Number of co-authors:11
Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:Bruno von Niman:3Lothar Muhlbach:3Detlef Runde:2
Martin Bocker's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:Matthias Schneider..:17Bruno von Niman:16David Williams:9
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Publications by Martin Bocker (bibliography)
Bocker, Martin, Niman, Bruno von and Larsson, Karl Ivar (2006): Increasing text-entry usability in mobile devices for languages used in Europe. In Interactions, 13 (5) pp. 30-35.
Schneider-Hufschmidt, Matthias, Williams, David, Bocker, Martin, Flygt, Margareta, Ketola, Pekka, Niman, Bruno von and Tate, Michael (2006): The right to information: setup of mobile terminals and services. In: Proceedings of 8th conference on Human-computer interaction with mobile devices and services 2006. pp. 199-202.
The Technical Committee Human Factors (TC HF) of the European Telecommunication Standards Institute (ETSI, www.etsi.org) has initiated the development of guidelines for the design of setup procedures, applicable to mobile terminals and e-services. This work is performed under the policy framework defined by the e-Europe 2005 action plan, by and in close collaboration between major industry players and ETSI.The goal of this activity is the development of design guidelines for user interface and service developers based on specific use cases which help to understand the difficulties users are experiencing when configuring their devices or accessing the services. The result of this work will be presented at the conference and the resulting ETSI Guide will be available free of charge.
© All rights reserved Schneider-Hufschmidt et al. and/or ACM Press
Bocker, Martin, Larsson, Karl Ivar and Niman, Bruno von (2006): Character repertoires, ordering and assignment to the 12-key keypad supporting European cultural diversity. In: Proceedings of 8th conference on Human-computer interaction with mobile devices and services 2006. pp. 281-282.
ETSI, the European Telecommunications Standards Institute, has published a standard (ES 202 130) in 2003 that specifies the character repertoires and assignment of characters to the 12-key telephone keypad for a range of European languages. The standard for letters, digits and special characters (such as the Euro symbol and punctuation marks) covered the official languages of the EU and EFTA members, Russia, as well as countries with applicant status for the EU at that time. This paper describes the further development of the standard to cover other major languages spoken in Europe including official languages, minority languages and immigrants' languages.
© All rights reserved Bocker et al. and/or ACM Press
Bocker, Martin, Runde, Detlef and Muhlbach, Lothar (1995): On the Reproduction of Motion Parallax in Videocommunications. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 39th Annual Meeting 1995. pp. 198-202.
The paper addresses the question whether reproducing motion parallax increases the extent of telepresence in videocommunications. Motion parallax is defined as the change of the view due to the observer's movements. It was hypothesized that reproducing motion parallax (a) leads to more precise depth judgments by providing further depth cues, (b) allows 'interactive viewing', i.e. the observer can actively explore the visual scene by changing his/her position, and (c) compensates for stereoscopic "apparent movements". In a Human Factors study, two videoconferencing set-ups providing motion parallax (one stereoscopic and one monoscopic version) were compared with two set-ups (monoscopic and stereoscopic) without motion parallax. Each set-up was used and rated by 32 subjects. The results supported the hypotheses only in part. Even though there was some evidence for more "spatial presence" and for a greater explorability of the scene through motion parallax, the compensation of apparent movements could not be achieved.
© All rights reserved Bocker et al. and/or Human Factors Society
Prussog, Angela, Muhlbach, Lothar and Bocker, Martin (1994): Telepresence in Videocommunications. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 38th Annual Meeting 1994. pp. 180-184.
The paper discusses factors that affect the impression of telepresence in video-communications. Telepresence is experienced by interlocutors to the extent to which natural visual cues from the remote site are adequately transferred by the medium. The paper reports on two experimental Human Factors studies investigating the effects of various features of videoconferencing systems in terms of, inter alia, the conferees' impression of telepresence as well as user satisfaction and the willingness to use those systems. Within the framework of Experiment 1 the system features that were varied were the scale of representing the conferees (natural vs. reduced size) and the representation of the conferees' surroundings (small vs. large sector of the remote room). In Experiment 2 the system feature being tested was the stereoscopic representation of the conferees. Results showed that both the natural-size representation of conferees as well as the stereoscopic representation increase the impression of telepresence. The expected benefits of a representation of the conferees' surroundings could not be verified. Given a fixed size of the screen, the trade-off between the conferees' size and the representation of surroundings is in favor of the natural size representation.
© All rights reserved Prussog et al. and/or Human Factors Society
Runde, Detlef and Bocker, Martin (1994): Stereoscopic Telepointing in Videocommunications. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 38th Annual Meeting 1994. pp. 185-189.
Stereoscopic telepointing to be employed inter alia in cooperative telework applications yields many benefits but also poses a number of problems addressed in a study with 96 subjects under four different conditions. For two conditions, 3D-input devices were designed implementing different input metaphors. The 'Light Beam Metaphor' is analogous to pointing to objects with a slide show pointer or laser pointer. The 'Reference Space Metaphor' provides the users with the possibility of pointing to details of an object in such a way as if a re-sized model of the object was present in front of them and within reach of their hands. The other two conditions were stereoscopic and monoscopic control conditions without pointers. The subjects' task was to identify differences between a remote and a local object within a limited time. The results show that the Light Beam Metaphor pointer was easier to handle and conformed to a larger degree to the users' expectations, whereas the Reference Space Metaphor pointer received better subjective ratings on efficiency and Telepresence. The analysis of the results of all four conditions established the benefits of 3D over 2D representations for object-oriented communicative situations in terms of appeal and the impression of depth.
© All rights reserved Runde and Bocker and/or Human Factors Society
Bocker, Martin and Anderson, Donald (1993): Remote Conference Interpreting using ISDN Videotelephony: A Requirements Analysis and Feasibility Study. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 37th Annual Meeting 1993. pp. 235-239.
The introduction of videocommunications via the Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) offers the potential of significant changes in the working conditions of a variety of professions including conference interpreters. A study was conducted aiming at identifying the special videocommunications requirements of professional conference interpreters and establishing whether ISDN videotelephony offers a sufficient audio bandwidth and image resolution to support the interpreters in their work. To this aim, a requirements analysis was conducted and four videotelephony systems were set up each implementing a different ISDN combination of audio bandwidth and picture quality. Five professional interpreters took part in the study. Each performed a simultaneous interpretation task of 30 minutes under each of the four conditions (set-ups). Stimulus material to be interpreted consisted of videotapes of conference presentations and TV interviews. Data on the dependent variables (task difficulty, benefits of the picture, sound quality, Social Presence, performance, and acceptance) were collected by means of questionnaires. The most important conclusion is that remote interpreting using ISDN videotelephony is possible only at a cost in terms of both increased fatigue and less satisfaction of the interpreters with their work. Remote interpreting requires at least the image quality that can be provided by a 384 kbit/s transmission rate (until better coding algorithms are available for lower transmission rates) and an audio bandwidth of at least 7 kHz. It is further recommended to conduct a field study with standardized interpreting equipment using more realistic input material.
© All rights reserved Bocker and Anderson and/or Human Factors Society
Bocker, Martin and Muhlbach, Lothar (1993): Communicative Presence in Videocommunications. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 37th Annual Meeting 1993. pp. 249-253.
This paper deals with factors affecting Communicative Presence in video-communications. Communicative Presence is defined as the capacity of a system to transfer mutual communicative signals of interlocutors. The experiment the paper reports on examined the effects of various features of videoconferencing systems in terms of several aspects, such as the conferees' feeling of being individually addressed by non-verbal signals (e.g. eye-contact), the flow of conversation, user satisfaction, and the willingness to use videoconferencing systems. One system feature that was systematically varied was the degree of vertical and horizontal eye-contact angles. In order to reduce the horizontal eye-contact angles for the two test subjects acting as conferees at one site of the experimental set-up, two different images (one per conferee) which were in accordance with the perspectives the conferees would have in a similar face-to-face meeting were displayed ("view-per-person" principle). Another feature that was examined was the spatial resolution of the displayed images. The results showed that large eye-contact angles as well as a low resolution decrease the feeling of Communicative Presence. Within the framework of the experiment, the hypothesis concerning the benefits of a view-per-person representation could not be verified.
© All rights reserved Bocker and Muhlbach and/or Human Factors Society
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