Number of co-authors:17
Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:Peter G. Polson:11Miki Namatame:4Haruhiko Takeuchi:3
Muneo Kitajima's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:Peter G. Polson:46Clayton H. Lewis:37Miki Namatame:9
Computer programs emerge as the outcome of complex human processes of cognition, communication and negotiation, which serve to establish the meaningful embedding of the computer system in its intended use context.
-- Floyd, 1992, p. 24
Read the fascinating history of Wearable Computing, told by its father, Steve Mann
Read Steve's chapter !
The Social Design of Technical Systems: Building technologies for communities
by Brian Whitworth and Adnan Ahmad
The Encyclopedia of Human-Computer Interaction, 2nd Ed.
by Mads Soegaard and Rikke Friis Dam
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Personal Homepage: oberon.nagaokaut.ac.jp/ktjm/index.html
Publications by Muneo Kitajima (bibliography)
Dinet, Jérôme and Kitajima, Muneo (2011): "Draw me the Web": impact of mental model of the web on information search performance of young users. In: Proceedings of the 2011 Conference of the Association Francophone dInteraction Homme-Machine 2011. p. 3.
The aim of this experiment conducted with 51 French children was to understand the relationships between children's information search performances and their mental model of the Web. Each participant was individually asked (a) to complete a demographic questionnaire asking experience with the Web, (b) to draw a picture of her/his perception about the Web, and (c) to perform two search tasks. The results showed that several mental models existed for young users about the Web, independently of their experience with the Web. Moreover, the results confirmed that mental model of the Web could have an effect on the performance.
© All rights reserved Dinet and Kitajima and/or ACM Press
Kitajima, Muneo and Nakajima, Masato (2010): Cognitive Chrono-Ethnography: A Method for Studying Behavioral Selections in Daily Activities. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 54th Annual Meeting 2010. pp. 1732-1736.
As human beings, we select our next behavior that should maximize our satisfaction by making use of the meme of our past experiences and by processing input from the environment and individual intrinsic state by appropriately allocating available cognitive resources. The underlying processes have been simulated by the Model Human Processor with Real-Time Constraints (MHP/RT) (Toyota and Kitajima, 2010). Based on MHP/RT, this paper proposes Cognitive Chrono-Ethnography (CCE), a new study method for understanding human behavior selections in daily life. When a study field is specified, CCE defines critical parameters by conducting qualitative MHP/RT simulations, and then designs ethnographical field observations and recordings of elite monitors' behavior in the space defined by the critical parameters. Structured interviews follow in order to obtain the participants' history of behavioral development. Analysis of the interview results aid in developing models of present behavior selections and chronological changes. A case study of CCE that deals with spectators' repetitive visits to a ballpark is presented in this paper.
© All rights reserved Kitajima and Nakajima and/or HFES
Kitajima, Muneo and Akamatsu, Motoyuki (2009): Information for Helping Drivers Achieve Safe and Enjoyable Driving: An On-Road Observational Study. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 53rd Annual Meeting 2009. pp. 1801-1805.
In this study, a series of on-road observations were conducted to derive information necessary for safe and enjoyable driving. Four pairs of participants were chosen from among those responding to a Web survey and attending a follow-up interview. Each pair was asked to drive six routes. Three of the routes were familiar to one of the pair and new to the other, with the former serving as navigator and the latter serving as driver. For the other three routes, the roles were reversed. Three interviews were conducted, one coming after two drives in which the pair played both roles, in order to derive information considered necessary for safe and enjoyable driving by the participants who served as driver on routes unknown to them. Three kinds of information for safe and enjoyable driving were identified: 1) guidance for routing, 2) support for safe driving, and 3) provision of miscellaneous information, such as information about daily topics of interest to the driver and information about interesting things to see along the route.
© All rights reserved Kitajima and Akamatsu and/or their publisher
Namatame, Miki and Kitajima, Muneo (2008): Suitable representations of hyperlinks for deaf persons: an eye-tracking study. In: Tenth Annual ACM SIGACCESS Conference on Assistive Technologies 2008. pp. 247-248.
This paper reports an eye-tracking experiment conducted to compare alternative representations of directories typically shown on web pages in search of a best representation for deaf persons. The experiment simulated a directory-based information search task to understand how it is performed when directories are represented in text, labeled-pictograms, or unlabeled-pictograms. Twenty-one deaf and 21 hearing participants were asked to select one of 27 directories represented in one of the three alternative formats for each of 38 queries. The result demonstrated that only in the labeled-pictogram representation, the hearing group and the deaf group performed equally well in terms of the eye movement measures.
© All rights reserved Namatame and Kitajima and/or ACM Press
Habuchi, Yoshiko, Kitajima, Muneo and Takeuchi, Haruhiko (2008): Comparison of eye movements in searching for easy-to-find and hard-to-find information in a hierarchically organized information structure. In: Räihä, Kari-Jouko and Duchowski, Andrew T. (eds.) ETRA 2008 - Proceedings of the Eye Tracking Research and Application Symposium March 26-28, 2008, Savannah, Georgia, USA. pp. 131-134.
Sato, Sigeru, Kitajima, Muneo and Fukui, Yukio (2007): Basic Experimental Verification of Grasping Information Interface Concept, Grasping Force Increases in Precise Periods. In: Smith, Michael J. and Salvendy, Gavriel (eds.) Symposium on Human Interface 2007 - Part I July 22-27, 2007, Beijing, China. pp. 180-188.
Namatame, Miki and Kitajima, Muneo (2006): Improving web usability for the hard-of-hearing. In: Räihä, Kari-Jouko and Duchowski, Andrew T. (eds.) ETRA 2006 - Proceedings of the Eye Tracking Research and Application Symposium March 27-29, 2006, San Diego, California, USA. p. 39.
Habuchi, Yoshiko, Takeuchi, Haruhiko and Kitajima, Muneo (2006): The influence of web browsing experience on web-viewing behavior. In: Räihä, Kari-Jouko and Duchowski, Andrew T. (eds.) ETRA 2006 - Proceedings of the Eye Tracking Research and Application Symposium March 27-29, 2006, San Diego, California, USA. p. 47.
Namatame, Miki, Nishioka, Tomoyuki and Kitajima, Muneo (2006): Designing a Web Page Considering the Interaction Characteristics of the Hard-of-Hearing. In: Miesenberger, Klaus, Klaus, Joachim, Zagler, Wolfgang L. and Karshmer, Arthur I. (eds.) ICCHP 2006 - Computers Helping People with Special Needs, 10th International Conference July 11-13, 2006, Linz, Austria. pp. 136-143.
Blackmon, Marilyn Hughes, Kitajima, Muneo and Polson, Peter G. (2005): Tool for accurately predicting website navigation problems, non-problems, problem severity, and effectiveness of repairs. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 31-40.
The Cognitive Walkthrough for the Web (CWW) is a partially automated usability evaluation method for identifying and repairing website navigation problems. Building on five earlier experiments [3,4], we first conducted two new experiments to create a sufficiently large dataset for multiple regression analysis. Then we devised automatable problem-identification rules and used multiple regression analysis on that large dataset to develop a new CWW formula for accurately predicting problem severity. We then conducted a third experiment to test the prediction formula and refined CWW against an independent dataset, resulting in full cross-validation of the formula. We conclude that CWW has high psychological validity, because CWW gives us (a) accurate measures of problem severity, (b) high success rates for repairs of identified problems (c) high hit rates and low false alarms for identifying problems, and (d) high rates of correct rejections and low rates of misses for identifying non-problems.
© All rights reserved Blackmon et al. and/or ACM Press
Namatame, Miki, Kitajima, Muneo, Nishioka, Tomoyuki and Fukamauchi, Fumihiko (2004): A Preparatory Study for Designing Web-Based Educational Materials for the Hearing-Impaired. In: Klaus, Joachim, Miesenberger, Klaus, Zagler, Wolfgang L. and Burger, Dominique (eds.) ICCHP 2004 - Computers Helping People with Special Needs - 9th International Conference July 7-9, 2004, Paris, France. pp. 1144-1151.
Blackmon, Marilyn Hughes, Kitajima, Muneo and Polson, Peter G. (2003): Repairing usability problems identified by the cognitive walkthrough for the web. In: Cockton, Gilbert and Korhonen, Panu (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2003 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 5-10, 2003, Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, USA. pp. 497-504.
Sato, Steve, Kitajima, Muneo and Fukui, Y. (2003): Proposal of Grasping Force Interface as Realtime Mickey Ratio Adjuster for Pointing Tasks of Mouse. In: Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2003. pp. 771-775.
Kitajima, Muneo (2003): Comprehension-Based Approach to HCI for Designing Interaction in Information Space. In: Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2003. pp. 1031-1035.
Takeuchi, Haruhiko, Kitajima, Muneo and Urokobara, Haruhiko (2003): Using Psychological Word Database in Web Search. In: 2003 IEEE / WIC International Conference on Web Intelligence - WI 2003 13-17 October, 2003, Halifax, Canada. pp. 474-477.
Blackmon, Marilyn Hughes, Polson, Peter G., Kitajima, Muneo and Lewis, Clayton H. (2002): Cognitive walkthrough for the web. In: Terveen, Loren (ed.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2002 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 20-25, 2002, Minneapolis, Minnesota. pp. 463-470.
Kitajima, Muneo, Blackmon, M. H. and Polson, Peter G. (2000): A Comprehension-based Model of Web Navigation and Its Application to Web Usability Analysis. In: Proceedings of the HCI00 Conference on People and Computers XIV 2000. pp. 357-374.
Kitajima, Muneo and Polson, Peter G. (1998): Knowledge Required for Understanding Task-Oriented Instructions. In: Third Asian Pacific Computer and Human Interaction July 15-17, 1998, Kangawa, Japan. pp. 19-24.
Kitajima, Muneo and Polson, Peter G. (1997): A Comprehension-Based Model of Exploration. In Human-Computer Interaction, 12 (4) pp. 345-389.
The linked model of comprehension-based action planning and instruction taking (LICAI) simulates performing by exploration tasks using applications hosted on systems with graphical user interfaces. The tasks are given to the user as written exercises containing no information about the correct action sequences. LICAI's comprehension and action-planning processes are based on Kintsch's construction-integration (C-I) theory for text comprehension. The model assumes that comprehending instructions is a strategic process; instruction texts must be elaborated using specialized strategies that guide goal generation. LICAI comprehends the instructions and generates goals that are then stored in memory. The action-planning processes are controlled by goals retrieved from memory. Representations of goals that can guide exploration are restricted by the C-I architecture. The model predicts that successful exploration requires linking of the goal representation with the label on the correct object. The model is evaluated by comparing its predictions with results from an experimental study of learning by exploration by Franzke (1994, 1995). We discuss the implications of LICAI for designing instruction materials and interfaces that facilitate exploration.
© All rights reserved Kitajima and Polson and/or Taylor and Francis
Kitajima, Muneo and Polson, Peter G. (1997): Mapping Instructions onto Actions: A Comprehension-Based Model of Display-Based Human-Computer Interaction. In: Smith, Michael J., Salvendy, Gavriel and Koubek, Richard J. (eds.) HCI International 1997 - Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction - Volume 2 August 24-29, 1997, San Francisco, California, USA. pp. 83-86.
Kitajima, Muneo and Polson, Peter G. (1996): A Comprehension-Based Model of Exploration. In: Tauber, Michael J., Bellotti, Victoria, Jeffries, Robin, Mackinlay, Jock D. and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 96 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 14-18, 1996, Vancouver, Canada. pp. 324-331.
This paper describes a comprehension-based model of how experienced Macintosh users learn a new application by doing a task presented as a series of exercises. A comprehension mechanism transforms written instructions into goals that control an action planning process proposed by Kitajima and Polson . The transformation process is based on a theory of solving word problems developed by Kintsch [8,9]. The comprehension and action planning processes define constraints on the wording of effective instructions. The combined model is evaluated using data from Franzke . We discuss implications of these results for Minimalist Instructions  and Cognitive Walkthroughs .
© All rights reserved Kitajima and Polson and/or ACM Press
Kitajima, Muneo and Polson, Peter G. (1995): A Comprehension-Based Model of Correct Performance and Errors in Skilled, Display-Based, Human-Computer Interaction. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 43 (1) pp. 65-99.
This paper describes a computational model of skilled use of an application with a graphical user interface. The model provides a principled explanation of action slips, errors made by experienced users. The model is based on Hutchins, Hollan and Norman's analysis of direct manipulation and is implemented using Kintsch and Mannes's construction-integration theory of action planning. The model attends to a limited number of objects on the screen and then selects action on one of them, such as moving mouse cursor, clicking mouse button, typing letters, and so on, by integrating information from various sources. These sources include the display, task goals, expected display states, and knowledge about the interface and the application domain. The model simulates a graph drawing task. In addition, we describe how the model makes errors even when it is provided with the knowledge sufficient to generate correct actions.
© All rights reserved Kitajima and Polson and/or Academic Press
Kitajima, Muneo and Polson, Peter G. (1995): Mechanisms of Slips in Display-Based Human-Computer Interaction: A Model-Based Analysis. In: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction July 9-14, 1995, Tokyo, Japan. pp. 515-520.
Kitajima, Muneo and Polson, Peter G. (1992): A Computational Model of Skilled Use of a Graphical User Interface. In: Bauersfeld, Penny, Bennett, John and Lynch, Gene (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 92 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference June 3-7, 1992, Monterey, California. pp. 241-249.
This paper describes a computational model of skilled use of a graphical user interface based on Kintsch's construction-integration theory [4, 8]. The model uses knowledge of a detailed representation of information on the display, a user's goals and expectations, knowledge about the interface, and knowledge about the application domain to compute actions necessary to accomplish the user's current goal. The model provides a well-motivated account of one kind of errors, action slips , made by skilled users. We show how information about the intermediate state of a task on the display plays a critical role in skilled performance, i.e., display-based problem solving .
© All rights reserved Kitajima and Polson and/or ACM Press
Kitajima, Muneo (1989): A Formal Representation System for the Human-Computer Interaction Process. In International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 30 (6) pp. 669-696.
This paper presents a formal representation system for interpretive understanding of users interacting with systems. In order to fully characterize the interaction process, a local-interaction-based approach is taken. An interactive system is represented in the form of rules expressed in terms of cognitive units. A cognitive unit is a combination of a concept and an attribute. The concepts are distinct cognitive objects concerning the system and the attributes are different aspects of each concept. Thus, cognitive units can be regarded as objects through which a user communicates with the system. The interaction process is represented in a sequence of applied system rules. A method for inferring user's cognitive states in the interaction process such as working memory and planning units is presented. Through an investigation on hypothesized user actions carried out on the existing screen-oriented editor system represented by the proposed framework, it is discussed that some statistics of working memory load indicate cognitive complexity of particular tasks, and quite understandable planning units are derived by the method.
© All rights reserved Kitajima and/or Academic Press
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