Number of co-authors:19
Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:Christopher D. Wickens:5Angelia Sebok:4David D. Woods:3
Nadine B. Sarter's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:Christopher D. Wic..:75David D. Woods:35Angelia Sebok:12
...that strange new zone between medium and message. That zone we call the interface
-- Steven Johnson, 1997
Read the fascinating history of Wearable Computing, told by its father, Steve Mann
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The Social Design of Technical Systems: Building technologies for communities
by Brian Whitworth and Adnan Ahmad
The Encyclopedia of Human-Computer Interaction, 2nd Ed.
by Mads Soegaard and Rikke Friis Dam
Nadine B. Sarter
Publications by Nadine B. Sarter (bibliography)
Prinet, Julie C., Terhune, Andrew and Sarter, Nadine B. (2012): Supporting Dynamic Re-Planning In Multiple Uav Control: A Comparison of 3 Levels of Automation. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 2012 Annual Meeting 2012. pp. 423-427.
Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) control currently requires multiple operators to supervise the mission of a single vehicle. The goal is to improve this ratio and have a single operator supervise up to 10 UAVs. Achieving this goal requires the introduction of automated systems that support multitasking and decision-making. However, there is uncertainty about the appropriate level of automation (LOA). The present study compared re-planning performance at three LOAs (manual, intermediate, full automation) of 30 participants who each supervised 9 UAVs. Full automation resulted in the best re-planning performance and matched intermediate automation in terms of target detection. The manual condition showed significantly poorer performance on these tasks, especially in high workload, but suffered the smallest loss of UAVs. Subjectively, most participants preferred intermediate automation, which they trusted more than full automation. The findings from this research help inform UAV system design and add to the knowledge base in human-automation collaboration.
© All rights reserved Prinet et al. and/or Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Li, Huiyang, Sarter, Nadine B., Sebok, Angelia and Wickens, Christopher D. (2012): The Design and Evaluation of Visual and Tactile Warnings in Support of Space Teleoperation. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 2012 Annual Meeting 2012. pp. 1331-1335.
Space teleoperation is a very challenging task, in part due to the difficulty with maintaining awareness of the robotic arm's configuration. Operators sometimes fail to notice undesirable arm configurations, such as joint limits or singularities, due to poor graphic user interface (GUI) designs and visual data overload. These failures can lead to hazards and unsafe conditions. The present study served to develop and comparatively evaluate the effectiveness of two approaches to supporting astronauts in monitoring the arm: 1) visual highlighting and information integration, and 2) tactile warnings. Performance measures and eye tracking data were collected and show that visual highlighting/integration and tactile warnings resulted in faster response times to, and successful avoidance of problematic arm configurations. The findings also highlight that additional support is needed for later stages of information processing, such as response selection. The findings from this research not only benefit space teleoperation but can inform the design of interfaces in other data-rich domains.
© All rights reserved Li et al. and/or Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Moacdieh, Nadine M. and Sarter, Nadine B. (2012): Eye Tracking Metrics: A Toolbox for Assessing the Effects of Clutter on Attention Allocation. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 2012 Annual Meeting 2012. pp. 1366-1370.
Display clutter is a problem that affects operators in various data-rich environments. Clutter measurement techniques such as image processing and performance measures can provide an estimate of clutter but are largely not suited to tracing the effects of clutter on the dynamic allocation of attention. Eye tracking is a promising process-oriented tool that can help assess in real-time the attentional costs associated with the different aspects of clutter. In this experiment, we investigated which of a number of eye tracking metrics in the literature are sensitive to clutter. Twenty-two participants were asked to look for a target in static and dynamic images that were classified as either high or low in clutter. Response time and error rate were recorded, and an eye tracker was used to compute the identified eye tracking metrics. Results showed that, in both the static and dynamic conditions, a large number of eye tracking metrics were significantly affected by an increase in clutter. This suggests that eye tracking can be used to supplement other clutter measurement techniques by providing information about dynamic attention allocation.
© All rights reserved Moacdieh and Sarter and/or Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Lu, Sara A., Wickens, Christopher D., Sarter, Nadine B., Thomas, Lisa C., Nikolic, Mark I. and Sebok, Angelia (2012): Redundancy Gains in Communication Tasks: A Comparison of Auditory, Visual, and Redundant Auditory-Visual Information Presentation on NextGen Flight Decks. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 2012 Annual Meeting 2012. pp. 1476-1480.
The redundant presentation of information in more than one sensory channel has traditionally been assumed to benefit performance. However, a recent meta-analysis suggests that redundancy gains may depend on task type and a number of moderator variables. The present study examined the effectiveness of visual, auditory, and redundant auditory-visual information presentation under high and low workload in the context of a mid-fidelity NextGen flight simulation with experienced airline pilots as participants. Overall, for two types of communication tasks -- data link and ATIS -- faster responses were observed for redundant displays, compared to vision and audition alone. No significant benefit of redundancy was found for accuracy due to a ceiling effect and workload did not mediate redundancy effects. The findings from this research add to the knowledge base in multimodal and redundant information processing and can inform modality choices in the design of displays for complex, data-rich domains.
© All rights reserved Lu et al. and/or Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Lu, Sara A., Wickens, Christopher D., Sarter, Nadine B. and Sebok, Angelia (2011): Informing the Design of Multimodal Displays: A Meta-Analysis of Empirical Studies Comparing Auditory and Tactile Interruptions. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 55th Annual Meeting 2011. pp. 1170-1174.
The expected air traffic growth will introduce new tasks and automation technologies. As a result, the amount of mostly visual cockpit information will increase significantly, leading to more interruptions and risk of data overload. One promising means of addressing this challenge is through the use of multimodal interfaces which distribute information across sensory channels. To inform the design of such interfaces, a meta-analysis was conducted on the effectiveness and performance effects of auditory versus tactile interruption signals. From the 23 studies, ratio scores were computed to compare performance between the two modalities. The impact of 6 moderator variables was also examined. Overall, this analysis shows faster responses to tactile interruptions. However, more complex and very urgent interruption signals are better presented via the auditory modality. The findings add to our knowledge base in multimodal information processing and can inform modality choices in display design for complex data-rich domains.
© All rights reserved Lu et al. and/or HFES
Wickens, Christopher D., Li, Huiyang, Santamaria, Amy, Sebok, Angelia and Sarter, Nadine B. (2010): Stages and Levels of Automation: An Integrated Meta-analysis. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 54th Annual Meeting 2010. pp. 389-393.
Function allocation between human and automation can be represented in terms of the stages&levels taxonomy proposed by Parasuraman, Sheridan&Wickens (2000). Higher degrees of automation (DOA) are achieved both by later stages (e.g., automation decision aiding rather than diagnostic aiding) and higher levels within stages (e.g. executing a choice unless vetoed, versus offering the human several choices). A meta analysis based on data of 14 experiments examines the mediating effects of DOA on routine system performance, performance when the automation fails, workload and situation awareness. The effects of DOA on these four measures are summarized by level of statistical significance. We found: (1) an inverse relationship between routine performance and workload as automation is introduced and DOA increases. (2) a weak positive relationship between routine performance and failure performance, as mediated by DOA. (3) A strong mediating role of situation awareness in improving both routine and failure performance.
© All rights reserved Wickens et al. and/or HFES
Sarter, Nadine B. and Woods, David D. (1995): "From Tool to Agent": The Evolution of (Cockpit) Automation and Its Impact on Human-Machine Coordination. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 39th Annual Meeting 1995. pp. 79-83.
In a variety of domains, researchers have observed breakdowns in human-automation coordination and cooperation. One form of breakdown is a lack of mode awareness which can result in 'automation surprises'. These are, in part, related to a lack of adequate feedback on system status and behavior. The need for effective and timely feedback has become even more pressing with the evolution of systems that operate at increasingly high levels of authority and autonomy. In the absence of improved feedback design, however, the gap between required and available information has widened. To explore the impact of this trend towards 'strong yet silent' machine agents, a line of research was conducted on pilot-automation coordination on the Airbus A-320, an aircraft that exemplifies these trends. This research involved a survey of pilots' line experiences with the A-320 automation, observations of transition training to the airplane, and an experimental simulation study on pilots' mode awareness and pilot-automation coordination. The results of this work indicate a trend from mode errors of commission (which represented a more frequent problem on early generation 'glass cockpit' aircraft) to errors of omission. In other words, pilots were more likely to fail to observe and interfere with uncommanded and undesired automation and aircraft behavior. Such errors of omission also seem to have played a role in recent incidents and accidents. They illustrate the need for improved communicative abilities in autonomous and powerful systems to enable them to actively support the coordination between human and machine.
© All rights reserved Sarter and Woods and/or Human Factors Society
Sarter, Nadine B. and Woods, David D. (1992): Mode Error in Supervisory Control of Automated Systems. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 36th Annual Meeting 1992. pp. 26-29.
Mode errors are one kind of breakdown in human-computer interaction. The concept was developed originally in the context of relatively simple reactive computerized devices such as word processors. When a device possesses multiple modes, where something is done one way in one mode and another way in another mode, there is increased potential for erroneous actions. In this paper we extend and expand the concept of mode error to supervisory control of automated resources in event-driven situations such as pilot interaction with cockpit automation. In this type of situation, the state of the automated system can change in response to either operator input, situation factors or system factors. This creates complexities in tracking system mode changes over time, surprises created by "uncommanded" mode changes, and the possibility of errors of omission as well as commission in managing multiple system modes. Progress in our understanding of mode error in the context of highly automated systems is important in our ability to develop effective countermeasures for mode-related problems in human-computer cooperation.
© All rights reserved Sarter and Woods and/or Human Factors Society
Sarter, Nadine B., Woods, David D., Braune, Rolf J., Palmer, Everett, Rogers, William H., Wickens, Christopher D., Harwood, Kelly, Andre, Anthony, Aretz, Anthony, Wiener, Earl L. and Boje, Elmar (1990): Situational Awareness in the Advanced Commercial Aircraft Cockpit. In: D., Woods, and E., Roth, (eds.) Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 34th Annual Meeting 1990, Santa Monica, USA. pp. 21-25.
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