Number of co-authors:16
Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:Zdenek Zdrahal:11John Domingue:6Annika Wolff:5
Paul Mulholland's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:Toni Ivergard:22John Domingue:21Zdenek Zdrahal:16
... in an information-rich world, the wealth of information means a dearth of something else: a scarcity of whatever it is that information consumes. What information consumes is rather obvious: it consumes the attention of its recipients. Hence a wealth of information creates a poverty of attention, and a need to allocate that attention efficiently among the overabundance of information sources that might consume it.
-- Herbert Simon in "Computers, Communications and the Public Interest," 1971
Marc Hassenzahl explains the fascinating concept of User Experience and Experience Design. Commentaries by Don Norman, Eric Reiss, Mark Blythe, and Whitney Hess
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Publications by Paul Mulholland (bibliography)
Wolff, Annika, Mulholland, Paul and Collins, Trevor (2012): Storyspace: a story-driven approach for creating museum narratives. In: Proceedings of the 23rd ACM Conference on Hypertext and Social Media 2012. pp. 89-98.
In a curated exhibition of a museum or art gallery, a selection of heritage objects and associated information is presented to a visitor for the purpose of telling a story about them. The same underlying story can be presented in a number of different ways. This paper describes techniques for creating multiple alternative narrative structures from a single underlying story, by selecting different organising principles for the events and plot structures of the story. These authorial decisions can produce different dramatic effects. Storyspace is a web interface to an ontology for describing curatorial narratives. We describe how the narrative component of the Storyspace software can produce multiple narratives from the underlying stories and plots of curated exhibitions. Based on the curator's choice, the narrative module suggests a coherent ordering for the events of a story and its associated heritage objects. Narratives constructed through Storyspace can be tailored to suit different audiences and can be presented in different forms, such as physical exhibitions, museum tours, leaflets and catalogues, or as online experiences.
© All rights reserved Wolff et al. and/or ACM Press
Wolff, Annika L., Mulholland, Paul and Zdrahal, Zdenek (2010): Visual summaries of data: a spatial hypertext approach to user feedback. In: Proceedings of the 21st ACM Conference on Hypertext and Hypermedia 2010. pp. 287-288.
In this paper we describe the SILVER toolkit, which is designed for tasks in which a user learns by analysing and interpreting a set of resources. The user categorises each resource according to the set of properties that they identify as being applicable to it. Due to the large amount of data generated by this type of task, the user may find it hard to identify patterns in their classification and tagging, to recognise their own inconsistencies or make comparisons between themselves and others. Principles of spatial hypertext can be used to provide visual summaries of the data that can assist the above activities.
© All rights reserved Wolff et al. and/or their publisher
Wilkie, Katie, Holland, Simon and Mulholland, Paul (2009): Evaluating musical software using conceptual metaphors. In: Proceedings of the HCI09 Conference on People and Computers XXIII 2009. pp. 232-237.
An open challenge for interaction designers is to find ways of designing software to enhance the ability of novices to perform tasks that normally require specialized domain expertise. This challenge is particularly demanding in areas such as music analysis, where complex, abstract, domain-specific concepts and notations occur. One promising theoretical foundation for this work involves the identification of conceptual metaphors and image schemas, found by analyzing discourse. This kind of analysis has already been applied, with some success, both to musical concepts and, separately, to user interface design. The present work appears to be the first to combine these hitherto distinct bodies of research, with the aim of devising a general method for improving user interfaces for music. Some areas where this may require extensions to existing method are noted. This paper presents the results of an exploratory evaluation of Harmony Space, a tool for playing, analysing and learning about harmony. The evaluation uses conceptual metaphors and image schemas elicited from the dialogues of experienced musicians discussing the harmonic progressions in a piece of music. Examples of where the user interface supports the conceptual metaphors, and where support could be improved, are discussed. The potential use of audio output to support conceptual metaphors and image schemas is considered.
© All rights reserved Wilkie et al. and/or their publisher
Wolff, Annika, Mulholland, Paul, Zdrahal, Zdenek and Joiner, Richard (2007): Re-using digital narrative content in interactive games. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 65 (3) pp. 244-272.
This paper presents a model, called Scene-Driver, for the re-use of film and television material. We begin by exploring general issues surrounding the ways in which content can be sub-divided into meaningful units for re-use and how criteria might then be applied to the selection and ordering of these units. We also identify and discuss the different means by which a user might interact with the content to create novel and engaging experiences. The Scene-Driver model has been instantiated using content from an animated children's television series called Tiny Planets, which is aimed at children of 5-7-year old. This type of material, being story-based itself, lends itself particularly well to the application of narrative constraints to scene reordering, to provide coherence to the experience of interacting with the content. We propose an interactive narrative-driven game architecture, in which a user generates novel narratives from existing content by placing "domino" like tiles. These tiles act as "glue" between scenes and each tile choice dictates certain properties of the next scene to be shown within a game. There are three different game-types, based on three different ways in which tiles can be matched to scenes. We introduce algorithms for generating legal tile-sets for each of these three game-types, which can be extended to include narrative constraints. This ensures that all novel orderings adhere to a minimum narrative plan, which has been identified based on analysis of the Tiny Planets series and on narrative theories. We also suggest ways in which basic narratives can be enhanced by the inclusion of directorial techniques and by the use of more complex plot structures. In our evaluation studies with children in the target age-range, our game compared favourably with other games that the children enjoyed playing.
© All rights reserved Wolff et al. and/or Academic Press
Zdrahal, Zdenek, Mulholland, Paul, Valasek, Michael and Bernardi, Ansgar (2007): Worlds and transformations: Supporting the sharing and reuse of engineering design knowledge. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 65 (12) pp. 959-982.
Design involves the formulation of a solution, such as a product specification, from initial requirements. Design in industrial and other contexts often involves the building and use of models that allow the designer to test hypotheses and learn from possible design decisions prior to building the physical product. The building and testing of models is a design process in its own right. Previous work in knowledge management, design rationale and the psychology of design has demonstrated that designers often vary from prescriptive methodologies of the design process and have problems appropriately describing their design activity in order to support design collaboration and the reuse of design artefacts. Drawing on this work, we support design collaboration and reuse structured according to key transformational episodes in the design process and the design artefacts they produce. To support this, we characterise the design task as progressing through a series of worlds, each comprising its own concepts and vocabulary, and supported by its own design tools. The design process can then be described in terms of important transformations that are made from one world to the next. This allows a targeted approach to rationale capture integrated with work practice and associated with products of the design process. This approach has been successfully deployed and tested in two industrial engineering companies. Findings included improved collaboration in design teams, effective reuse and improved training for new members of the design team. This work has more general implications for the development of design rationale methods and tools to support the design process.
© All rights reserved Zdrahal et al. and/or Academic Press
Wolff, Annika, Mulholland, Paul, Zdrahal, Zdenek and Joiner, Richard W. (2007): Combining gameplay and narrative techniques to enhance the user experience of viewing galleries. In Computers in Entertainment, 5 (1) .
Mulholland, Paul, Collins, Trevor and Zdrahal, Zdenek (2005): Spotlight browsing of resource archives. In: Proceedings of the Sixteenth ACM Conference on Hypertext 2005. pp. 23-31.
Many organizations, particularly in the heritage sector, have large archives of digital content that they could make available to the general public or special interest groups if they had the appropriate mechanisms. Currently, these organizations can develop pre-crafted web sites, simple database-driven web sites or search facilities for accessing the content. However, none of these can be expected to appropriately present this content or scaffold its effective use. Our proposed solution is an approach to navigation that we term spotlight browsing. It has the following key features: (i) Users can select a collection of resources from the archive, shining a spotlight on this area of the archive; (ii) The collection is structured in a number of ways to support its exploration and convey interesting properties of the collection; (iii) Users can see what is on the periphery of their current collection in order to encourage further exploration; (iv) Users can redefine the collection in order to move their spotlight to another area of the archive; (v) Any item viewed while browsing can be bookmarked into a personal collection that can be built up using resources from many different spotlights. The approach has been implemented and tested using an archive of content from a heritage institution.
© All rights reserved Mulholland et al. and/or ACM Press
Mulholland, Paul, Ivergard, Toni and Kirk, Stuart (2005): Introduction: contemporary perspectives on learning for work - EDITORIAL to Special Issue. In Applied Ergonomics, 36 (2) .
Gaved, Mark and Mulholland, Paul (2005): Grassroots Initiated Networked Communities: A Study of Hybrid Physical/Virtual Communities. In: HICSS 2005 - 38th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences 3-6 January, 2005, Big Island, HI, USA. .
Mulholland, Paul, Collins, Trevor and Zdrahal, Zdenek (2004): Story fountain: intelligent support for story research and exploration. In: Nunes, Nuno Jardim and Rich, Charles (eds.) International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces 2004 January 13-16, 2004, Funchal, Madeira, Portugal. pp. 62-69.
Increasingly heritage institutions are making digital artifacts available to the general public and research groups to promote the active exploration of heritage and encourage visits to heritage sites. Stories, such as folklore and first person accounts form a useful and engaging heritage resource for this purpose. Story Fountain provides intelligent support for the exploration of digital stories. The suite of functions provided in Story Fountain together support the investigation of questions and topics that require the accumulation, association or induction of information across the story archive. Story Fountain provides specific support toward this end such as for comparing and contrasting story concepts, the presentation of story paths between concepts, and mapping stories and events according to properties such as who met whom and who lived where.
© All rights reserved Mulholland et al. and/or ACM Press
Wolff, Annika, Mulholland, Paul and Zdrahal, Zdenek (2004): Scene-driver: a narrative-driven game architecture reusing broadcast animation content. In: Proceedings of the 2004 ACM SIGCHI International Conference on Advances in Computer Entertainment Technology June 3-5, 2004, Singapore. pp. 91-99.
Wolff, Annika, Mulholland, Paul and Zdrahal, Zdenek (2004): Scene-Driver: reusing broadcast animation content for engaging, narratively coherent games. In: Costabile, Maria Francesca (ed.) AVI 2004 - Proceedings of the working conference on Advanced visual interfaces May 25-28, 2004, Gallipoli, Italy. pp. 94-97.
Mulholland, Paul, Zdrahal, Zdenek, Domingue, John, Hatala, Marek and Bernardi, Ansgar (2001): A methodological approach to supporting organizational learning. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 55 (3) pp. 337-367.
Many organizations need to respond quickly to change and their workers need
to regularly develop new knowledge and skills. The prevailing approach to
meeting these demands is on-the-job training, but this is known to be highly
ineffective, cause stress and devalue workplace autonomy. Conversely,
organizational learning is a process through which workers learn gradually in
the work context through experience, reflection on work practice and
collaboration with colleagues. Our approach aims to support and enhance
organizational learning around enriched work representations. Work
representations are tools and documents used to support collaborative working
and learning. These are enriched through associations with formal knowledge
models and informal discourse. The work representations, informal discourse and
associated knowledge models together form on organizational memory from which
knowledge can be retrieved later. Our methodological approach to supporting
organizational learning is drawn from three industrial case studies concerned
with machine maintenance, team planning and hotline support. The methodology
encompasses development and design activities, a description of the roles and
duties required to sustain the long-term use of the tools, and applicability
criteria outlining the kind of organizations that can benefit from this
© All rights reserved Mulholland et al. and/or Academic Press
Mulholland, Paul, Zdrahal, Zdenek, Domingue, John and Hatala, Marek (2000): Integrating Working and Enrichment Approach Learning: A Document. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 19 (3) pp. 171-180.
Integrating working and learning is seen as a desirable alternative to traditional training regimes. An integrated approach to working and learning is more gradual, contextual, problem oriented and cost effective. Knowledge technology aims to catalyze workplace learning, but requires the right organisational culture and brings additional costs regarding the articulation, representation and transmission of knowledge. Our approach reduces these costs by making articulation a natural part of collaborative working, designing for both informal and formal knowledge, and facilitating the transition of socially situated knowledge through enriched documents. To be successful, our approach has certain prequesites concerning organisational culture, and the nature of shared documents, organisational knowledge and work activities.
© All rights reserved Mulholland et al. and/or Taylor and Francis
Zdrahal, Zdenek, Mulholland, Paul, Domingue, John and Hatala, Marek (2000): Sharing Engineering Design Knowledge in a Distributed Environment. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 19 (3) pp. 189-200.
Engineering design is a complex activity, relying heavily on know-how gained from personal experience. Competitive pressures and new technology are making further demands on the skills and experience of designers, as effective knowledge reuse in design is seen as increasingly vital, and the work of design teams is often a collaborative and distributed activity. University students with a thorough knowledge of the engineering domain can be ill prepared for professional practice, with its increasing reliance on skills and know-how as well as knowledge of theory. Our approach aims to better prepare students for professional practice, through hands-on experience of design reuse, participation in distributed collaboration, and the development of presentation and documentation skills. Our case-study in the domain of modelling engineering systems, in which the course materials themselves are evolving and distributed, has ramifications for the publication model of educational materials, and the way students should be prepared for working life.
© All rights reserved Zdrahal et al. and/or Taylor and Francis
Mulholland, Paul and Watt, Stuart (2000): Learning by Building: A Visual Modelling Language for Psychology Students. In J. Vis. Lang. Comput., 11 (5) pp. 481-504.
Mulholland, Paul and Watt, Stuart (1998): Hank: A Friendly Cognitive Modelling Language for Psychology Students. In: VL 1998 1998. pp. 210-216.
Domingue, John and Mulholland, Paul (1998): An Effective Web-based Software Visualization Learning Environment. In J. Vis. Lang. Comput., 9 (5) pp. 485-508.
Mulholland, Paul (1997): Using a Fine-Grained Comparative Evaluation Technique to Understand and Design Software Visualization Tools. In: Empirical Studies of Programmers - Seventh Workshop October 24-26, 1997, 1997, Alexandria, Virginia. pp. 91-108.
Software Visualization can be defined as the use of graphical and textual formalisms to describe the execution of computer programs. A large amount of Software Visualization technology has been developed to support computer science education, using a range of interface techniques. Far less effort has been devoted to evaluating the technology. As a result, it is unclear how effective Software Visualization tools are, either for students or professional programmers. Even more worrying, it is doubtful whether lessons are being learnt in successive designs of Software Visualization tools, or whether the application of new technologies (e.g. 3D animation and the internet) has become the primary goal, rather than the true goal of making computer programs easier to understand. To counter this problem the study reported here used protocol analysis to develop a fine-grained account of user behaviour, identifying (i) information access from the display, (ii) the use of comprehension strategies, and (iii) misunderstandings of the visualization and execution. The results were able to motivate future deigns which in turn could be compared and improved. The approach is compared to other evaluation techniques which aim to inform design. Finally, the generalizability of the approach is considered.
© All rights reserved Mulholland and/or ACM Press
Domingue, John and Mulholland, Paul (1997): Staging Software Visualizations on the Web. In: VL 1997 1997. pp. 368-375.
Domingue, John and Mulholland, Paul (1997): Fostering Debugging Communities on the Web. In Communications of the ACM, 40 (4) pp. 65-71.
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