Number of co-authors:17
Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:M. Harrison:2Ann Lickorish:2S. Pocock:1
P. Wright's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:Erik Geelhoed:16P. Johnson:12Ann Lickorish:6
Civilization advances by extending the number of important operations which we can perform without thinking of them.
-- Alfred North Whitehead
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Publications by P. Wright (bibliography)
Blythe, M., Reid, J., Wright, P. and Geelhoed, Erik (2006): Interdisciplinary criticism: analysing the experience of riot! a location-sensitive digital narrative. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 25 (2) pp. 127-139.
This paper reports the findings from quantitative and qualitative studies of Riot! -- a location-sensitive interactive play for voices. The paper begins by introducing Riot!; it then explores the growing literature on theories of experience and goes on to report the findings from three empirical studies of the event: a questionnaire-based survey of 563 participants; 30 semi-structured interviews with groups and individuals; and in-depth ethnographic case studies of four participants. It was clear from the survey that most people had enjoyed Riot! However, the interview data demonstrated that they had also experienced frustration even where overall enjoyment ratings were high. This is explored in relation to perception of the system and goal definition. The ethnographic case studies identify barriers to engagement in terms of individual identity and orientation. A critical theory-based analysis of Riot! further explicates the user experience in terms of literary devices such as characterisation and the development of narrative expectation. The studies identify a number of usability problems such as inconsistency of interaction and non-reversibility that caused frustration. The critical analysis also identifies problems with the script such as the presentation of linear narrative in a non-linear medium. It accounts for widely differing accounts of the experience with reference to the participant's individual orientations or habitus. The paper demonstrates the value of an interdisciplinary approach for exploring the commonality and particularity of user experience.
© All rights reserved Blythe et al. and/or Taylor and Francis
Reed, D. J. and Wright, P. (2006): Place and the Experience of BLISS. In: Proceedings of the HCI06 Conference on People and Computers XX 2006. pp. 203-220.
McCarthy, J. and Wright, P. (2005): Technology in Place: Dialogics of Technology, Place and Self. In: Proceedings of IFIP INTERACT05: Human-Computer Interaction 2005. pp. 914-926.
Ubiquitous and ambient computing -- computationally enhanced built environments and portable products that aim to make computing available anytime-anywhere -- has somewhat paradoxically put place at the heart of Interaction Design. In this paper, foundations are laid for a dialogical approach to place as an expression of the experienced relationship between people and space. Building on McCarthy and Wright's dialogical conceptualisation of technology as experience, place is described in terms of the plurality of histories, interactions and meanings that characterise people's different engagements with particular spaces. Implications of a dialogical approach to place are considered with respect to the further development within Interaction Design of concepts such as context, engagement, and interactivity.
© All rights reserved McCarthy and Wright and/or Springer Verlag
Wright, P., Belt, S. and John, C. (2003): Fancy Graphics Can Deter Older Users: A Comparison of Two Interfaces for Exploring Healthy Lifestyle Options. In: Proceedings of the HCI03 Conference on People and Computers XVII 2003. pp. 315-326.
Pocock, S., Harrison, M., Wright, P. and Johnson, P. (2001): THEA: A Technique for Human Error Assessment Early in Design. In: Proceedings of IFIP INTERACT01: Human-Computer Interaction 2001, Tokyo, Japan. pp. 247-254.
Fields, B., Harrison, M. and Wright, P. (1994): From Informal Requirements to Agent-Based Specification. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 26 (2) pp. 65-68.
Black, A., Wright, P., Black, D. and Norman, K. (1992): Consulting On-Line Dictionary Information while Reading. In Hypermedia, 4 (3) pp. 145-169.
Electronic documents allow readers to access definitions of unfamiliar words by clicking on the screen display. Five studies report eight comparisons which explore how changing the modality (visual/auditory) and form (verbal/graphic) of the defining information influences people's willingness to consult definitions while reading short stories. Study 1 gave verbal definitions of words that were completely novel and explored the effects of definition length and reading task. It was found that readers checked the meanings of nearly all the unknown words. This remained the case in study 2 where auditory rather than visual definitions were given; but people re-read more stories than in Study 1 suggesting gist comprehension may have been impaired by mixing modalities. In study 3 the defined words were familiar but not always precisely understood (e.g. architrave). Here people consulted significantly fewer definitions regardless of whether these included pictures. Study 4 visually cued the defined architectural terms within the text and found significantly more definitions were read. In study 5 these defined terms were listed in a separate glossary alongside the text. This affected both the frequency and pattern with which readers consulted definitions. Overall this series of studies shows that, unless readers recognise words as novel, their willingness to consult definitions depends on how the definitions are made available.
© All rights reserved Black et al. and/or Taylor Graham
Wright, P. and Lickorish, Ann (1988): Colour Cues as Location Aids in Lengthy Texts on Screen and Paper. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 7 (1) pp. 11-30.
Readers of documents on CRT displays report difficulties in remembering whereabouts in a lengthy text they previously read something. Four experiments explore whether subdividing such texts, at appropriate thematic boundaries, into five successive coloured sections can aid readers' retrieval of information. Experiment 1, using texts presented on coloured paper, showed that this use of colour helped readers relocate information. Experiment 2 presented the same texts on a CRT, but variation in the colour of the characters on the screen did not help readers relocate information. Experiment 3 replicated the findings of experiment 2, with texts differing in both content and structure from those used previously. Experiment 4, again using coloured text on a CRT display, showed that giving readers a visible guide to the ordering of the coloured sections was not sufficient to restore the advantage that coloured pages had for texts presented on paper. The implications of these findings for variation in the background and foreground colouring of multi-window displays are discussed, but the main conclusion concerns the caution needed when transferring information design solutions across media.
© All rights reserved Wright and Lickorish and/or Taylor and Francis
Tombaugh, J., Lickorish, Ann and Wright, P. (1987): Multi-Window Displays for Readers of Lengthy Texts. In International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 26 (5) pp. 597-615.
Two experiments explore whether it would help readers re-locate information in an "electronic book" if different windows on the screen were used to display specific sections of the text. Experiment 1, using a within-subject design, showed that reading and question answering were faster with a single window than with a multi-window display. Experiment 2, in which procedural skills were developed before starting the experiment, and a between-subject design was used, showed that this advantage for the single window display would not generally be the case. The multi-window display was a significant help to readers relocating information once they were familiar with the procedures for manipulating the text. The studies suggest ways in which the display of lengthy electronic texts may be improved. They also illustrate the ease with which misleading results can be obtained in studies of human-computer interaction, and emphasize the need for establishing adequate levels of procedural skill before exploring display characteristics.
© All rights reserved Tombaugh et al. and/or Academic Press
Wright, P. and Bason, G. (1983): Detour Routes to Usability: A Comparison of Alternative Approaches to Multipurpose Software Design. In International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 18 (4) pp. 391-400.
This article explores a central issue in system design, namely whether the system should be designed to meet clients' specification of their problem, or whether that problem should be reinterpreted by the system designer in order to exploit characteristics and potential of the computer-based medium. Accepting such reinterpretation may require users to re-think their approach to their problem, i.e. to make conceptual detours. That such detours can sometimes prove highly expedient and acceptable to users is illustrated with reference to a comparison of two software packages designed for casual users. The packages shared the same application, the same user group and the same designer, but diverged in their underlying philosophy. This resulted in differences in command language, in user support and in the acceptability of the packages to the user group. Two conclusions are drawn: first that detour routes can sometimes provide a viable solution path to design problems, and secondly that there is a need to develop ways of evaluating the potential of alternative designs (whether involving detours or not) rather than continue striving for some optimum compatibility with users' initial conceptualizations.
© All rights reserved Wright and Bason and/or Academic Press
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