Number of co-authors:24
Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:Matthew Kay:5Edward Lank:5Adam Fourney:5
Michael Terry's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:Elizabeth D. Mynat..:71Charles L. A. Clar..:35Edward Lank:26
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Publications by Michael Terry (bibliography)
Fourney, Adam and Terry, Michael (2012): PICL: portable in-circuit learner. In: Proceedings of the 2012 ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology 2012. pp. 569-578. Available online
This paper introduces the PICL, the portable in-circuit learner. The PICL explores the possibility of providing standalone, low-cost, programming-by-demonstration machine learning capabilities to circuit prototyping. To train the PICL, users attach a sensor to the PICL, demonstrate example input, then specify the desired output (expressed as a voltage) for the given input. The current version of the PICL provides two learning modes, binary classification and linear regression. To streamline training and also make it possible to train on highly transient signals (such as those produced by a camera flash or a hand clap), the PICL includes a number of input inferencing techniques. These techniques make it possible for the PICL to learn with as few as one example. The PICL's behavioural repertoire can be expanded by means of various output adapters, which serve to transform the output in useful ways when prototyping. Collectively, the PICL's capabilities allow users of systems such as the Arduino or littleBits electronics kit to quickly add basic sensor-based behaviour, with little or no programming required.
© All rights reserved Fourney and Terry and/or ACM Press
Fourney, Adam, Mann, Richard and Terry, Michael (2011): Characterizing the usability of interactive applications through query log analysis. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 1817-1826. Available online
People routinely rely on Internet search engines to support their use of interactive systems: they issue queries to learn how to accomplish tasks, troubleshoot problems, and otherwise educate themselves on products. Given this common behavior, we argue that search query logs can usefully augment traditional usability methods by revealing the primary tasks and needs of a product's user population. We term this use of search query logs CUTS -- characterizing usability through search. In this paper, we introduce CUTS and describe an automated process for harvesting, ordering, labeling, filtering, and grouping search queries related to a given product. Importantly, this data set can be assembled in minutes, is timely, has a high degree of ecological validity, and is arguably less prone to self-selection bias than data gathered via traditional usability methods. We demonstrate the utility of this approach by applying it to a number of popular software and hardware systems.
© All rights reserved Fourney et al. and/or their publisher
Fourney, Adam, Mann, Richard and Terry, Michael (2011): Query-feature graphs: bridging user vocabulary and system functionality. In: Proceedings of the 2011 ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology 2011. pp. 207-216. Available online
This paper introduces query-feature graphs, or QF-graphs. QF-graphs encode associations between high-level descriptions of user goals (articulated as natural language search queries) and the specific features of an interactive system relevant to achieving those goals. For example, a QF-graph for the GIMP graphics manipulation software links the query "GIMP black and white" to the commands "desaturate" and "grayscale." We demonstrate how QF-graphs can be constructed using search query logs, search engine results, web page content, and localization data from interactive systems. An analysis of QF-graphs shows that the associations produced by our approach exhibit levels of accuracy that make them eminently usable in a range of real-world applications. Finally, we present three hypothetical user interface mechanisms that illustrate the potential of QF-graphs: search-driven interaction, dynamic tooltips, and app-to-app analogy search.
© All rights reserved Fourney et al. and/or ACM Press
Kay, Matthew and Terry, Michael (2010): Textured agreements: re-envisioning electronic consent. In: Proceedings of the 2010 Symposium on Usable Privacy and Security 2010. p. 13. Available online
Research indicates that less than 2% of the population reads license agreements during software installation . To address this problem, we developed textured agreements, visually redesigned agreements that employ factoids, vignettes, and iconic symbols to accentuate information and highlight its personal relevance. Notably, textured agreements accomplish these goals without requiring modification of the underlying text. A between-subjects experimental study with 84 subjects indicates these agreements can significantly increase reading times. In our study, subjects spent approximately 37 seconds on agreement screens with textured agreements, compared to 7 seconds in the plain text control condition. A follow-up study examined retention of agreement content, finding that median scores on a comprehension quiz increased by 4 out of 16 points for textured agreements. These results provide convincing evidence of the potential for textured agreements to positively impact software agreement processes.
© All rights reserved Kay and Terry and/or their publisher
Lank, Edward, Stedman, Ryan and Terry, Michael (2010): Estimating residual error rate in recognized handwritten documents using artificial error injection. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2010. pp. 1-4. Available online
Both handwriting recognition systems and their users are error prone. Handwriting recognizers make recognition errors, and users may miss those errors when verifying output. As a result, it is common for recognized documents to contain residual errors. Unfortunately, in some application domains (e.g. health informatics), tolerance for residual errors in recognized handwriting may be very low, and a desire might exist to maximize user accuracy during verification. In this paper, we present a technique that allows us to measure the performance of a user verifying recognizer output. We inject artificial errors into a set of recognized handwritten forms and show that the rate of injected errors and recognition errors caught is highly correlated in real time. Systems supporting user verification can make use of this measure of user accuracy in a variety of ways. For example, they can force users to slow down or can highlight injected errors that were missed, thus encouraging users to take more care.
© All rights reserved Lank et al. and/or their publisher
Terry, Michael, Kay, Matthew and Lafreniere, Ben (2010): Perceptions and practices of usability in the free/open source software (FoSS) community. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2010. pp. 999-1008. Available online
This paper presents results from a study examining perceptions and practices of usability in the free/open source software (FOSS) community. 27 individuals associated with 11 different FOSS projects were interviewed to understand how they think about, act on, and are motivated to address usability issues. Our results indicate that FOSS project members possess rather sophisticated notions of software usability, which collectively mirror definitions commonly found in HCI textbooks. Our study also uncovered a wide range of practices that ultimately work to improve software usability. Importantly, these activities are typically based on close, direct interpersonal relationships between developers and their core users, a group of users who closely follow the project and provide high quality, respected feedback. These relationships, along with positive feedback from other users, generate social rewards that serve as the primary motivations for attending to usability issues on a day-to-day basis. These findings suggest a need to reconceptualize HCI methods to better fit this culture of practice and its corresponding value system.
© All rights reserved Terry et al. and/or their publisher
Kay, Matthew and Terry, Michael (2010): Communicating software agreement content using narrative pictograms. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2010. pp. 2715-2724. Available online
We present narrative pictograms, illustrative diagrams designed to convey the abstract concepts of software agreements. Narrative pictograms arose out of a need to create software agreements that are comprehensible without written language. We first present example diagrams designed to describe the data collection policies of research software, and the composition rules used to create them. We then present our design process and lessons learned during design. Finally, we present results from an evaluation based on the ISO 9186-1 test for graphical symbols.
© All rights reserved Kay and Terry and/or their publisher
Bach, Paula M. and Terry, Michael (2010): The future of FLOSS in CHI research and practice. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2010. pp. 4473-4476. Available online
In the past 10 years, Free/Libre/Open Source Software (FLOSS) has become a potent enabler in all areas of computing. Despite its rise in importance, the CHI community has been slow to study and partner with the FLOSS community. This workshop will join researchers and practitioners from the CHI and FLOSS communities to establish an agenda for future research and collaboration between the two communities.
© All rights reserved Bach and Terry and/or their publisher
Fourney, Adam, Mann, Richard and Terry, Michael (2010): What can internet search engines "suggest" about the usage and usability of popular desktop applications?. In: Proceedings of the 2010 ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology 2010. pp. 417-418. Available online
In this paper, we show how Internet search query logs can yield rich, ecologically valid data sets describing the common tasks and issues that people encounter when using software on a day-to-day basis. These data sets can feed directly into standard usability practices. We address challenges in collecting, filtering, and summarizing queries, and show how data can be collected at very low cost, even without direct access to raw query logs.
© All rights reserved Fourney et al. and/or their publisher
Lafreniere, Benjamin, Bunt, Andrea, Whissell, John S., Clarke, Charles L. A. and Terry, Michael (2010): Characterizing large-scale use of a direct manipulation application in the wild. In: Proceedings of the 2010 Conference on Graphics Interface 2010. pp. 11-18. Available online
Examining large-scale, long-term application use is critical to understanding how an application meets the needs of its user community. However, there have been few published analyses of long-term use of desktop applications, and none that have examined applications that support creating and modifying content using direct manipulation. In this paper, we present an analysis of 2 years of usage data from an instrumented version of the GNU Image Manipulation Program, including data from over 200 users. In the course of our analysis, we show that previous findings concerning the sparseness of command use and idiosyncrasy of users' command vocabularies extend to a new domain and interaction style. These findings motivate continued research in adaptive and mixed-initiative interfaces. We also describe the novel application of a clustering technique to characterize a user community's higher-level tasks from low-level logging data.
© All rights reserved Lafreniere et al. and/or their publisher
Fourney, Adam, Terry, Michael and Mann, Richard (2010): Gesturing in the wild: understanding the effects and implications of gesture-based interaction for dynamic presentations. In: Proceedings of the HCI10 Conference on People and Computers XXIV 2010. pp. 230-240. Available online
Driven by the increasing availability of low-cost sensing hardware, gesture-based input is quickly becoming a viable form of interaction for a variety of applications. Electronic presentations (e.g., PowerPoint, Keynote) have long been seen as a natural fit for this form of interaction. However, despite 20 years of prototyping such systems, little is known about how gesture-based input affects presentation dynamics, or how it can be best applied in this context. Instead, past work has focused almost exclusively on recognition algorithms. This paper explicitly addresses these gaps in the literature. Through observations of real-world practices, we first describe the types of gestures presenters naturally make and the purposes these gestures serve when presenting content. We then introduce Maestro, a gesture-based presentation system explicitly designed to support and enhance these existing practices. Finally, we describe the results of a real-world field study in which Maestro was evaluated in a classroom setting for several weeks. Our results indicate that gestures which enable direct interaction with slide content are the most natural fit for this input modality. In contrast, we found that using gestures to navigate slides (the most common implementation in all prior systems) has significant drawbacks. Our results also show how gesture-based input can noticeably alter presentation dynamics, often in ways that are not desirable.
© All rights reserved Fourney et al. and/or BCS
Bunt, Andrea, Terry, Michael and Lank, Edward (2009): Friend or foe?: examining CAS use in mathematics research. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2009. pp. 229-238. Available online
Computer Algebra Systems (CAS) provide sophisticated functionality to assist with mathematical problem solving. Despite their widespread adoption, however, little work in the HCI community has examined the extent to which these computational tools support domain experts. In this paper, we report findings from a qualitative study investigating the work practices and tools of nine mathematicians in a research setting. Counter to our expectations, our data suggests that computational tools play only a minor role in their workflow, with the limited use of CAS owing primarily to four factors: (1) the need for transparency in CAS's reasoning to explain computed results; (2) the problem of rigidity and formality in CAS's input/output style dialogue; (3) the need for 2D input to support a wide range of annotations, diagrams, and in-place manipulation of objects of interest; and (4) the need for collaboration, particularly in early stages of problem solving. While grounded in the study of mathematicians, these findings (particularly the first) have implications for the design of computational systems intended to support complex problem solving.
© All rights reserved Bunt et al. and/or ACM Press
Kay, Matthew and Terry, Michael (2009): Textured agreements: re-envisioning electronic consent. In: Proceedings of the 2009 Symposium on Usable Privacy and Security 2009. p. 35. Available online
Carroll, Erin A., Latulipe, Celine, Fung, Richard and Terry, Michael (2009): Creativity factor evaluation: towards a standardized survey metric for creativity support. In: Proceedings of the 2009 Conference on Creativity and Cognition 2009. pp. 127-136. Available online
We present a new survey metric, the Creativity Support Index (CSI) that is designed to help researchers and designers evaluate the level of creativity support provided by various systems or interfaces. We initially employed a top-down literature-based approach to develop a beta version of the Creativity Support Index (Beta CSI). We discuss our usage of the Beta CSI in three different studies and what we learned from those deployments. We also present the results from an extensive creativity vocabulary study (n=300), which revealed a set of orthogonal creativity factors. This led to the current version of the CSI presented in this paper. Initial results from these formative evaluations suggest the value of this tool in assessing and comparing creativity support tools at points in time and longitudinally.
© All rights reserved Carroll et al. and/or their publisher
Terry, Michael, Kay, Matthew, Vugt, Brad Van, Slack, Brandon and Park, Terry (2008): Ingimp: introducing instrumentation to an end-user open source application. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2008 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 5-10, 2008. pp. 607-616. Available online
Open source projects are gradually incorporating usability methods into their development practices, but there are still many unmet needs. One particular need for nearly any open source project is data that describes its user base, including information indicating how the software is actually used in practice. This paper presents the concept of open instrumentation, or the augmentation of an open source application to openly collect and publicly disseminate rich application usage data. We demonstrate the concept of open instrumentation in ingimp, a version of the open source GNU Image Manipulation Program that has been modified to collect end-user usage data. ingimp automatically collects five types of data: The commands used, high-level user interface events, overall features of the user's documents, summaries of the user's general computing environment, and users' own descriptions of their planned tasks. In the spirit of open source software, all collected data are made available for anyone to download and analyze. This paper's primary contributions lie in presenting the overall design of ingimp, with a particular focus on how the design addresses two prominent issues in open instrumentation: privacy and motivating use.
© All rights reserved Terry et al. and/or ACM Press
Szentgyorgyi, Christine, Terry, Michael and Lank, Edward (2008): Renegade gaming: practices surrounding social use of the Nintendo DS handheld gaming system. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2008 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 5-10, 2008. pp. 1463-1472. Available online
Today's handheld gaming systems allow players to engage in multiplayer games via ad-hoc, wireless networking. They are also now sufficiently commonplace that it is possible to study how portability and ad-hoc wireless networking have affected the social gaming practices of owners of these systems. In this paper, we report findings from a qualitative study investigating the collocated multiplayer gaming practices of Nintendo DS owners. Based on interviews of nine DS owners and observations of three organized gaming events, we identified three major themes surrounding the social, multiplayer gaming practices of Nintendo DS users: renegade gaming, or the notion that users reappropriate contexts traditionally hostile to game play; pragmatic and social barriers to the formation of ad-hoc pick-up games, despite a clear desire for multiplayer, collocated gaming; and private gaming spheres, or the observation that the handheld device's form factor creates individual, privatized gaming contexts within larger social contexts. These findings lead to a set of implications for the design of future handheld gaming systems.
© All rights reserved Szentgyorgyi et al. and/or ACM Press
Fung, Richard, Lank, Edward, Terry, Michael and Latulipe, Celine (2008): Kinematic templates: end-user tools for content-relative cursor manipulations. In: Cousins, Steve B. and Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel (eds.) Proceedings of the 21st Annual ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology October 19-22, 2008, Monterey, CA, USA. pp. 47-56. Available online
Park, Taehyun, Lank, Edward, Poupart, Pascal and Terry, Michael (2008): Is the sky pure today? AwkChecker: an assistive tool for detecting and correcting collocation errors. In: Cousins, Steve B. and Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel (eds.) Proceedings of the 21st Annual ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology October 19-22, 2008, Monterey, CA, USA. pp. 121-130. Available online
Latulipe, Celine and Terry, Michael (2008): Evaluation Instruments for Creativity Support Tools. In: Proceedings of the HCI08 Conference on People and Computers XXII 2008. pp. 187-188. Available online
Significant research has been dedicated to the development of creativity support tools, tools intended to amplify human creativity in the arts, sciences, and design disciplines. While examples of such tools abound, instruments are generally lacking to systematically and reliably assess these tools' impact on the creative process. Without these instruments, it is difficult to identify what aspects of a tool's design most positively affect the creative process. This workshop will focus on the development of evaluation instruments for creativity support tools. From this workshop, we expect a range of instruments to be proposed, explored, and eventually developed. These instruments will range from cognitive assessment instruments (e.g., modified forms of the NASA TLX), to heuristic evaluations for creativity support tools, to techniques that meld with qualitative methods.
© All rights reserved Latulipe and Terry and/or their publisher
Terry, Michael, Cheung, Janet, Lee, Justin, Park, Terry and Williams, Nigel (2007): Jump: a system for interactive, tangible queries of paper. In: Proceedings of the 2007 Conference on Graphics Interface 2007. pp. 127-134. Available online
This paper introduces Jump, a prototype computer vision-based system that transforms paper-based architectural documents into tangible query interfaces. Specifically, Jump allows a user to obtain additional information related to a given architectural document by framing a portion of the drawing with physical brackets. The framed area appears in a magnified view on a separate display and applies the principle of semantic zooming to determine the appropriate level of detail to show. Filter tokens can be placed on the paper to modify the digital presentation to include information not on the original drawing itself, such as electrical, mechanical, and structural information related to the given space. These filter tokens serve as tangible sliders in that their relative location on the paper controls the degree to which their information is blended with the original document. To address the issue of recognition errors, Jump introduces the notion of a reflection window, or an inset window that serves to reproduce Jump's current interpretation of the visual scene. The system's overall design is informed by a set of in situ studies of architectural technologists and formative evaluations with the same group.
© All rights reserved Terry et al. and/or Canadian Information Processing Society
Terry, Michael and Mynatt, Elizabeth D. (2002): Recognizing creative needs in user interface design. In: Proceedings of the 2002 Conference on Creativity and Cognition 2002. pp. 38-44. Available online
The creative process requires experimentation, the exploration of variations, and the continual evaluation of one's progress. While these processes are frequently non-linear and iterative, modern user interfaces do not explicitly support these practices, and instead impose a linear progression through tasks that is a poor fit for creative pursuits. In this paper we use data from three case studies, and draw upon Schon's theory of reflection-in-action to illustrate specific deficiencies in current user interfaces when used in creative endeavors. We then develop a set of guidelines for user interface design and demonstrate their application in three designs intended to support tasks in the domain of image manipulation.
© All rights reserved Terry and Mynatt and/or ACM Press
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