Publication statistics

Pub. period:1987-2012
Pub. count:34
Number of co-authors:60



Co-authors

Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Glenn Blauvelt:
Sue Hendrix:
Michael MacFerrin:

 

 

Productive colleagues

Michael Eisenberg's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Ben Shneiderman:225
Brad A. Myers:154
Allison Druin:81
 
 
 

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Michael Eisenberg

Has also published under the name of:
"Mike Eisenberg" and "M. Eisenberg"

Personal Homepage:
http://faculty.washington.edu/mbe/

 

Publications by Michael Eisenberg (bibliography)

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2012
 
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Huang, Yingdan and Eisenberg, Michael (2012): Easigami: virtual creation by physical folding. In: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Tangible and Embedded Interaction 2012. pp. 41-48. Available online

With the advent of affordable three-dimensional printing and fabrication devices, the design of 3D objects has become an increasingly central activity in creative computational work. A recurring issue in this sort of design, however, is overcoming the "two-dimensional bottleneck" of the standard computer screen and associated conventional input devices: that is, it is difficult to create and visualize tangible objects using such hardware combination and (generally complex) modeling software. As a consequence, there is a growing need for a variety of innovative 3D input tools and techniques that allow users to create, customize, and visualize spatial objects and information "by hand". This paper describes a working example of such a tool: a tangible 3D sketching tool called Easigami, which permits users to assemble a wide variety of polyhedral objects by connecting and folding polygonal pieces. The physical arrangement of Easigami pieces is read into a computer and displayed interactively, in real time. Thus Easigami, by its design, blends the natural physical ability of folding paper-like materials with the power of computational representation. This paper describes the design of Easigami, presents a scenario of its use, and outlines ongoing and planned future work of the system.

© All rights reserved Huang and Eisenberg and/or ACM Press

2011
 
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Leduc-Mills, Ben and Eisenberg, Michael (2011): The UCube: a child-friendly device for introductory three-dimensional design. In: Proceedings of ACM IDC11 Interaction Design and Children 2011. pp. 72-80. Available online

Currently there is a burgeoning interest in three-dimensional construction and design: 3D printing and fabrication devices have -- with almost shocking swiftness -- become available to students and home hobbyists, allowing a vastly expanded audience to imagine, and then print out, their own tangible designs. Still, while the fabrication devices themselves are becoming available to younger children, the task of 3D design itself remains difficult for youngsters. The difficulty lies in the "2D screen bottleneck": three-dimensional objects for printing must generally be designed in complex software that works exclusively with, and through, a flat two-dimensional screen. This paper introduces the UCube, a spatial input device designed specifically with children and "3D novices" in mind. The basic idea behind the UCube is that it provides a spatial, volumetric array of light switches that can be turned on and off individually by the user; the pattern of lights is then input to a desktop computer, where it can be employed to specify a collection of 3D points in space. The result is that 3D design -- at least for simple shapes -- becomes a matter of moving one's hands in space to (e.g.) select the boundary points of the desired shape. We describe the design of the UCube, the influences behind it, and some early encouraging pilot tests of the device with middle-school-age children.

© All rights reserved Leduc-Mills and Eisenberg and/or ACM Press

 
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Huang, Yingdan and Eisenberg, Michael (2011): Steps toward child-designed interactive stuffed toys. In: Proceedings of ACM IDC11 Interaction Design and Children 2011. pp. 165-168. Available online

Within the past decade, computationally-enhanced toys have become a staple of children's environments. In large part, this is due to the small size, robust operation, and low cost of embedded computing that enables computers (and associated electronic devices) to be included within toys of all descriptions. More recently, a variety of powerful technologies have emerged so that children can design their own computational artifacts: that is, small (and inexpensive) processors, sensors, and actuators have been developed that are well-suited to combination with "soft" materials such as textiles. This paper describes Plushbot, a system-in-development that allows children to create their own plush toys and stuffed animals, and to include computational enhancements within the toys that they create. Thus, Plushbot represents a step toward expanding children's creative design of their own interactive, computationally-enhanced characters. The paper describes the current state of the Plushbot software, shows a sample project created with the system, and describes plans for upcoming pilot tests with the system.

© All rights reserved Huang and Eisenberg and/or ACM Press

2010
 
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Meyers, Jane, LaMarche, Jeffrey and Eisenberg, Michael (2010): Craftopolis: blending tangible, informal construction into virtual multiuser communities. In: Proceedings of ACM IDC10 Interaction Design and Children 2010. pp. 242-245. Available online

The last decade has seen a blossoming of creative online activities for children in which groups, or communities, of youngsters participate within (e.g.) multiplayer games, social networks, shared programming environments, and so forth. Despite the marvelous features of these environments, they all share the limitation of being exclusively "virtual" in their design: children can play in virtual worlds, create virtual buildings and farms, or design programs, but they cannot experiment or create with tangible materials in these activities. In this paper, we present a prototype of a shared online children's "world" in which the basic elements are tangible, informal, "rooms" or constructions that can be controlled computationally and accessed over the World Wide Web. This system, Craftopolis, enables users to make their own computationally-enriched physical models (e.g., of dollhouse rooms, dioramas, game boards, and so forth), using any materials whatever, and to link those rooms into a shared online space.

© All rights reserved Meyers et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Eisenberg, Michael, Buechley, Leah and Elumeze, Nwanua (2010): Bits and Pieces: Potential Future Scenarios for Children's Mobile Technology. In International Journal of Mobile Human Computer Interaction, 2 (2) pp. 37-52. Available online

The reigning portrait of mobile technology for children has, by and large, been founded on a portrait of computing derived from an earlier generation of desktop devices. That is, the recurring image of "mobile computing" employs a full-scale personal computer shrunk down to handheld size (as in a PDA or iPhone). While this image suggests avenues for innovation, it nevertheless reflects a highly constrained view of computing that fails to do justice to the educational possibilities of children's informal day-to-day activities. This article seeks to challenge the "PDA-centric" view of children's mobile technology by discussing two major design themes that lead in alternative directions: namely, material computing (endowing physical substrates of various kinds with computational capabilities) and piecewise computing (enhancing mobility through the dissociation of various functional capabilities of traditional computers). In discussing these themes, the authors draw on design projects.

© All rights reserved Eisenberg et al. and/or their publisher

2009
 
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Huang, Yingdan, Gross, Mark D., Do, Ellen Yi-Luen and Eisenberg, Michael (2009): Easigami: a reconfigurable folded-sheet TUI. In: Villar, Nicolas, Izadi, Shahram, Fraser, Mike and Benford, Steve (eds.) TEI 2009 - Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Tangible and Embedded Interaction February 16-18, 2009, Cambridge, UK. pp. 107-112. Available online

 
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Schweikardt, Eric, Elumeze, Nwanua, Eisenberg, Michael and Gross, Mark D. (2009): A tangible construction kit for exploring graph theory. In: Villar, Nicolas, Izadi, Shahram, Fraser, Mike and Benford, Steve (eds.) TEI 2009 - Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Tangible and Embedded Interaction February 16-18, 2009, Cambridge, UK. pp. 373-376. Available online

 
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Buechley, Leah, Hendrix, Sue and Eisenberg, Michael (2009): Paints, paper, and programs: first steps toward the computational sketchbook. In: Villar, Nicolas, Izadi, Shahram, Fraser, Mike and Benford, Steve (eds.) TEI 2009 - Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Tangible and Embedded Interaction February 16-18, 2009, Cambridge, UK. pp. 9-12. Available online

 
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Eisenberg, Michael, Elumeze, Nwanua, MacFerrin, Michael and Buechley, Leah (2009): Children's programming, reconsidered: settings, stuff, and surfaces. In: Proceedings of ACM IDC09 Interaction Design and Children 2009. pp. 1-8. Available online

The subject of children's programming has long been a vexed and controversial one in the field of educational technology. Debates in this area have typically focused on issues such as how to create a child-friendly programming language; or whether children can learn particular topics (e.g., recursion) in programming; or indeed, whether it is worthwhile for children to encounter programming at all. For the most part, these debates have taken place against an implicit background of assumptions about what children's programming looks like -- namely, an activity focused on creating effects on a desktop screen or, occasionally, robotic toy. This paper argues that the cultural and anthropological contexts of children's programming are now poised to change: that new programming materials, physical settings, and unorthodox display surfaces are likely to shift the nature of the children's-programming debate in profound ways, and to make programming a far more informal, approachable, and natural activity than heretofore. We illustrate this argument with projects underway in our own research.

© All rights reserved Eisenberg et al. and/or ACM Press

2008
 
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Buechley, Leah, Eisenberg, Michael, Catchen, Jaime and Crockett, Ali (2008): The LilyPad Arduino: using computational textiles to investigate engagement, aesthetics, and diversity in computer science education. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2008 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 5-10, 2008. pp. 423-432. Available online

The advent of novel materials (such as conductive fibers) combined with accessible embedded computing platforms have made it possible to re-imagine the landscapes of fabric and electronic crafts -- extending these landscapes with the creative range of electronic/computational textiles or e-textiles. This paper describes the LilyPad Arduino, a fabric-based construction kit that enables novices to design and build their own soft wearables and other textile artifacts. The kit consists of a microcontroller and an assortment of sensors and actuators in stitch-able packages; these elements can be sewn to cloth substrates and each other with conductive thread to build e-textiles. This paper will introduce the latest version of the kit; reflect on its affordances; present the results of our most recent user studies; and discuss possible directions for future work in the area of personalized e-textile design and its relation to technology education.

© All rights reserved Buechley et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Elumeze, Nwanua and Eisenberg, Michael (2008): ButtonSchemer: ambient program reader. In: Hofte, G. Henri ter, Mulder, Ingrid and Ruyter, Boris E. R. de (eds.) Proceedings of the 10th Conference on Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services - Mobile HCI 2008 September 2-5, 2008, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. pp. 323-326. Available online

 
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Buechley, Leah and Eisenberg, Michael (2008): The LilyPad Arduino: Toward Wearable Engineering for Everyone. In IEEE Pervasive Computing, 7 (2) pp. 12-15. Available online

2007
 
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Eisenberg, Michael (2007): Pervasive Fabrication: Making Construction Ubiquitous in Education. In: PerCom Workshops 2007 - Fifth Annual IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications 19-23 March, 2007, White Plains, New York, USA. pp. 193-198. Available online

2006
 
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Buechley, Leah, Elumeze, Nwanua and Eisenberg, Michael (2006): Electronic/computational textiles and children's crafts. In: Proceedings of ACM IDC06: Interaction Design and Children 2006. pp. 49-56. Available online

An astonishing array of new technologies is currently effecting a revolution in the professional design of textile artifacts. This integration of electronics and computation into textiles likewise suggests new directions in the practice of children's crafts. In this paper, we present a classification scheme that we believe will prove useful in structuring exploration and discussion of new directions in children's textile-based crafts. Within the context of this classification scheme, we describe several projects in our lab (along with early pilot-testing efforts) that offer examples of how children can work with computationally enriched textiles. We conclude by describing several extremely exciting-but nonetheless plausible-scenarios for continued work in this area.

© All rights reserved Buechley et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Shneiderman, Ben, Fischer, Gerhard, Czerwinski, Mary, Resnick, Mitchel, Myers, Brad A., Candy, Linda, Edmonds, Ernest, Eisenberg, Michael, Giaccardi, Elisa, Hewett, Tom, Jennings, Pamela and Kules, Bill (2006): Creativity Support Tools: Report From a U.S. National Science Foundation Sponsored Workshop. In International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 20 (2) pp. 61-77. Available online

Creativity support tools is a research topic with high risk but potentially very high payoff. The goal is to develop improved software and user interfaces that empower users to be not only more productive but also more innovative. Potential users include software and other engineers, diverse scientists, product and graphic designers, architects, educators, students, and many others. Enhanced interfaces could enable more effective searching of intellectual resources, improved collaboration among teams, and more rapid discovery processes. These advanced interfaces should also provide potent support in hypothesis formation, speedier evaluation of alternatives, improved understanding through visualization, and better dissemination of results. For creative endeavors that require composition of novel artifacts (e.g., computer programs, scientific papers, engineering diagrams, symphonies, artwork), enhanced interfaces could facilitate exploration of alternatives, prevent unproductive choices, and enable easy backtracking. This U.S. National Science Foundation sponsored workshop brought together 25 research leaders and graduate students to share experiences, identify opportunities, and formulate research challenges. Two key outcomes emerged: (a) encouragement to evaluate creativity support tools through multidimensional in-depth longitudinal case studies and (b) formulation of 12 principles for design of creativity support tools.

© All rights reserved Shneiderman et al. and/or Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

2005
 
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Scarlatos, Lori L., Bruckman, Amy S., Druin, Allison, Eisenberg, Michael, Lenore, Molly and Zuckerman, Oren (2005): Connecting with kids: so what's new?. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 1172-1173. Available online

From pre-schools to high schools, at home and in museums, the educational community has embraced the use of computers as a teaching tool. Yet many institutions will simply install "what everyone else is using" without questioning how technology can be best used to enhance education. For this panel, we have assembled a broad range of researchers and practitioners who are on the forefront of using computers to teach kids in novel ways. Each panelist will summarize their approach with examples of projects that they believe will demonstrate "what's new". We will then have videotaped children pose their toughest educational challenges to the panelists. Panelists will answer by talking about how they would meet these challenges. Finally, attendees will get to vote for their favorite solution. This will expose the CHI audience to a range of educational challenges, with a taste of the different ways that these problems can be solved.

© All rights reserved Scarlatos et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Eisenberg, Michael, Elumeze, N., Buechley, L., Blauvelt, G., Hendrix, S. and Eisenberg, A. (2005): The homespun museum: computers, fabrication,and the design of personalized exhibits. In: Proceedings of the 2005 Conference on Creativity and Cognition 2005. pp. 13-21. Available online

The traditional view of the "home computer" is as a self-contained appliance: computation, on this view, is something that takes place within a desktop box, and that produces interesting visual effects only on a screen. In this paper, we argue that one can alternatively view "the computer" through its tangible effects on larger settings: that is, the computer can be imagined as the heart of a creative workshop centered within the home or classroom. The advent of accessible fabrication devices, as well as small computers that can be embedded in craft items, permits users to think of the room at large as a place in which computationally-enriched or computationally-designed "exhibits" of various types may be displayed. We illustrate this idea with a variety of projects undertaken within our laboratory.

© All rights reserved Eisenberg et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Eisenberg, Michael (2005): The material side of educational technology. In Communications of the ACM, 48 (1) pp. 51-54. Available online

2004
 
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Eisenberg, Michael (2004): Tangible ideas for children: materials sciences as the future of educational technology. In: Proceedings of ACM IDC04: Interaction Design and Children 2004. pp. 19-26. Available online

Traditionally, the notion of "educational technology" has been equated with "educational computing". While computer technology is, and will continue to be, a central focus of educational technology, its importance is likely to be rivaled in the coming generation by developments in materials science. This paper represents an early attempt to discuss the role of novel materials in educational settings, and in children's lives more generally. We discuss a variety of fascinating new materials, all of potential importance in education; outline a number of existing and possible educational projects to make creative use of these materials; and discuss several issues likely to become prominent in educational research as materials science increasingly takes its place at the forefront of educational technology.

© All rights reserved Eisenberg and/or ACM Press

2003
 
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Eisenberg, Michael, Eisenberg, A., Hendrix, S., Blauvelt, G., Butter, D., Garcia, J., Lewis, R. and Nielsen, T. (2003): As we may print: new directions in output devices and computational crafts for children. In: Proceedings of ACM IDC03: Interaction Design and Children 2003. pp. 31-39. Available online

In recent years, educational technologists and designers have begun to explore a variety of ways in which physical and computational media can be integrated -- for instance, through the design of "intelligent toys" for children. This paper describes our ongoing efforts at exploring a different sort of physical-computational integration, focusing on children's design activities, output devices, and the notion of "printing out" more generally. We describe several representative systems under development in our group; each of these systems highlights particular possibilities for exploring and experimenting with output devices for children's crafts. We also present a set of design heuristis -- useful techniques for those educational designers interested in expanding the range and expressiveness of craft activities for children.

© All rights reserved Eisenberg et al. and/or ACM Press

2001
 
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Blauvelt, Glenn and Eisenberg, Michael (2001): MachineShop: Steps toward Exploring Novel I/O Devices for Computational Craftwork. In: ICALT 2001 2001. pp. 301-304.

2000
 
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Wrensch, Thomas, Blauvelt, Glenn and Eisenberg, Michael (2000): The rototack: designing a computationally-enhanced craft item. In: Designing Augmented Reality Environments 2000 2000. pp. 93-101. Available online

1999
 
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Soloway, Elliot, Grant, Wayne C., Tinger, Robert, Roschelle, Jeremy, Mills, Mike, Resnick, Mitchel, Berg, Robert and Eisenberg, Michael (1999): Science in the Palms of Their Hands. In Communications of the ACM, 42 (8) pp. 21-26. Available online

1998
 
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Wrensch, Thomas and Eisenberg, Michael (1998): The Programmable Hinge: Toward Computationally Enhanced Crafts. In: Mynatt, Elizabeth D. and Jacob, Robert J. K. (eds.) Proceedings of the 11th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 01 - 04, 1998, San Francisco, California, United States. pp. 89-96. Available online

Traditionally, the practitioners of home crafting and the practitioners of computing tend to occupy distinct, non-overlapping cultures. Those small, ubiquitous items of the crafting culture -- string, thumbtacks, screws, nails, and so forth -- thus tend to be viewed as inevitably "low-tech" objects. This paper describes our initial efforts toward integrating computational and crafting media by creating an instance of a computationally-enhanced craft item: a programmable hinge. We describe several prototype models of the hinge; outline a sample project in which the hinge might be employed; and discuss a variety of fundamental issues that affect the design of computationally-enhanced craft items generally.

© All rights reserved Wrensch and Eisenberg and/or ACM Press

1997
 
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Eisenberg, Michael, Nishioka, Ann and Schreiner, M. E. (1997): Helping Users Think in Three Dimensions: Steps Toward Incorporating Spatial Cognition in User Modelling. In: Moore, Johanna D., Edmonds, Ernest and Puerta, Angel R. (eds.) International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces 1997 January 6-9, 1997, Orlando, Florida, USA. pp. 113-120. Available online

Historically, efforts at user modelling in educational systems have tended to employ knowledge representations in which symbolic (or "linguistic") cognition is emphasized, and in which spatial/visual cognition is underrepresented. In this paper, we describe our progress in developing user models for an explicitly "spatial" educational application named HyperGami, in which students design (and construct, out of paper) an endless variety of three-dimensional polyhedra. This paper gives a brief description of the HyperGami system; discusses our observations (and experimental results) in understanding what makes certain polyhedral shapes difficult or easy to visualize; and describes the ideas through which we plan to augment HyperGami with user models that could eventually form the computational basis for "intelligent spatial critics."

© All rights reserved Eisenberg et al. and/or ACM Press

1996
 
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Eisenberg, Michael (1996): The Thin Glass Line: Designing Interfaces to Algorithms. In: Tauber, Michael J., Bellotti, Victoria, Jeffries, Robin, Mackinlay, Jock D. and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 96 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 14-18, 1996, Vancouver, Canada. pp. 181-188. Available online

Modern application software often includes operations that are performed by complex mathematical algorithms. These algorithms -- far from being the "black boxes" typically portrayed in computer science courses -- may instead be viewed as interactive processes, each presenting its own particular "interface" to the user. This paper, then, offers a number of interface guidelines for mathematical algorithms -- principles whose purpose is to suggest ways in which users may employ algorithms with greater control and expressiveness. As a source of examples, we illustrate the guidelines through a particular complex mathematical problem -- that of generating a "folding net" for a three-dimensional solid.

© All rights reserved Eisenberg and/or ACM Press

 
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Eden, Hal, Eisenberg, Michael, Fischer, Gerhard and Repenning, Alexander (1996): Making Learning a Part of Life. In Communications of the ACM, 39 (4) pp. 40-42.

1995
 
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Eisenberg, Michael (1995): Programmable Applications: Exploring the Potential for Language/Interface Symbiosis. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 14 (1) pp. 56-66.

Programmable applications are software systems that seek to combine the learnability and accessibility of direct manipulation interfaces with the expressive power and range of programming languages. In this paper we explore techniques for creatively integrating language and interface constructs within programmable applications. Using SchemePaint -- a programmable graphics application -- as a source of examples, we demonstrate how an interface and language can combine symbiotically and thereby provide powerful modes of expression within applications.

© All rights reserved Eisenberg and/or Taylor and Francis

 
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Blough, Eric and Eisenberg, Michael (1995): Combining Programming Languages and Direct Manipulation in Environments for Computational Science. In: Proceedings of DIS95: Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, & Techniques 1995. pp. 123-130.

Creating computational environments for scientists presents an unusual challenge to software designers. Computational scientists have the skills and motivation to explore models via programming, yet also have highly-developed qualitative visual skills (e.g., interpretation of plots). Unfortunately, software designers have traditionally considered programming and point-and-click interfaces to be mutually exclusive. We propose instead that the most expressive computational environments for scientists are those in which programming and direct manipulation are both present, each supplementing the other. We present several broad themes of interface-language integration, illustrating them with three prototype applications that we are developing to support specific research areas of computational science; and we extend these themes into promising paths for future exploration.

© All rights reserved Blough and Eisenberg and/or ACM Press

 
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DiGiano, Chris and Eisenberg, Michael (1995): Self-Disclosing Design Tools: A Gentle Introduction to End-User Programming. In: Proceedings of DIS95: Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, & Techniques 1995. pp. 189-197.

Programmable tools for design offer users an expressive new medium for their work, but becoming acquainted with the tool's language can be a daunting task. To address this problem, we present a framework for the design of self-disclosing tools which provide incremental, situated language learning opportunities for designers in the context of authentic activity. By way of example, we present Chart 'n' Art, a programmable application for the creation of graphs and information displays. Chart 'n' Art employs a wide variety of self-disclosure techniques whose purpose is to introduce users to the system's "domain-enriched" dialect of Lisp.

© All rights reserved DiGiano and Eisenberg and/or ACM Press

 
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Eisenberg, Michael (1995): Programmable Applications: Interpreter Meets Interface. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 27 (2) pp. 68-93. Available online

1994
 
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Eisenberg, Michael and Fischer, Gerhard (1994): Programmable Design Environments: Integrating End-User Programming with Domain-Oriented Assistance. In: Adelson, Beth, Dumais, Susan and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 94 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 24-28, 1994, Boston, Massachusetts. pp. 431-437. Available online

Programmable design environments (PDEs) are computational environments that integrate the conceptual frameworks and components of (a) design environments and (b) programmable applications. The integration of these two approaches provides elements (such as software "critics" and "query-able objects") that assist users in learning both the application and its domain; in addition, an interactive "application-enriched" end-user programming environment stresses the values of expressiveness and modifiability. By way of illustration, we present a newly-developed programmable design environment, SchemeChart, for the domain of charting and information displays.

© All rights reserved Eisenberg and Fischer and/or ACM Press

1989
 
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Abelson, Harold, Eisenberg, Michael, Halfant, Matthew, Katzenelson, Jacob, Sacks, Elisha, Sussman, Gerald J., Wisdom, Jack and Yip, Kenneth (1989): Intelligence in Scientific Computing. In Communications of the ACM, 32 (5) pp. 546-562.

1987
 
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Eisenberg, Michael, Resnick, Mitchel and Turbak, Franklyn A. (1987): Understanding Procedures as Objects. In: Olson, Gary M., Sheppard, Sylvia B. and Soloway, Elliot (eds.) Empirical Studies of Programmers - Second Workshop December 7-8 1987, 1987, Washington, DC. pp. 14-32.

Programming languages that treat procedures as "object-like" entities (for example, allowing procedures to be passed as arguments to other procedures) offer major advantages in semantic power and syntactic elegance. In this paper, we examine how novice programmers appropriate the idea of procedures as objects. Based on a series of structured interviews with students in the introductory computer-science course at MIT, we develop a model of the students' ontology of procedures. We conclude that many students view procedures as inherently active entities, with few "object-like" properties. We speculate on the implications of these results for the design and teaching of languages that treat procedures as objects.

© All rights reserved Eisenberg et al. and/or Ablex Publishing

 
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