowledge and how experts exploit their rich knowledge during design. It documents how designers heavily rely on problem domain scenario simulations throughout solution development. These simulations trigger the inferences of new requirements and complete the requirement specification. Designers recognize partial solutions at various levels of abstraction in the design decomposition through the application of data-driven rules. Designers also rely heavily on simulations of their design solutions, but these are shallow, that is, limited to one level of design methods, notations, and specialized software design schemas. Finally, the study describes how designers exploit powerful heuristics and personalized evaluation criteria to constrain the design process and select a satisfactory solution. Studies, such as this one, help map the road to understanding expertise in complex tasks.
© All rights reserved Guindon and/or Academic Press
Atwood, Michael E., Brooks, Ruven, Gray, Wayne D., Guindon, Raymonde and Mastaglio, Thomas W. (1989): Current Research in the Psychology of Programming. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 33rd Annual Meeting 1989. pp. 242-244.
Computer programming is one of the earliest topics addressed by studies of the human factors of computer systems and studies of how software systems are developed remain one of the most difficult areas of investigation. Early work in the psychology of programming focused on comparisons of time-sharing and batch modes, studies of programming team organization, studies of debugging, and investigations of the differences between novice and expert programmers. As new theories and experimental methodologies were developed, further areas were researched. This panel looks at current research in the psychology of computer programming. Topics include studies of programmer behavior, studies of software design, tools for programmers, and experimental methods. Audience members will have an opportunity to describe other areas of study.
© All rights reserved Atwood et al. and/or Human Factors Society
Guindon, Raymonde (1989): The Process of Knowledge Discovery in System Design. In: Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1989. pp. 727-734.
The most expensive errors to correct in a software development project are those made during high-level design. This study investigates the cognitive processes during high-level system design using the verbal protocols of three professional designers working on a problem of realistic complexity. The high-level design process was observed, behaviorally, to be opportunistic where knowledge discovery plays a critical role. Examples of knowledge discovery are presented, and their genesis and impact on the design process are discussed. Implications for methods and computational environments to support software designers are outlined.
© All rights reserved Guindon and/or Lawrence Erlbaum Associates
Mackay, Wendy E., Guindon, Raymonde, Mantei, Marilyn, Suchman, Lucy A. and Tatar, Deborah G. (1988): Video: Data for Studying Human-Computer Interaction. In: Soloway, Elliot, Frye, Douglas and Sheppard, Sylvia B. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 88 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference June 15-19, 1988, Washington, DC, USA. pp. 133-137.
Masson, Michael E. J., Hill, William C., Conner, Joyce and Guindon, Raymonde (1988): Misconceived Misconceptions?. In: Soloway, Elliot, Frye, Douglas and Sheppard, Sylvia B. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 88 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference June 15-19, 1988, Washington, DC, USA. pp. 151-156.
Detailed user activity scripts from two previous studies of novice users working at a command language or a direct representation interface were submitted to independent expert judges for the justified ascription of misconceptions. Our initial hypothesis was that behavioral evidence for such misconceptions comes about as a result of well-articulated hypothetical reasoning. Although the evidence we obtained supports this view, it also suggests that for the direct representation case some activity normally attributed to misconceptions is non-reasoned in nature and governed by inherent powers of the representation.
© All rights reserved Masson et al. and/or ACM Press
Guindon, Raymonde (1988): How to Interface to Advisory Systems? Users Request Help with a Very Simple Language. In: Soloway, Elliot, Frye, Douglas and Sheppard, Sylvia B. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 88 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference June 15-19, 1988, Washington, DC, USA. pp. 191-196.
Advisory system can be very powerful general tools for users. Formal query languages, menus, and direct manipulation interfaces might not suffice to access advisory systems' full functionality. The capabilities of natural language interfaces could be required. Unfortunately, natural language interfaces are not meeting the needs yet. Wide syntactic coverage is often traded off against handling ungrammatical sentences. However, this study shows that users request help with a very simple and restricted English, characteristic of unplanned or of child language. Moreover, users' utterances are frequently ungrammatical. It is argued that the simple syntax and the ungrammaticalities are determined by features intrinsic to advisory systems: users request help by typing to perform another primary task under real-time production constraints. Because of intrinsic performance constraints, users naturally resort to earlier and simpler forms of syntax. Natural language interfaces to advisory systems need not cover a wide variety of syntactic constructions but they must emphasize robust parsing.
© All rights reserved Guindon and/or ACM Press
Guindon, Raymonde and Curtis, Bill (1988): Control of Cognitive Processes During Software Design: What Tools Are Needed?. In: Soloway, Elliot, Frye, Douglas and Sheppard, Sylvia B. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 88 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference June 15-19, 1988, Washington, DC, USA. pp. 263-268.
A verbal protocol study of professional software designers has revealed three design process control strategies. At least one of them, the generation of opportunistic solutions at different levels of detail accompanied by problem domain modeling, had not been observed in previous empirical studies nor had been acknowledged in the software engineering practices. Specific breakdowns (difficulties) were associated with the different design process control strategies. Software tools should be provided to designers to alleviate these breakdowns. Parts of a cognitive model of software design, based on distributed control from specialists such as design schemas, design heuristics, and design methods, are presented to account for the observed control strategies.
© All rights reserved Guindon and Curtis and/or ACM Press
Guindon, Raymonde, Krasner, Herb and Curtis, Bill (1987): Breakdowns and Processes During the Early Activities of Software Design by Professionals. In: Olson, Gary M., Sheppard, Sylvia B. and Soloway, Elliot (eds.) Empirical Studies of Programmers - Second Workshop December 7-8 1987, 1987, Washington, DC. pp. 65-82.
This chapter summarizes some of the main breakdowns (of difficulties) occurring early in the software design process when professional designers work on a problem of realistic complexity. One class of breakdowns is caused by lack of knowledge and another class is caused by cognitive limitations. A third class of breakdowns is caused by a combination of these two factors. The main breakdowns observed are: 1) lack of specialized design schemas; 2) lack of a meta-schema about the design process leading to poor allocation of resources to the various design activities; 3) poor prioritization of issues leading to poor selection of alternative solutions; 4) difficulty in considering all the stated or inferred constraints in defining a solution; 5) difficulty in performing mental simulations with many steps or test cases; 6) difficulty in keeping track and returning to subproblems whose solution has been postponed; and 7) difficulty in expanding or merging solutions from individual subproblems to form a complete solution. We have also observed serendipitous design and the process of understanding and elaborating the requirements through exploration of the designer's mental model of the problem environment. This study provides many observations of breakdowns and design behaviors not reported in previous studies and necessary prior to developing a model of the cognitive activities during software design. This study also provides critical information to guide the design of tools and methodologies to improve the efficiency of software designers.
© All rights reserved Guindon et al. and/or Ablex Publishing
Guindon, Raymonde, Krasner, Herb and Curtis, Bill (1987): Cognitive Processes in Software Design: Activities in Early, Upstream Design. In: Bullinger, Hans-Jorg and Shackel, Brian (eds.) INTERACT 87 - 2nd IFIP International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction September 1-4, 1987, Stuttgart, Germany. pp. 383-388.
The first goal of this paper is to present some of the main activities occurring during early, upstream software design by experienced designers. We concentrate on the variety of strategies found between designers. The second goal is to bring to attention certain cognitive activities in design that have not been observed or emphasized in other studies of design, such as serendipity and the process of understanding and elaborating the requirements through exploration of the designer's mental model of the problem environment. These activities are likely to be critical in upstream design.
© All rights reserved Guindon et al. and/or North-Holland
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