Number of co-authors:25
Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:Larry F. Hodges:6Benjamin Watson:5John B. Smelcer:4
Neff Walker's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:Scott E. Hudson:113Larry F. Hodges:54James D. Foley:49
Knowledge is commonly socially constructed, through collaborative efforts towards shared objectives or by dialogues and challenges brought about by different persons' perspectives.
-- G. Salomon (in "Distributed Cognitions: Psychological and Educational Considerations")
Read the fascinating history of Wearable Computing, told by its father, Steve Mann
Read Steve's chapter !
Publications by Neff Walker (bibliography)
Watson, Benjamin, Walker, Neff, Woytiuk, Peter and Ribarsky, William (2003): Maintaining Usability During 3D Placement Despite Delay. In: IEEE Virtual Reality Conference 2003 VR 2003 22-26 March, 2003, Los Angeles, CA, USA. pp. 133-140.
Dinh, Huong Q., Walker, Neff, Hodges, Larry F., Song, Chang and Kobayashi, Akira (1999): Evaluating the Importance of Multi-sensory Input on Memory and the Sense of Presence in Virtual Environments. In: VR 1999 1999. pp. 222-228.
Worden, Aileen, Walker, Neff, Bharat, Krishna and Hudson, Scott E. (1997): Making Computers Easier for Older Adults to Use: Area Cursors and Sticky Icons. In: Pemberton, Steven (ed.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 97 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference March 22-27, 1997, Atlanta, Georgia. pp. 266-271.
The normal effects of aging include some decline in cognitive, perceptual, and motor abilities. This can have a negative effect on the performance of a number of tasks, including basic pointing and selection tasks common to today's graphical user interfaces. This paper describes a study of the effectiveness of two interaction techniques: area cursors and sticky icons, in improving the performance of older adults in basic selection tasks. The study described here indicates that when combined, these techniques can decrease target selection times for older adults by as much as 50% when applied to the most difficult cases (smallest selection targets). At the same time these techniques are shown not to impede performance in cases known to be problematical for related techniques (e.g., differentiation between closely spaced targets) and to provide similar but smaller benefits for younger users.
© All rights reserved Worden et al. and/or ACM Press
Watson, Benjamin, Walker, Neff, Hodges, Larry F. and Worden, Aileen (1997): Managing Level of Detail Through Peripheral Degradation: Effects on Search Performance with a Head-Mounted Display. In ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 4 (4) pp. 323-346.
Two user studies were performed to evaluate the effect of level-of-detail (LOD) degradation in the periphery of head-mounted displays on visual search performance. In the first study, spatial detail was degraded by reducing resolution. In the second study, detail was degraded in the color domain by using grayscale in the periphery. In each study, 10 subjects were given a complex search task that required users to indicate whether or not a target object was present among distracters. Subjects used several different displays varying in the amount of detail presented. Frame rate, object location, subject input method, and order of display use were all controlled. The primary dependent measures were search time on correctly performed trials and the percentage of all trials correctly performed. Results indicated that peripheral LOD degradation can be used to reduce color or spatial visual complexity by almost half in some search tasks with out significantly reducing performance.
© All rights reserved Watson et al. and/or ACM Press
Reddy, Martin, Watson, Benjamin, Walker, Neff and Hodges, Larry F. (1997): Managing Level of Detail in Virtual Environments: A Perceptual Framework. In Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 6 (6) pp. 658-666.
Watson, Benjamin, Walker, Neff, Hodges, Larry F. and Reddy, Martin (1997): An Evaluation of Level of Detail Degradation in Head-Mounted Display Peripheries. In Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 6 (6) pp. 630-637.
Watson, Benjamin, Walker, Neff and Hodges, Larry F. (1997): Managing level of detail through head-tracked peripheral degradation: a model and resulting design principles. In: VRST 1997 1997. pp. 59-63.
Kessler, G. Drew, Hodges, Larry F. and Walker, Neff (1995): Evaluation of the CyberGlove as a Whole-Hand Input Device. In ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 2 (4) pp. 263-283.
We present a careful evaluation of the sensory characteristics of the CyberGlove model CG1801 whole-hand input device. In particular, we conducted an experimental study that investigated the level of sensitivity of the sensors, their performance in recognizing angles, and factors that affected accuracy of recognition of flexion measurements. Among our results, we show that hand size differences among the subjects of the study did not have a statistical effect on the accuracy of the device. We also analyzed the effect of different software calibration approaches on accuracy of the sensors.
© All rights reserved Kessler et al. and/or ACM Press
Walker, Neff, Fisk, Arthur D., Phipps, Donita and Kirlik, Alex (1994): Training Perceptual-Rule Based Skills. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 38th Annual Meeting 1994. pp. 1178-1182.
The results of an experiment are discussed that address how best to train perceptual-rule based skills within a domain where rules correlate to perceptual aspects of a dynamic evolving environment. Participants performed the role of football quarterback where the object of the task was to learn to identify the correct pass receiver in a simulated football system. The correct receiver could always be specified by a set of rules or subtle perceptual cues. Subjects were assigned to one of four training groups which were constructed by complete crossing of rule versus no rule learning and visual enhancement training versus no visual enhancement training. After training trials all subjects transferred to new plays in which new rules or perceptual cues were required. Transfer performance was superior for the participants who received the visually enhanced training. These results are discussed in light of theories of part-task training.
© All rights reserved Walker et al. and/or Human Factors Society
Lohse, Gerald L., Biolsi, Kevin, Walker, Neff and Rueter, Henry H. (1994): A Classification of Visual Representations. In Communications of the ACM, 37 (12) pp. 36-49.
Smelcer, John B. and Walker, Neff (1993): Transfer of Knowledge Across Computer Command Menus. In International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 5 (2) pp. 147-165.
Two experiments are reported that examine the effects of menu organization and command naming on performance within and across computer command menus. The work on performance within menus extends prior work on information retrieval (IR) menus to computer command menus. We found that selection of computer commands conforms to the same laws that govern selection of IR categories and object names, with alphabetic organization leading to shorter search times in early trials when users knew the names of the commands. When users did not know the exact names of the commands, the functional organization led to shorter search times. More importantly, we found that the knowledge of the functional organization transferred from one application menu to another, thereby reducing search time in the menu of the second application.
© All rights reserved Smelcer and Walker and/or Lawrence Erlbaum Associates
Foley, James D., Mitchell, Christine M. and Walker, Neff (1992): Human-Computer Interaction Research at Georgia Institute of Technology. In: Bauersfeld, Penny, Bennett, John and Lynch, Gene (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 92 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference June 3-7, 1992, Monterey, California. pp. 61-62.
Seagull, F. Jacob and Walker, Neff (1992): The Effects of Hierarchical Structure and Visualization Ability on Computerized Information Retrieval. In International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 4 (4) pp. 369-385.
This study examined the effects of visualization ability on search time in databases with different hierarchical structures. It was designed to determine whether manipulation of the hierarchical structures of information could accommodate the needs of low-visualization ability users. The task consisted of finding specific "target" files in each of the four different data structures that varied in depth of organization. The study found the expected effects of organizational structure and visualization ability on retrieval time from the database. It did not find any evidence of an interaction between the two variables on performance. The results suggest that individual differences in performance are the result of differences in perceptual speed and that altering the structure of the information in a database is not an effective way to accommodate to low-visualization ability users.
© All rights reserved Seagull and Walker and/or Lawrence Erlbaum Associates
Lohse, Gerald L., Walker, Neff, Biolsi, Kevin and Rueter, Henry (1991): Classifying Graphical Information. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 10 (5) pp. 419-436.
The research lays the groundwork work or a taxonomy of visual representations by establishing a methodology for determining the kinds of knowledge conveyed by different graphical representations. In the first of two experiments, the basic categories and dimensions of a set of graphics were established using a sorting procedure. Five principal categories emerged: graphs/tables, maps, diagrams, networks, and icons. Furthermore, two principal dimensions characterize these groups: amount of spatial information and amount of cognitive processing effort. The second experiment validated and extended this understanding of the cognitive structure of visual representation. In that experiment, similarity among items was assessed using pairwise similarity judgments. The results confirmed the original categories and revealed distinct differences between subjects who did or did not have graphic arts training.
© All rights reserved Lohse et al. and/or Taylor and Francis
Walker, Neff, Smelcer, John B. and Nilsen, Erik (1991): Optimizing Speed and Accuracy of Menu Selection: A Comparison of Walking and Pull-Down Menus. In International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 35 (6) pp. 871-890.
This paper reports three experiments that investigated factors which affect movement time and accuracy of menu selection with a mouse. The experiments primarily focused on the movements required to select from walking menus. The results suggest that width of the path that the cursor must travel can be an important variable in explaining speed and accuracy of motor movement in a walking menu. The studies also investigated the effects of impermeable borders and the size of menu items on movement time. The results show that borders and changing the size of menu items can improve the speed and accuracy of selection time. A final study found that when borders are used on a pull-down bar menu, the time required to access a second-level menu is less than that required by a walking menu, even though the walking menu pops up at the pointer location and the bar menu is located 15 cm away from the initial pointer position.
© All rights reserved Walker et al. and/or Academic Press
Walker, Neff and Smelcer, John B. (1990): A Comparison of Selection Times from Walking and Pull-Down Menus. In: Carrasco, Jane and Whiteside, John (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 90 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference 1990, Seattle, Washington,USA. pp. 221-225.
This paper reports on an experiment that investigated factors which effect selection time from walking menus and bar or pull-down menus. The primary focus was on the use of impenetrable borders and on expanding target areas on the two menus types. The results show that both factors can be used to facilitate menu selection, with the use of borders being most beneficial. In additional, the results suggest that even on large monitors, the time required to access items from a bar menu is less than that required for the best walking menu.
© All rights reserved Walker and Smelcer and/or ACM Press
Smelcer, John B. and Walker, Neff (1990): Transfer Across Computer Command Menus. In: D., Woods, and E., Roth, (eds.) Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 34th Annual Meeting 1990, Santa Monica, USA. pp. 439-443.
Two experiments are reported which examine the effects of menu organization and command naming on performance across computer command menus. Results indicate that different menu organizations are best for different selection tasks when switching between applications. Surprisingly, different sources for command names have no effect on selection times. When users know the exact names of the commands that they are searching for, an alphabetic organization produces faster search times in early trials. However, when users know only the definitions of the commands that they are searching for, a conceptual organization leads to faster search times in early trials. Knowledge of this conceptual organization transfers to a new application and speeds selection time in the second application. Also, similar names for identical commands transfers to the second application and improves performance there. However, keeping identical commands in the same position across applications has no effect on performance.
© All rights reserved Smelcer and Walker and/or Human Factors Society
Lohse, Gerald L., Rueter, Henry H., Biolsi, Kevin and Walker, Neff (1990): Classifying Visual Knowledge Representations: A Foundation for Visualization Research. In: IEEE Visualization 1990 1990. pp. 131-138.
Walker, Neff and Olson, Judith R. (1988): Designing Keybindings to be Easy to Learn and Resistant to Forgetting Even When the Set of Commands is Large. In: Soloway, Elliot, Frye, Douglas and Sheppard, Sylvia B. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 88 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference June 15-19, 1988, Washington, DC, USA. pp. 201-206.
We formulated a set of rules for producing key-commands that are alternatives for activating commands with a mouse from a menu. Because software is getting increasingly complex, it was important that the rules cover a wide variety of commands. The rules combined verb-modifier-object order and mnemonic abbreviations for the words in each slot. Our keybindings were shown not only to cover a wide set, but to be far easier to learn than EMACS (a common keybinding set) and a more robust form with respect to negative interference from prior and post-learning of another set.
© All rights reserved Walker and Olson and/or ACM Press
Show this list on your homepage
Join the technology elite and advance:
Changes to this page (author)02 May 2011: Added29 Apr 2011: Added
20 Feb 2010: Modified
17 Aug 2009: Added
16 Jun 2009: Added
14 Jun 2009: Added
01 Jun 2009: Added
01 Jun 2009: Added
26 Jun 2007: Added
26 Jun 2007: Added
28 Apr 2003: Added
Page maintainer: The Editorial Team