Publication statistics

Pub. period:2003-2012
Pub. count:25
Number of co-authors:21



Co-authors

Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Philippas Tsigas:10
Jean-Daniel Fekete:6
Mihail Eduard Tudoreanu:4

 

 

Productive colleagues

Niklas Elmqvist's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Jean-Daniel Fekete:35
Yves Guiard:26
Pierre Dragicevic:24
 
 
 

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Niklas Elmqvist

 

Publications by Niklas Elmqvist (bibliography)

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2012
 
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Javed, Waqas, Ghani, Sohaib and Elmqvist, Niklas (2012): GravNav: using a gravity model for multi-scale navigation. In: Proceedings of the 2012 International Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces 2012. pp. 217-224. Available online

We present gravity navigation (GravNav), a family of multi-scale navigation techniques that use a gravity-inspired model for assisting navigation in large visual 2D spaces based on the interest and salience of visual objects in the space. GravNav is an instance of topology-aware navigation, which makes use of the structure of the visual space to aid navigation. We have performed a controlled study comparing GravNav to standard zoom and pan navigation, with and without variable-rate zoom control. Our results show a significant improvement for GravNav over standard navigation, particularly when coupled with variable-rate zoom. We also report findings on user behavior in multi-scale navigation.

© All rights reserved Javed et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Murugappan, Sundar, Vinayak, A, Elmqvist, Niklas and Ramani, Karthik (2012): Extended multitouch: recovering touch posture and differentiating users using a depth camera. In: Proceedings of the 2012 ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology 2012. pp. 487-496. Available online

Multitouch surfaces are becoming prevalent, but most existing technologies are only capable of detecting the user's actual points of contact on the surface and not the identity, posture, and handedness of the user. In this paper, we define the concept of extended multitouch interaction as a richer input modality that includes all of this information. We further present a practical solution to achieve this on tabletop displays based on mounting a single commodity depth camera above a horizontal surface. This will enable us to not only detect when the surface is being touched, but also recover the user's exact finger and hand posture, as well as distinguish between different users and their handedness. We validate our approach using two user studies, and deploy the technique in a scratchpad tool and in a pen + touch sketch tool.

© All rights reserved Murugappan et al. and/or ACM Press

2011
 
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Kwon, Bum chul, Javed, Waqas, Elmqvist, Niklas and Yi, Ji Soo (2011): Direct manipulation through surrogate objects. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 627-636. Available online

Direct manipulation has had major influence on interface design since it was proposed by Shneiderman in 1982. Although directness generally benefits users, direct manipulation also has weaknesses. In some cases, such as when a user needs to manipulate small, attribute-rich objects or multiple objects simultaneously, indirect manipulation may be more efficient at the cost of directness or intuitiveness of the interaction. Several techniques have been developed over the years to address these issues, but these are all isolated and limited efforts with no coherent underlying principle. We propose the notion of Surrogate Interaction that ties together a large subset of these techniques through the use of a surrogate object that allow users to interact with the surrogate instead of the domain object. We believe that formalizing this family of interaction techniques will provide an additional and powerful interface design alternative for interaction designers, as well as uncover opportunities for future research.

© All rights reserved Kwon et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Dragicevic, Pierre, Bezerianos, Anastasia, Javed, Waqas, Elmqvist, Niklas and Fekete, Jean-Daniel (2011): Temporal distortion for animated transitions. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 2009-2018. Available online

Animated transitions are popular in many visual applications but they can be difficult to follow, especially when many objects move at the same time. One informal design guideline for creating effective animated transitions has long been the use of slow-in/slow-out pacing, but no empirical data exist to support this practice. We remedy this by studying object tracking performance under different conditions of temporal distortion, i.e., constant speed transitions, slow-in/slow-out, fast-in/fast-out, and an adaptive technique that slows down the visually complex parts of the animation. Slow-in/slow-out outperformed other techniques, but we saw technique differences depending on the type of visual transition.

© All rights reserved Dragicevic et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Ghani, Sohaib and Elmqvist, Niklas (2011): Improving revisitation in graphs through static spatial features. In: Proceedings of the 2011 Conference on Graphics Interface 2011. pp. 175-182.

People generally remember locations in visual spaces with respect to spatial features and landmarks. Geographical maps provide many spatial features and hence are easy to remember. However, graphs are often visualized as node-link diagrams with few spatial features. We evaluate whether adding static spatial features to node-link diagrams will help in graph revisitation. We discuss three strategies for embellishing a graph and evaluate each in a user study. In our first study, we evaluate how to best add background features to a graph. In the second, we encode position using node size and color. In the third and final study, we take the best techniques from the first and second study, as well as shapes added to the graph as virtual landmarks, to find the best combination of spatial features for graph revisitation. We discuss the user study results and give our recommendations for design of graph visualization software.

© All rights reserved Ghani and Elmqvist and/or their publisher

 
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Ko, Sungahn, Kim, KyungTae, Kulkarni, Tejas and Elmqvist, Niklas (2011): Applying mobile device soft keyboards to collaborative multitouch tabletop displays: design and evaluation. In: Proceedings of the 2011 ACM International Conference on Interactive Tabletops and Surfaces 2011. pp. 130-139. Available online

We present an evaluation of text entry methods for tabletop displays given small display space allocations, an increasingly important design constraint as tabletops become collaborative platforms. Small space is already a requirement of mobile text entry methods, and these can often be easily ported to tabletop settings. The purpose of this work is to determine whether these mobile text entry methods are equally useful for tabletop displays, or whether there are unique aspects of text entry on large, horizontal surfaces that influence design. Our evaluation consists of two studies designed to elicit differences between the mobile and tabletop domains. Results show that standard soft keyboards perform best, even at small space allocations. Furthermore, occlusion-reduction methods like Shift do not yield significant improvements to text entry; we speculate that this is due to the low ratio of resolution per surface units (i.e., DPI) for current tabletops.

© All rights reserved Ko et al. and/or ACM Press

2010
 
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Yi, Ji Soo, Elmqvist, Niklas and Lee, Seungyoon (2010): TimeMatrix: Analyzing Temporal Social Networks Using Interactive Matrix-Based Visualizations. In International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 26 (11) pp. 1031-1051. Available online

Visualization plays a crucial role in understanding dynamic social networks at many different levels (i.e., group, subgroup, and individual). Node-link-based visualization techniques are currently widely used for these tasks and have been demonstrated to be effective, but it was found that they also have limitations in representing temporal changes, particularly at the individual and subgroup levels. To overcome these limitations, this article presents a new network visualization technique, called "TimeMatrix," based on a matrix representation. Interaction techniques, such as overlay controls, a temporal range slider, semantic zooming, and integrated network statistical measures, support analysts in studying temporal social networks. To validate the design, the article presents a user study involving three social scientists analyzing inter-organizational collaboration data. The study demonstrates how TimeMatrix may help analysts gain insights about the temporal aspects of network data that can be subsequently tested with network analytic methods.

© All rights reserved Yi et al. and/or Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

2009
 
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Fekete, Jean-Daniel, Elmqvist, Niklas and Guiard, Yves (2009): Motion-pointing: target selection using elliptical motions. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2009. pp. 289-298. Available online

We present a novel method called motion-pointing for selecting a set of visual items such as push-buttons without actually pointing to them. Instead, each potential target displays a rhythmically animated point we call the driver. To select a specific item, the user only has to imitate the motion of its driver using the input device. Once the motion has been recognized by the system, the user can confirm the selection to trigger the action. We consider cyclic motions on an elliptic trajectory with a specific period, and study the most effective methods for real-time matching such a trajectory, as well as the range of parameters a human can reliably reproduce. We then show how to implement motion-pointing in real applications using an interaction technique we call move-and-stroke. Finally, we measure the throughput and error rate of move-and-stroke in a controlled experiment. We show that the selection time is linearly proportional to the number of input bits conveyed up to 6 bits, confirming that motion-pointing is a practical input method.

© All rights reserved Fekete et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Elmqvist, Niklas, Riche, Yann, Henry, Nathalie and Fekete, Jean-Daniel (2009): Mlange: Space Folding for Visual Exploration. In IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, . Available online

Navigating in large geometric spacessuch as maps, social networks, or long documentstypically require a sequence of pan and zoom actions. However, this strategy is often ineffective and cumbersome, especially when trying to study and compare several distant objects. We propose a new distortion technique that folds the intervening space to guarantee visibility of multiple focus regions. The folds themselves show contextual information and support unfolding and paging interactions. We conducted a study comparing the space-folding technique to existing approaches, and found that participants performed significantly better with the new technique. We also describe how to implement this distortion technique, and give an in-depth case study on how to apply it to the visualization of large-scale 1D time-series data.

© All rights reserved Elmqvist et al. and/or their publisher

2008
 
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Elmqvist, Niklas, Henry, Nathalie, Riche, Yann and Fekete, Jean-Daniel (2008): Melange: space folding for multi-focus interaction. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2008 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 5-10, 2008. pp. 1333-1342. Available online

Interaction and navigation in large geometric spaces typically require a sequence of pan and zoom actions. This strategy is often ineffective and cumbersome, especially when trying to study several distant objects. We propose a new distortion technique that folds the intervening space to guarantee visibility of multiple focus regions. The folds themselves show contextual information and support unfolding and paging interactions. Compared to previous work, our method provides more context and distance awareness. We conducted a study comparing the space-folding technique to existing approaches, and found that participants performed significantly better with the new technique.

© All rights reserved Elmqvist et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Elmqvist, Niklas, Tudoreanu, Mihail Eduard and Tsigas, Philippas (2008): Evaluating motion constraints for 3D wayfinding in immersive and desktop virtual environments. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2008 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 5-10, 2008. pp. 1769-1778. Available online

Motion constraints providing guidance for 3D navigation have recently been suggested as a way of offloading some of the cognitive effort of traversing complex 3D environments on a computer. We present findings from an evaluation of the benefits of this practice where users achieved significantly better results in memory recall and performance when given access to such a guidance method. The study was conducted on both standard desktop computers with mouse and keyboard, as well as on an immersive CAVE system. Interestingly, our results also show that the improvements were more dramatic for desktop users than for CAVE users, even outperforming the latter. Furthermore, the study indicates that allowing the users to retain local control over the navigation on the desktop platform helps them in familiarizing themselves with the 3D world.

© All rights reserved Elmqvist et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Elmqvist, Niklas and Fekete, Jean-Daniel (2008): Semantic Pointing for Object Picking in Complex 3D Environments. In: Proceedings of the 2008 Conference on Graphics Interface May 28-30, 2008, Windsor, Ontario, Canada. pp. 243-250.

Today's large and high-resolution displays coupled with powerful graphics hardware offer the potential for highly realistic 3D virtual environments, but also cause increased target acquisition difficulty for users interacting with these environments. We present an adaptation of semantic pointing to object picking in 3D environments. Essentially, semantic picking shrinks empty space and expands potential targets on the screen by dynamically adjusting the ratio between movement in visual space and motor space for relative input devices such as the mouse. Our implementation operates in the image-space using a hierarchical representation of the standard stencil buffer to allow for real-time calculation of the closest targets for all positions on the screen. An informal user study indicates that subjects perform more accurate pointing with semantic 3D pointing than without.

© All rights reserved Elmqvist and Fekete and/or their publisher

2007
 
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Henry, Nathalie, Goodell, Howard, Elmqvist, Niklas and Fekete, Jean-Daniel (2007): 20 Years of Four HCI Conferences: A Visual Exploration. In International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 23 (3) pp. 239-285. Available online

We present a visual exploration of the field of human-computer interaction (HCI) through the author and article metadata of four of its major conferences: the ACM conferences on Computer-Human Interaction (CHI), User Interface Software and Technology, and Advanced Visual Interfaces and the IEEE Symposium on Information Visualization. This article describes many global and local patterns we discovered in this data set, together with the exploration process that produced them. Some expected patterns emerged, such as that -- like most social networks -- coauthorship and citation networks exhibit a power-law degree distribution, with a few widely collaborating authors and highly cited articles. Also, the prestigious and long-established CHI conference has the highest impact (citations by the others). Unexpected insights included that the years when a given conference was most selective are not correlated with those that produced its most highly referenced articles and that influential authors have distinct patterns of collaboration. An interesting sidelight is that methods from the HCI field -- exploratory data analysis by information visualization and direct-manipulation interaction -- proved useful for this analysis. They allowed us to take an open-ended, exploratory approach, guided by the data itself. As we answered our original questions, new ones arose; as we confirmed patterns we expected, we discovered refinements, exceptions, and fascinating new ones.

© All rights reserved Henry et al. and/or Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

 
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Elmqvist, Niklas, Tudoreanu, Mihail Eduard and Tsigas, Philippas (2007): Tour generation for exploration of 3D virtual environments. In: Majumder, Aditi, Hodges, Larry F., Cohen-Or, Daniel and Spencer, Stephen N. (eds.) VRST 2007 - Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Virtual Reality Software and Technology November 5-7, 2007, Newport Beach, California, USA. pp. 207-210. Available online

 
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Elmqvist, Niklas and Tsigas, Philippas (2007): TrustNeighborhoods: Visualizing Trust in Distributed File Sharing Systems. In: Museth, Ken, Moller, Torsten and Ynnerman, Anders (eds.) EuroVis07 Joint Eurographics - IEEE VGTC Symposium on Visualization 23-25 May, 2007, Norrkping, Sweden. pp. 107-114. Available online

 
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Elmqvist, Niklas, Assarsson, Ulf and Tsigas, Philippas (2007): Employing Dynamic Transparency for 3D Occlusion Management: Design Issues and Evaluation. In: Baranauskas, Maria Ceclia Calani, Palanque, Philippe A., Abascal, Julio and Barbosa, Simone Diniz Junqueira (eds.) DEGAS 2007 - Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Design and Evaluation of e-Government Applications and Services September 11th, 2007, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. pp. 532-545. Available online

 
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Elmqvist, Niklas and Tudoreanu, Mihail Eduard (2007): Occlusion Management in Immersive and Desktop 3D Virtual Environments: Theory and Evaluation. In IJVR, 6 (2) pp. 21-32. Available online

 
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Elmqvist, Niklas and Tsigas, Philippas (2007): A Taxonomy of 3D Occlusion Management Techniques. In: Sherman, William R., Lin, Ming C. and Steed, Anthony (eds.) IEEE Virtual Reality Conference, VR 2007 10-14 March, 2007, Charlotte, NC, USA. pp. 51-58. Available online

 
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Elmqvist, Niklas and Tsigas, Philippas (2007): View-projection animation for 3D occlusion management. In Computers & Graphics, 31 (6) pp. 864-876. Available online

2006
 
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Elmqvist, Niklas and Tudoreanu, Mihail Eduard (2006): Evaluating the effectiveness of occlusion reduction techniques for 3D virtual environments. In: Slater, Mel, Kitamura, Yoshifumi, Tal, Ayellet, Amditis, Angelos and Chrysanthou, Yiorgos (eds.) VRST 2006 - Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Virtual Reality Software and Technology November 1-3, 2006, Limassol, Cyprus. pp. 9-18. Available online

 
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Elmqvist, Niklas and Tsigas, Philippas (2006): View projection animation for occlusion reduction. In: Celentano, Augusto (ed.) AVI 2006 - Proceedings of the working conference on Advanced visual interfaces May 23-26, 2006, Venezia, Italy. pp. 471-475. Available online

 
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Elmqvist, Niklas and Tsigas, Philippas (2006): TrustNeighborhoods in a nutshell. In: Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Software Visualization 2006. pp. 189-190. Available online

In this short paper, we review the TrustNeighborhoods system for 2D and 3D visualization of trust relationships on the Internet for novice and intermediate-level users. Intended to convey a tangible mental model of security, the system is based on the concept of "circles of relationship" as a model for computer usage proposed by Ben Shneiderman, and uses a strong visual metaphor of a multi-layered city or fortress representing the computer network. Trust relationships are shown using an intuitive geographic relation. The tool has both 2D and 3D modes, one intended for configuration and trust management, the other for non-intrusive situational awareness of security for the local computer.

© All rights reserved Elmqvist and Tsigas and/or ACM Press

2005
 
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Elmqvist, Niklas (2005): BalloonProbe: reducing occlusion in 3D using interactive space distortion. In: Singh, Gurminder, Lau, Rynson W. H., Chrysanthou, Yiorgos and Darken, Rudolph P. (eds.) VRST 2005 - Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Virtual Reality Software and Technology November 7-9, 2005, Monterey, CA, USA. pp. 134-137. Available online

2003
 
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Elmqvist, Niklas and Tsigas, Philippas (2003): Causality Visualization Using Animated Growing Polygons. In: InfoVis 2003 - 9th IEEE Symposium on Information Visualization 20-21 October, 2003, Seattle, WA, USA. . Available online

 
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Elmqvist, Niklas and Tsigas, Philippas (2003): Growing squares: animated visualization of causal relations. In: Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Software Visualization 2003. pp. 17-ff. Available online

We present a novel information visualization technique for the graphical representation of causal relations, that is based on the metaphor of color pools spreading over time on a piece of paper. Messages between processes in the system affect the colors of their respective pool, making it possible to quickly see the influences each process has received. This technique, called Growing Squares, has been evaluated in a comparative user study and shown to be significantly faster and more efficient for sparse data sets than the traditional Hasse diagram visualization. Growing Squares were also more efficient for large data sets, but not significantly so. Test subjects clearly favored Growing Squares over old methods, naming the new technique easier, more efficient, and much more enjoyable to use.

© All rights reserved Elmqvist and Tsigas and/or ACM Press

 
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