Publication statistics

Pub. period:1987-2012
Pub. count:69
Number of co-authors:89



Co-authors

Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Will Hill:11
Brian Amento:11
Reid Priedhorsky:10

 

 

Productive colleagues

Loren Terveen's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Robert E. Kraut:98
Steve Whittaker:68
Mark S. Ackerman:67
 
 
 

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Loren Terveen

Picture of Loren Terveen.
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Has also published under the name of:
"Loren G. Terveen" and "L. Terveen"

Personal Homepage:
www-users.cs.umn.edu/~terveen/

Associate Professor, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Minnesota. I currently carry out research in two major areas: 1. Theory-based design of online communities: applying theories from the social sciences to create new interaction techniques and algorithms that elicit more positive participation from community members. 2. Geographically-based online communities: creating novel open content systems to support geographically-based communities of interest; Cyclopath is our routing and wiki-map system for bicyclists.

 

Publications by Loren Terveen (bibliography)

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2012
 
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Nathan, Mukesh, Topkara, Mercan, Lai, Jennifer, Pan, Shimei, Wood, Steven, Boston, Jeff and Terveen, Loren (2012): In case you missed it: benefits of attendee-shared annotations for non-attendees of remote meetings. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW12 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2012. pp. 339-348. Available online

Corporate meetings are increasingly being held remotely using web technologies. With such remote meetings being recorded and made available after the fact, there is a pressing need for tools to access and utilize these recordings efficiently. Our work explores the utility of using annotations generated by meeting attendees to meet this need. We conducted a controlled lab study to evaluate the benefits of sharing annotations. Attendee-created annotations were shared with non-attendees to assist them on typical information retrieval tasks. Results indicate that (a) non-attendees given access to shared annotations performed about as well as attendees provided with their own and shared annotations, (b) non-attendees were more confident in their responses when they used shared annotations as access cues into the recording than when they directly skimmed the video, and (c) attendees utilized shared annotations more than their own, with similar success and confidence as using their own annotations.

© All rights reserved Nathan et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Fugelstad, Paul, Dwyer, Patrick, Moses, Jennifer Filson, Kim, John, Mannino, Cleila Anna, Terveen, Loren and Snyder, Mark (2012): What makes users rate (share, tag, edit...)?: predicting patterns of participation in online communities. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW12 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2012. pp. 969-978. Available online

Administrators of online communities face the crucial issue of understanding and developing their user communities. Will new users become committed members? What types of roles are particular individuals most likely to take on? We report on a study that investigates these questions. We administered a survey (based on standard psychological instruments) to nearly 4000 new users of the MovieLens film recommendation community from October 2009 to March 2010 and logged their usage history on MovieLens. We found that general volunteer motivations, pro-social behavioral history, and community-specific motivations predicted both the amount of use and specific types of activities users engaged in after joining the community. These findings have implications for the design and management of online communities.

© All rights reserved Fugelstad et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Priedhorsky, Reid, Pitchford, David, Sen, Shilad and Terveen, Loren (2012): Recommending routes in the context of bicycling: algorithms, evaluation, and the value of personalization. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW12 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2012. pp. 979-988. Available online

Users have come to rely on automated route finding services for driving, public transit, walking, and bicycling. Current state of the art route finding algorithms typically rely on objective factors like time and distance; they do not consider subjective preferences that also influence route quality. This paper addresses that need. We introduce a new framework for evaluating edge rating prediction techniques in transportation networks and use it to explore ten families of prediction algorithms in Cyclopath, a geographic wiki that provides route finding services for bicyclists. Overall, we find that personalized algorithms predict more accurately than non-personalized ones, and we identify two algorithms with low error and excellent coverage, one of which is simple enough to be implemented in thin clients like web browsers. These results suggest that routing systems can generate better routes by collecting and analyzing users' subjective preferences.

© All rights reserved Priedhorsky et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Dunne, Lucy E., Zhang, Jingwen and Terveen, Loren (2012): An investigation of contents and use of the home wardrobe. In: Proceedings of the 2012 International Conference on Uniquitous Computing 2012. pp. 203-206.

The home wardrobe is a complex and variable system, interacted with daily by its user/manager in a time- and resource-constrained decision-making process. Ubiquitous computing technology offers advantages in augmenting the decision-making process, and the potential to simultaneously encourage sustainable behaviors. In this study we present an empirical analysis of the contents of 11 home wardrobes and 3-6 months of daily dressing decisions for 5 users. We find that an average of only 7% of our female participants' wardrobes and 47% of our male participants' wardrobes are in regular use. In addition, we present an analysis of wardrobe contents, outfit composition, and garment utility in the wardrobe.

© All rights reserved Dunne et al. and/or ACM Press

2011
 
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Lam, Shyong (Tony) K., Uduwage, Anuradha, Dong, Zhenhua, Sen, Shilad, Musicant, David R., Terveen, Loren and Riedl, John (2011): WP:clubhouse?: an exploration of Wikipedia's gender imbalance. In: Proceedings of the 2011 International Symposium on Wikis and Open Collaboration 2011. pp. 1-10. Available online

Wikipedia has rapidly become an invaluable destination for millions of information-seeking users. However, media reports suggest an important challenge: only a small fraction of Wikipedia's legion of volunteer editors are female. In the current work, we present a scientific exploration of the gender imbalance in the English Wikipedia's population of editors. We look at the nature of the imbalance itself, its effects on the quality of the encyclopedia, and several conflict-related factors that may be contributing to the gender gap. Our findings confirm the presence of a large gender gap among editors and a corresponding gender-oriented disparity in the content of Wikipedia's articles. Further, we find evidence hinting at a culture that may be resistant to female participation.

© All rights reserved Lam et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Sheppard, S. Andrew and Terveen, Loren (2011): Quality is a verb: the operationalization of data quality in a citizen science community. In: Proceedings of the 2011 International Symposium on Wikis and Open Collaboration 2011. pp. 29-38. Available online

Citizen science is becoming more valuable as a potential source of environmental data. Involving citizens in data collection has the added educational benefits of increased scientific awareness and local ownership of environmental concerns. However, a common concern among domain experts is the presumed lower quality of data submitted by volunteers. In this paper, we explore data quality assurance practices in River Watch, a community-based monitoring program in the Red River basin. We investigate how the participants in River Watch understand and prioritize data quality concerns. We found that data quality in River Watch is primarily maintained through universal adherence to standard operating procedures, but there remain areas where technological intervention may help. We also found that rigorous data quality assurance practices appear to enhance rather than hinder the educational goals of the program. We draw implications for the design of quality assurance mechanisms for River Watch and other citizen science projects.

© All rights reserved Sheppard and Terveen and/or ACM Press

 
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Priedhorsky, Reid and Terveen, Loren (2011): Wiki grows up: arbitrary data models, access control, and beyond. In: Proceedings of the 2011 International Symposium on Wikis and Open Collaboration 2011. pp. 63-71. Available online

Ward Cunningham's vision for the wiki was that it would be "the simplest online database that could possibly work". We consider here a common manifestation of simplicity: the assumption that the objects in a wiki that can be edited (e.g., Wikipedia articles) are relatively independent. As wiki applications in new domains emerge, however, this assumption is no longer tenable. In wikis where the objects of interest are highly interdependent (e.g., geographic wikis), fundamental concepts like the revision and undoing must be refined. This is particularly so when fine-grained access control is required (as in enterprise wikis or wikis to support collaboration between citizens and government officials). We explore these issues in the context of the Cyclopath geowiki and present solutions that we have designed and have implemented or are implementing.

© All rights reserved Priedhorsky and Terveen and/or ACM Press

 
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Panciera, Katherine, Masli, Mikhil and Terveen, Loren (2011): "How should I go from ___ to ___ without getting killed?": motivation and benefits in open collaboration. In: Proceedings of the 2011 International Symposium on Wikis and Open Collaboration 2011. pp. 183-192. Available online

Many people rely on open collaboration projects to run their computer (Linux), browse the web (Mozilla Firefox), and get information (Wikipedia). While these projects are successful, many such efforts suffer from lack of participation. Understanding what motivates users to participate and the benefits they perceive from their participation can help address this problem. We examined these issues through a survey of contributors and information consumers in the Cyclopath geographic wiki. We analyzed subject responses to identify a number of key motives and perceived benefits. Based on these results, we articulate several general techniques to encourage more and new forms of participation in open collaboration communities. Some of these techniques have the potential to engage information consumers more deeply and productively in the life of open collaboration communities.

© All rights reserved Panciera et al. and/or ACM Press

2010
 
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Panciera, Katherine, Priedhorsky, Reid, Erickson, Thomas and Terveen, Loren (2010): Lurking? cyclopaths?: a quantitative lifecycle analysis of user behavior in a geowiki. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2010. pp. 1917-1926. Available online

Online communities produce rich behavioral datasets, e.g., Usenet news conversations, Wikipedia edits, and Facebook friend networks. Analysis of such datasets yields important insights (like the "long tail" of user participation) and suggests novel design interventions (like targeting users with personalized opportunities and work requests). However, certain key user data typically are unavailable, specifically viewing, pre-registration, and non-logged-in activity. The absence of data makes some questions hard to answer; access to it can strengthen, extend, or cast doubt on previous results. We report on analysis of user behavior in Cyclopath, a geographic wiki and route-finder for bicyclists. With access to viewing and non-logged-in activity data, we were able to: (a) replicate and extend prior work on user lifecycles in Wikipedia, (b) bring to light some pre-registration activity, thus testing for the presence of "educational lurking," and (c) demonstrate the locality of geographic activity and how editing and viewing are geographically correlated.

© All rights reserved Panciera et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Priedhorsky, Reid, Masli, Mikhil and Terveen, Loren (2010): Eliciting and focusing geographic volunteer work. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW10 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2010. pp. 61-70. Available online

Open content communities such as wikis derive their value from the work done by users. However, a key challenge is to elicit work that is sufficient and focused where needed. We address this challenge in a geographic open content community, the Cyclopath bicycle route finding system. We devised two techniques to elicit and focus user work, one using familiarity to direct work opportunities and another visually highlighting them. We conducted a field experiment, finding that (a) the techniques succeeded in eliciting user work, (b) the distribution of work across users was highly unequal, and (c) user work benefitted the community (reducing the length of the average computed route by 1 kilometer).

© All rights reserved Priedhorsky et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Torre, Fernando, Sheppard, S. Andrew, Priedhorsky, Reid and Terveen, Loren (2010): bumpy, caution with merging: an exploration of tagging in a geowiki. In: GROUP10 International Conference on Supporting Group Work 2010. pp. 155-164. Available online

We introduced tags into the Cyclopath geographic wiki for bicyclists. To promote the creation of useful tags, we made tags wiki objects, giving ownership of tag applications to the community, not to individuals. We also introduced a novel interface that lets users fine-tune their routing preferences with tags. We analyzed the Cyclopath tagging vocabulary, the relationship of tags to existing annotation techniques (notes and ratings), and the roles users take on with respect to tagging, notes, and ratings. Our findings are: two distinct tagging vocabularies have emerged, one around each of the two main types of geographic objects in Cyclopath; tags and notes have overlapping content but serve distinct purposes; users employ both ratings and tags to express their route-finding preferences, and use of the two techniques is moderately correlated; and users are highly specialized in their use of tags and notes. These findings suggest new design opportunities, including semi-automated methods to infer new annotations in a geographic context.

© All rights reserved Torre et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Zanker, Markus, Ricci, Francesco, Jannach, Dietmar and Terveen, Loren (2010): Measuring the impact of personalization and recommendation on user behaviour. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 68 (8) pp. 469-471. Available online

2009
 
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Ludwig, Michael, Priedhorsky, Reid and Terveen, Loren (2009): Path selection: a novel interaction technique for mapping applications. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2009. pp. 2309-2318. Available online

Many online mapping applications let users define routes, perhaps for sharing a favorite bicycle commuting route or rating several contiguous city blocks. At the UI level, defining a route amounts to selecting a fairly large number of objects -- the individual segments of roads and trails that make up the route. We present a novel interaction technique for this task called path selection. We implemented the technique and evaluated it experimentally, finding that adding path selection to a state-of-the-art technique for selecting individual objects reduced route definition time by about a factor of 2, reduced errors, and improved user satisfaction. Detailed analysis of the results showed path selection is most advantageous (a) for routes with long straight segments and (b) when objects that are optimal click targets also are visually attractive.

© All rights reserved Ludwig et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Panciera, Katherine, Halfaker, Aaron and Terveen, Loren (2009): Wikipedians are born, not made: a study of power editors on Wikipedia. In: GROUP09 - International Conference on Supporting Group Work 2009. pp. 51-60. Available online

Open content web sites depend on users to produce information of value. Wikipedia is the largest and most well-known such site. Previous work has shown that a small fraction of editors -- Wikipedians -- do most of the work and produce most of the value. Other work has offered conjectures about how Wikipedians differ from other editors and how Wikipedians change over time. We quantify and test these conjectures. Our key findings include: Wikipedians' edits last longer; Wikipedians invoke community norms more often to justify their edits; on many dimensions of activity, Wikipedians start intensely, tail off a little, then maintain a relatively high level of activity over the course of their career. Finally, we show that the amount of work done by Wikipedians and non-Wikipedians differs significantly from their very first day. Our results suggest a design opportunity: customizing the initial user experience to improve retention and channel new users' intense energy.

© All rights reserved Panciera et al. and/or their publisher

 Cited in the following chapter:

Social Computing: [/encyclopedia/social_computing.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

Social Computing: [/encyclopedia/social_computing.html]


 
 
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Reily, Ken, Finnerty, Pam Ludford and Terveen, Loren (2009): Two peers are better than one: aggregating peer reviews for computing assignments is surprisingly accurate. In: GROUP09 - International Conference on Supporting Group Work 2009. pp. 115-124. Available online

Scientific peer review, open source software development, wikis, and other domains use distributed review to improve quality of created content by providing feedback to the work's creator. Distributed review is used to assess or improve the quality of a work (e.g., an article). However, it can also provide learning benefits to the participants in the review process. We developed an online review system for beginning computer programming students; it gathers multiple anonymous peer reviews to give students feedback on their programming work. We deployed the system in an introductory programming class and evaluated it in a controlled study. We find that: peer reviews are accurate compared to an accepted evaluation standard, that students prefer reviews from other students with less experience than themselves, and that participating in a peer review process results in better learning outcomes.

© All rights reserved Reily et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Amento, Brian, Harrison, Chris, Nathan, Mukesh and Terveen, Loren (2009): Chapter
XII - 
Asynchronous
 Communication: 
Fostering 
Social
 Interaction 
with 
CollaboraTV. In: Geerts, David (ed.). "Social 
Interactive 
Television: 
Immersive 
Shared 
Experiences 
and
 Perspectives". Hershey, PA, USA: pp. 204-224

 
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Amento, Brian, Harrison, Chris, Nathan, Mukesh and Terveen, Loren (2009): ChapterXII - Asynchronous Communication: Fostering Social Interaction with CollaboraTV. In: Geerts, David (ed.). "Social Interactive Television: Immersive Shared Experiences and Perspectives". Hershey, PA, USA: pp. 204-224

2008
 
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Priedhorsky, Reid and Terveen, Loren (2008): The computational geowiki: what, why, and how. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW08 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2008. pp. 267-276. Available online

Google Maps and its spin-offs are highly successful, but they have a major limitation: users see only pictures of geographic data. These data are inaccessible except by limited vendor-defined APIs, and associated user data are weakly linked to them. But some applications require access, specifically geowikis and computational geowikis. We present the design and implementation of a computational geowiki. We also show empirically that both geowiki and computational geowiki features are necessary for a representative domain, bicycling, because (a) cyclists have useful knowledge unavailable except from cyclists and (b) cyclist-oriented automatic route-finding is enhanced by user input. Finally, we derive design implications: for example, user contributions presented within a route description are useful, and wikis should support contribution of opinion as well as fact.

© All rights reserved Priedhorsky and Terveen and/or ACM Press

 
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Reily, Ken, Ludford, Pamela J. and Terveen, Loren (2008): Sharescape: an interface for place annotation. In: Proceedings of the Fifth Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2008. pp. 326-333. Available online

Many people use the Internet to search for geographically local information, with a growing number of websites dedicated to this task. However, it is not clear exactly how users integrate geographic search with content-based search, nor how to obtain reliable information about places in a geographic region. We created Sharescape, a map-based application in which information is contributed by community members. We conducted a user study to evaluate the utility of this means of obtaining information and to investigate how users integrate geographic and content-based search. Our results suggest that 1) maps create an implicit context in an interface that designers should honor, 2) community-maintained information about local geography has important benefits over information mined from web sites, and 3) users often are not aware of the privacy implications of their actions, and therefore designers should incorporate special privacy safeguards.

© All rights reserved Reily et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Jones, Quentin, Grandhi, Sukeshini, Karam, Samer, Whittaker, Steve, Zhou, Changqing and Terveen, Loren (2008): Geographic 'Place' and 'Community Information' Preferences. In Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 17 (2) pp. 137-167. Available online

People dynamically structure social interactions and activities at various locations in their environments in specialized types of places such as the office, home, coffee shop, museum and school. They also imbue various locations with personal meaning, creating group 'hangouts' and personally meaningful 'places'. Mobile location-aware community systems can potentially utilize the existence of such 'places' to support the management of social information and interaction. However, acting effectively on this potential requires an understanding of how: (1) places and place-types relate to people's desire for place-related awareness of and communication with others; and (2) what information people are willing to provide about themselves to enable place-related communication and awareness. We present here the findings from two qualitative studies, a survey of 509 individuals in New York, and a study of how mobility traces can be used to find people's important places in an exploration of these questions. These studies highlight how people value and are willing to routinely provide information such as ratings, comments, event records relevant to a place, and when appropriate their location to enable services. They also suggest how place and place-type data could be used in conjunction with other information regarding people and places so that systems can be deployed that respect users' People-to-People-to-Places data sharing preferences. We conclude with a discussion on how 'place' data can best be utilized to enable services when the systems in question are supported by a sophisticated computerized user-community social-geographical model.

© All rights reserved Jones et al. and/or Kluwer Academic Publishers

 
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Nathan, Mukesh, Harrison, Chris, Yarosh, Svetlana, Terveen, Loren, Stead, Larry and Amento, Brian (2008): CollaboraTV: making television viewing social again. In: Darnell, Michael J., Masthoff, Judith, Panabaker, Sheri, Sullivan, Marc and Lugmayr, Artur (eds.) UXTV 2008 - Proceeding of the 1st International Conference on Designing Interactive User Experiences for TV and Video October 22-24, 2008, Silicon Valley, California, USA. pp. 85-94. Available online

 
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Jones, Quentin, Grandhi, Sukeshini, Karam, Samer, Whittaker, Steve, Zhou, Changqing and Terveen, Loren (2008): Geographic 'Place' and 'Community Information' Preferences. In Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 17 (2) pp. 137-167. Available online

People dynamically structure social interactions and activities at various locations in their environments in specialized types of places such as the office, home, coffee shop, museum and school. They also imbue various locations with personal meaning, creating group 'hangouts' and personally meaningful 'places'. Mobile location-aware community systems can potentially utilize the existence of such 'places' to support the management of social information and interaction. However, acting effectively on this potential requires an understanding of how: (1) places and place-types relate to people's desire for place-related awareness of and communication with others; and (2) what information people are willing to provide about themselves to enable place-related communication and awareness. We present here the findings from two qualitative studies, a survey of 509 individuals in New York, and a study of how mobility traces can be used to find people's important places in an exploration of these questions. These studies highlight how people value and are willing to routinely provide information such as ratings, comments, event records relevant to a place, and when appropriate their location to enable services. They also suggest how place and place-type data could be used in conjunction with other information regarding people and places so that systems can be deployed that respect users' People-to-People-to-Places data sharing preferences. We conclude with a discussion on how 'place' data can best be utilized to enable services when the systems in question are supported by a sophisticated computerized user-community social-geographical model.

© All rights reserved Jones et al. and/or Kluwer Academic Publishers

 
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Drenner, Sara, Sen, Shilad and Terveen, Loren (2008): Crafting the initial user experience to achieve community goals. In: Proceedings of the 2008 ACM Conference on Recommender Systems 2008. pp. 187-194. Available online

Recommender systems try to address the "new user problem" by quickly and painlessly learning user preferences so that users can begin receiving recommendations as soon as possible. We take an expanded perspective on the new user experience, seeing it as an opportunity to elicit valuable contributions to the community and shape subsequent user behavior. We conducted a field experiment in MovieLens where we imposed additional work on new users: not only did they have to rate movies, they also had to enter varying numbers of tags. While requiring more work led to fewer users completing the entry process, the benefits were significant: the remaining users produced a large volume of tags initially, and continued to enter tags at a much higher rate than a control group. Further, their rating behavior was not depressed. Our results suggest that careful design of the initial user experience can lead to significant benefits for an online community.

© All rights reserved Drenner et al. and/or ACM Press

2007
 
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Ludford, Pamela J., Priedhorsky, Reid, Reily, Ken and Terveen, Loren (2007): Capturing, sharing, and using local place information. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2007 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2007. pp. 1235-1244. Available online

With new technology, people can share information about everyday places they go; the resulting data helps others find and evaluate places. Recent applications like Dodgeball and Sharescape repurpose everyday place information: users create local place data for personal use, and the systems display it for public use. We explore both the opportunities -- new local knowledge, and concerns -- privacy risks, raised by this implicit information sharing. We conduct two empirical studies: subjects create place data when using PlaceMail, a location-based reminder system, and elect whether to share it on Sharescape, a community map-building system. We contribute by: (1) showing location-based reminders yield new local knowledge about a variety of places, (2) identifying heuristics people use when deciding what place-related information to share (and their prevalence), (3) detailing how these decision heuristics can inform local knowledge sharing system design, and (4) identifying new uses of shared place information, notably opportunistic errand planning.

© All rights reserved Ludford et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Harper, F. Maxwell, Frankowski, Dan, Drenner, Sara, Ren, Yuqing, Kiesler, Sara, Terveen, Loren, Kraut, Robert E. and Riedl, John (2007): Talk amongst yourselves: inviting users to participate in online conversations. In: Proceedings of the 2007 International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces 2007. pp. 62-71. Available online

Many small online communities would benefit from increased diversity or activity in their membership. Some communities run the risk of dying out due to lack of participation. Others struggle to achieve the critical mass necessary for diverse and engaging conversation. But what tools are available to these communities to increase participation? Our goal in this research was to spark contributions to the movielens.org discussion forum, where only 2% of the members write posts. We developed personalized invitations, messages designed to entice users to visit or contribute to the forum. In two field experiments, we ask (1) if personalized invitations increase activity in a discussion forum, (2) how the choice of algorithm for intelligently choosing content to emphasize in the invitation affects participation, and (3) how the suggestion made to the user affects their willingness to act. We find that invitations lead to increased participation, as measured by levels of reading and posting. More surprisingly, we find that invitations emphasizing the social nature of the discussion forum increase user activity, while invitations emphasizing other details of the discussion are less successful.

© All rights reserved Harper et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Priedhorsky, Reid, Chen, Jilin, Lam, Shyong (Tony) K., Panciera, Katherine, Terveen, Loren and Riedl, John (2007): Creating, destroying, and restoring value in wikipedia. In: GROUP07: International Conference on Supporting Group Work 2007. pp. 259-268. Available online

Wikipedia's brilliance and curse is that any user can edit any of the encyclopedia entries. We introduce the notion of the impact of an edit, measured by the number of times the edited version is viewed. Using several datasets, including recent logs of all article views, we show that an overwhelming majority of the viewed words were written by frequent editors and that this majority is increasing. Similarly, using the same impact measure, we show that the probability of a typical article view being damaged is small but increasing, and we present empirically grounded classes of damage. Finally, we make policy recommendations for Wikipedia and other wikis in light of these findings.

© All rights reserved Priedhorsky et al. and/or ACM Press

 Cited in the following chapter:

Social Computing: [/encyclopedia/social_computing.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

Social Computing: [/encyclopedia/social_computing.html]


 
 
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Priedhorsky, Reid, Jordan, Benjamin and Terveen, Loren (2007): How a personalized geowiki can help bicyclists share information more effectively. In: Proceedings of the 2007 International Symposium on Wikis 2007. pp. 93-98. Available online

The bicycling community is focused around a real-world activity -- navigating a bicycle -- which requires planning within a complex and ever-changing space. While all the knowledge needed to find good routes exists, it is highly distributed. We show, using the results of surveys and interviews, that cyclists need a comprehensive, up-to-date, and personalized information resource. We introduce the personalized geowiki, a new type of wiki which meets these requirements, and we formalize the notion of geowiki. Finally, we state some general prerequisites for wiki contribution and show that they are met by cyclists.

© All rights reserved Priedhorsky et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Zhou, Changqing, Frankowski, Dan, Ludford, Pamela J., Shekhar, Shashi and Terveen, Loren (2007): Discovering personally meaningful places: An interactive clustering approach. In ACM Transactions on Information Systems, 25 (3) p. 12. Available online

The discovery of a person's meaningful places involves obtaining the physical locations and their labels for a person's places that matter to his daily life and routines. This problem is driven by the requirements from emerging location-aware applications, which allow a user to pose queries and obtain information in reference to places, for example, "home", "work" or "Northwest Health Club". It is a challenge to map from physical locations to personally meaningful places due to a lack of understanding of what constitutes the real users' personally meaningful places. Previous work has explored algorithms to discover personal places from location data. However, we know of no systematic empirical evaluations of these algorithms, leaving designers of location-aware applications in the dark about their choices. Our work remedies this situation. We extended a clustering algorithm to discover places. We also defined a set of essential evaluation metrics and an interactive evaluation framework. We then conducted a large-scale experiment that collected real users' location data and personally meaningful places, and illustrated the utility of our evaluation framework. Our results establish a baseline that future work can measure itself against. They also demonstrate that our algorithm discovers places with reasonable accuracy and outperforms the well-known K-Means clustering algorithm for place discovery. Finally, we provide evidence that shapes more complex than "points" are required to represent the full range of people's everyday places.

© All rights reserved Zhou et al. and/or ACM Press

2006
 
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Ludford, Pamela J., Frankowski, Dan, Reily, Ken, Wilms, Kurt and Terveen, Loren (2006): Because I carry my cell phone anyway: functional location-based reminder applications. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2006 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2006. pp. 889-898. Available online

Although they have potential, to date location-based information systems have not radically improved the way we interact with our surroundings. To study related issues, we developed a location-based reminder system, PlaceMail, and demonstrate its utility in supporting everyday tasks through a month-long field study. We identify current tools and practices people use to manage distributed tasks and note problems with current methods, including the common "to-do list". Our field study shows that PlaceMail supports useful location-based reminders and functional place-based lists. The study also sheds rich and surprising light on a new issue: when and where to deliver location-based information. The traditional 'geofence' radius around a place proves insufficient. Instead, effective delivery depends on people's movement patterns through an area and the geographic layout of the space. Our results both provide a compelling demonstration of the utility of location-based information and raise significant new challenges for location-based information distribution.

© All rights reserved Ludford et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Drenner, Sara, Harper, Max, Frankowski, Dan, Riedl, John and Terveen, Loren (2006): Insert movie reference here: a system to bridge conversation and item-oriented web sites. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2006 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2006. pp. 951-954. Available online

Item-oriented Web sites maintain repositories of information about things such as books, games, or products. Many of these Web sites offer discussion forums. However, these forums are often disconnected from the rich data available in the item repositories. We describe a system, movie linking, that bridges a movie recommendation Web site and a movie-oriented discussion forum. Through automatic detection and an interactive component, the system recognizes references to movies in the forum and adds recommendation data to the forums and conversation threads to movie pages. An eight week observational study shows that the system was able to identify movie references with precision of .93 and recall of .78. Though users reported that the feature was useful, their behavior indicates that the feature was more successful at enriching the interface than at integrating the system.

© All rights reserved Drenner et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Cosley, Dan, Frankowski, Dan, Terveen, Loren and Riedl, John (2006): Using intelligent task routing and contribution review to help communities build artifacts of lasting value. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2006 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2006. pp. 1037-1046. Available online

Many online communities are emerging that, like Wikipedia, bring people together to build community-maintained artifacts of lasting value (CALVs). Motivating people to contribute is a key problem because the quantity and quality of contributions ultimately determine a CALV's value. We pose two related research questions: 1) How does intelligent task routing -- matching people with work -- affect the quantity of contributions? 2) How does reviewing contributions before accepting them affect the quality of contributions? A field experiment with 197 contributors shows that simple, intelligent task routing algorithms have large effects. We also model the effect of reviewing contributions on the value of CALVs. The model predicts, and experimental data shows, that value grows more slowly with review before acceptance. It also predicts, surprisingly, that a CALV will reach the same final value whether contributions are reviewed before or after they are made available to the community.

© All rights reserved Cosley et al. and/or ACM Press

2005
 
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Cosley, Dan, Frankowski, Dan, Kiesler, Sara, Terveen, Loren and Riedl, John (2005): How oversight improves member-maintained communities. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 11-20. Available online

Online communities need regular maintenance activities such as moderation and data input, tasks that typically fall to community owners. Communities that allow all members to participate in maintenance tasks have the potential to be more robust and valuable. A key challenge in creating member-maintained communities is building interfaces, algorithms, and social structures that encourage people to provide high-quality contributions. We use Karau and Williams' collective effort model to predict how peer and expert editorial oversight affect members' contributions to a movie recommendation website and test these predictions in a field experiment with 87 contributors. Oversight increased both the quantity and quality of contributions while reducing antisocial behavior, and peers were as effective at oversight as experts. We draw design guidelines and suggest avenues for future work from our results.

© All rights reserved Cosley et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Kapoor, Nishikant, Konstan, Joseph A. and Terveen, Loren (2005): How peer photos influence member participation in online communities. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 1525-1528. Available online

Online communities (OLCs) are gatherings of like-minded people, brought together in cyberspace by shared interests. Creating such communities is not a big challenge; sustaining members' participation is. In this paper, we describe a technique for presenting members' photos and evaluate how it affects member participation in the community. We compare three different policies for presenting peer photos on the home page of the web site. Our results show that explicit requests in the form of simple and short messages on the home page of a community can induce participation. We show that we were able to motivate members to (a) log into the system to see photos of fellow members, and (b) upload their personal photos.

© All rights reserved Kapoor et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Zhou, Changqing, Ludford, Pamela J., Frankowski, Dan and Terveen, Loren (2005): An experiment in discovering personally meaningful places from location data. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 2029-2032. Available online

As mobile devices become location-aware, they offer the promise of powerful new applications. While computers work with physical locations like latitude and longitude, people think and speak in terms of places, like "my office" or "Sue's house". Therefore, location-aware applications must incorporate the notion of places to achieve their full potential. This requires systems to acquire the places that are meaningful for each user. Previous work has explored algorithms to discover personal places from location data. However, we know of no empirical, quantitative evaluations of these algorithms, so the question of how well they work currently is unanswered. We report here on an experiment that begins to provide an answer; we show that a place discovery algorithm can do a good job of discovering places that are meaningful to users. The results have important implications for system design and open up interesting avenues for future research.

© All rights reserved Zhou et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Resnick, Paul, Riedl, John, Terveen, Loren and Ackerman, Mark S. (2005): Beyond threaded conversation. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 2138-2139. Available online

 
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Zhou, C., Ludford, P., Frankowski, Dan and Terveen, Loren (2005): How Do People's Concepts of Place Relate to Physical Locations?. In: Proceedings of IFIP INTERACT05: Human-Computer Interaction 2005. pp. 886-898. Available online

Advances in GPS and wireless networking technologies have enabled a new class of location-aware applications, including location tracking [10,2], location-enhanced messaging [3,9], location-based gaming(www.botfighters.com), and navigation aids for the visually impaired [12]. However, these applications typically represent places quite simply, as a geographical point or a point plus radius. We conducted an experiment that showed that this simple representation is not expressive enough to represent the full range of people's everyday places. We also present a set of more complicated physical shapes that our subjects found sufficient to cover their places. These results identify representational requirements for location-aware systems, have implications for systems that aim to acquire place representations, suggest enhanced applications, and open up interesting avenues for future research.

© All rights reserved Zhou et al. and/or Springer Verlag

2004
 
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Ludford, Pamela J., Cosley, Dan, Frankowski, Dan and Terveen, Loren (2004): Think different: increasing online community participation using uniqueness and group dissimilarity. In: Dykstra-Erickson, Elizabeth and Tscheligi, Manfred (eds.) Proceedings of ACM CHI 2004 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 24-29, 2004, Vienna, Austria. pp. 631-638. Available online

Online communities can help people form productive relationships. Unfortunately, this potential is not always fulfilled: many communities fail, and designers don't have a solid understanding of why. We know community activity begets activity. The trick, however, is to inspire participation in the first place. Social theories suggest methods to spark positive community participation. We carried out a field experiment that tested two such theories. We formed discussion communities around an existing movie recommendation web site, manipulating two factors: (1) similarity-we controlled how similar group members' movie ratings were; and (2) uniqueness-we told members how their movie ratings (with respect to a discussion topic) were unique within the group. Both factors positively influenced participation. The results offer a practical success story in applying social science theory to the design of online communities.

© All rights reserved Ludford et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Jones, Quentin, Grandhi, Sukeshini A., Whittaker, Steve, Chivakula, Keerti and Terveen, Loren (2004): Putting systems into place: a qualitative study of design requirements for location-aware community systems. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW04 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2004. pp. 202-211. Available online

We present a conceptual framework for location-aware community systems and results from two studies of how socially-defined places influence people's information sharing and communication needs. The first study identified a relationship between people's familiarity with a place and their desire for either stable or dynamic place-related information. The second study explored the utility of various system features highlighted by our conceptual framework. It clarified the role of place information in informal social interaction; it also showed that people valued, and were willing to provide information such as ratings, comments, and event records relevant to a place. These preliminary findings have important implications for the design of location-aware community systems. In particular, they suggest that such systems must integrate information about places with data about users' personal routines and social relationships.

© All rights reserved Jones et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Herlocker, Jonathan L., Konstan, Joseph A., Terveen, Loren and Riedl, John (2004): Evaluating collaborative filtering recommender systems. In ACM Transactions on Information Systems, 22 (1) pp. 5-53. Available online

Recommender systems have been evaluated in many, often incomparable, ways. In this article, we review the key decisions in evaluating collaborative filtering recommender systems: the user tasks being evaluated, the types of analysis and datasets being used, the ways in which prediction quality is measured, the evaluation of prediction attributes other than quality, and the user-based evaluation of the system as a whole. In addition to reviewing the evaluation strategies used by prior researchers, we present empirical results from the analysis of various accuracy metrics on one content domain where all the tested metrics collapsed roughly into three equivalence classes. Metrics within each equivalency class were strongly correlated, while metrics from different equivalency classes were uncorrelated.

© All rights reserved Herlocker et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Jones, Quentin, Grandhi, Sukeshini A., Terveen, Loren and Whittaker, Steve (2004): People-to-People-to-Geographical-Places: The P3 Framework for Location-Based Community Systems. In Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 13 (3) pp. 249-282. Available online

In this paper we examine an emerging class of systems that link People-to-People-to-Geographical-Places; we call these P3-Systems. Through analyzing the literature, we have identified four major P3-System design techniques: People-Centered systems that use either absolute user location (e.g. Active Badge) or user proximity (e.g. Hocman) and Place-Centered systems based on either a representation of peoples use of physical spaces (e.g. ActiveMap) or on a matching virtual space that enables online interaction linked to physical location (e.g. Geonotes). In addition, each feature can be instantiated synchronously or asynchronously. The P3-System framework organizes existing systems into meaningful categories and structures the design space for an interesting new class of potentially context-aware systems. Our discussion of the framework suggests new ways of understanding and addressing the privacy concerns associated with location aware community system and outlines additional socio-technical challenges and opportunities.

© All rights reserved Jones et al. and/or Kluwer Academic Publishers

 Cited in the following chapter:

Mobile Computing: [/encyclopedia/mobile_computing.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

Mobile Computing: [/encyclopedia/mobile_computing.html]


 
 
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Whittaker, Steve, Jones, Quentin, Nardi, Bonnie A., Creech, Mike, Terveen, Loren, Isaacs, Ellen and Hainsworth, John (2004): ContactMap: Organizing communication in a social desktop. In ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 11 (4) pp. 445-471. Available online

Modern work is a highly social process, offering many cues for people to organize communication and access information. Shared physical workplaces provide natural support for tasks such as (a) social reminding about communication commitments and keeping track of collaborators and friends, and (b) social data mining of local expertise for advice and information. However, many people now collaborate remotely using tools such as email and voicemail. Our field studies show that these tools do not provide the social cues needed for group work processes. In part, this is because the tools are organized around messages, rather than people. In response to this problem, we created ContactMap, a system that makes people the primary unit of interaction. ContactMap provides a structured social desktop representation of users' important contacts that directly supports social reminding and social data mining. We conducted an empirical evaluation of ContactMap, comparing it with traditional email systems, on tasks suggested by our fieldwork. Users performed better with ContactMap and preferred ContactMap for the majority of these tasks. We discuss future enhancements of our system and the implications of these results for future communication interfaces and for theories of mediated communication.

© All rights reserved Whittaker et al. and/or ACM Press

2003
 
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Amento, Brian, Terveen, Loren, Hill, Will, Hix, Deborah and Schulman, Robert S. (2003): Experiments in social data mining: The TopicShop system. In ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 10 (1) pp. 54-85. Available online

Social data mining systems enable people to share opinions and benefit from each other's experience. They do this by mining and redistributing information from computational records of social activity such as Usenet messages, system usage history, citations, or hyperlinks. Some general questions for evaluating such systems are: (1) is the extracted information valuable? and (2) do interfaces based on the information improve user task performance? We report here on TopicShop, a system that mines information from the structure and content of Web pages and provides an exploratory information workspace interface. We carried out experiments that yielded positive answers to both evaluation questions. First, a number of automatically computable features about Web sites do a good job of predicting expert quality judgments about sites. Second, compared to popular Web search interfaces, the TopicShop interface to this information lets users select significantly more high-quality sites, in less time and with less effort, and to organize the sites they select into personally meaningful collections more quickly and easily. We conclude by discussing how our results may be applied and considering how they touch on general issues concerning quality, expertise, and consensus.

© All rights reserved Amento et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Cosley, Dan, Ludford, Pamela J. and Terveen, Loren (2003): Studying the effect of similarity in online task-focused interactions. In: Tremaine, Marilyn M. and Simone, Carla (eds.) Proceedings of the International ACM SIGGROUP Conference on Supporting Group Work 2003 November 9-12, 2003, Sanibel Island, Florida, USA. pp. 321-329. Available online

Although the Internet provides powerful tools for social interactions, many tasks-for example, information-seeking-are undertaken as solitary activities. Information seekers are unaware of the invisible crowd traveling in parallel to their course through the information landscape. Social navigation systems attempt to make the invisible crowd visible, while social recommender systems try to introduce people directly. However, it is not clear whether users desire or will respond to social cues indicating the presence of other people when they are focused on a task. To investigate this issue, we created an online game-playing task and paired subjects to perform the task based on their responses to a short survey about demographics and interests. We studied how these factors influence task outcomes, the interaction process, and attitudes towards one's partner. We found that demographic similarity affected how people interact with each other, even though this information was not explicit, while similarities or differences in task-relevant interests did not. Our findings suggest guidelines for developing social recommender systems and show the need for further research into conditions that will help such systems succeed.

© All rights reserved Cosley et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Ludford, Pamela J. and Terveen, Loren (2003): Does an Individual's Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Preference Influence Task-Oriented Technology Use?. In: Proceedings of IFIP INTERACT03: Human-Computer Interaction 2003, Zurich, Switzerland. p. 623.

2002
 
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Terveen, Loren (ed.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2002 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 20-25, 2002, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

 
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Terveen, Loren, McMackin, Jessica, Amento, Brian and Hill, Will (2002): Specifying preferences based on user history. In: Terveen, Loren (ed.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2002 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 20-25, 2002, Minneapolis, Minnesota. pp. 315-322.

 
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Whittaker, Steve, Jones, Quentin and Terveen, Loren (2002): Contact management: identifying contacts to support long-term communication. In: Churchill, Elizabeth F., McCarthy, Joe, Neuwirth, Christine and Rodden, Tom (eds.) Proceedings of the 2002 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work November 16 - 20, 2002, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. pp. 216-225. Available online

Much of our daily communication activity involves managing interpersonal communications and relationships. Despite its importance, this activity of contact management is poorly understood. We report on field and lab studies that begin to illuminate it. A field study of business professionals confirmed the importance of contact management and revealed a major difficulty: selecting important contacts from the large set of people with whom one communicates. These interviews also showed that communication history is a key resource for this task. Informants identified several history-based criteria that they considered useful.We conducted a lab study to test how well these criteria predict contact importance. Subjects identified important contacts from their email archives. We then analyzed their email to extract features for all contacts. Reciprocity, recency and longevity of email interaction proved to be strong predictors of contact importance. The experiment also identified another contact management problem: removing 'stale' contacts from long term archives. We discuss the design and theoretical implications of these results.

© All rights reserved Whittaker et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Whittaker, Steve, Jones, Quentin and Terveen, Loren (2002): Managing Long Term Communications: Conversation and Contact Management. In: HICSS 2002 2002. p. 115. Available online

 
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Terveen, Loren (ed.) Proceedings of CHI 2002 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 20-25, 2002, Minneapolis,USA.

2000
 
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Amento, Brian, Terveen, Loren, Hill, Will and Hix, Deborah (2000): TopicShop: Enhanced Support for Evaluating and Organizing Collections of Web Sites. In: Ackerman, Mark S. and Edwards, Keith (eds.) Proceedings of the 13th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 06 - 08, 2000, San Diego, California, United States. pp. 201-209. Available online

 
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Whittaker, Steve, Terveen, Loren and Nardi, Bonnie A. (2000): Let's Stop Pushing the Envelope and Start Addressing It: A Reference Task Agenda for HCI. In Human-Computer Interaction, 15 (2) pp. 75-106.

We identify a problem with the process of research in the human-computer interaction (HCI) community-an overemphasis on "radical invention" at the price of achieving a common research focus. Without such a focus, it is difficult to build on previous work, to compare different interaction techniques objectively, and to make progress in developing theory. These problems at the research level have implications for practice, too; as researchers we often are unable to give principled design advice to builders of new systems. We propose that the HCI community try to achieve a common focus around the notion of reference tasks. We offer arguments for the advantages of this approach as well as consider potential difficulties. We explain how reference tasks have been highly effective in focusing research into information retrieval and speech recognition. We discuss what factors have to be considered in selecting HCI reference tasks and present an example reference task (for searching speech archives). This example illustrates the nature of reference tasks and points to the issues and problems involved in constructing and using them. We conclude with recommendations about what steps need to be taken to execute the reference task research agenda. This involves recommendations about both the technical research that needs to be done and changes in the way that the HCI research community operates. The technical research involves identification of important user tasks by systematic requirements gathering, definition and operationalization of reference tasks and evaluation metrics, and execution of task-based evaluation, along with judicious use of field trials. Perhaps more important, we have also suggested changes in community practice that HCI must adopt to make the reference tasks idea work. We must create forums for discussion of common tasks and methods by which people can compare systems and techniques. Only by doing this can the notion of reference tasks be integrated into the process of research and development, enabling the field to achieve the focus it desperately needs.

© All rights reserved Whittaker et al. and/or Taylor and Francis

 
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Amento, Brian, Terveen, Loren and Hill, Will (2000): Does "Authority" Mean Quality? Predicting Expert Quality Ratings of Web Documents. In: Proceedings of the 23rd Annual International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval 2000. pp. 296-303. Available online

1999
 
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Amento, Brian, Hill, Will, Terveen, Loren, Ju, Peter and Hix, Deborah (1999): An Empirical Evaluation of User Interfaces for Topic Management of Web Sites. In: Altom, Mark W. and Williams, Marian G. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 99 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference May 15-20, 1999, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. pp. 552-559. Available online

Topic management is the task of gathering, evaluating, organizing, and sharing a set of web sites for a specific topic. Current web tools do not provide adequate support for this task. We created the TopicShop system to address this need. TopicShop includes (1) a webcrawler that discovers relevant web sites and builds site profiles, and (2) user interfaces for exploring and organizing sites. We conducted an empirical study comparing user performance with TopicShop vs. Yahoo. TopicShop subjects found over 80% more high-quality sites (where quality was determined by independent expert judgements) while browsing only 81% as many sites and completing their task in 89% of the time. The site profile data that TopicShop provides -- in particular, the number of pages on a site and the number of other sites that link to it -- was the key to these results, as users exploited it to identify the most promising sites quickly and easily.

© All rights reserved Amento et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Terveen, Loren, Hill, Will and Amento, Brian (1999): Constructing, Organizing, and Visualizing Collections of Topically Related Web Resources. In ACM Computing Surveys (CSUR), 6 (1) pp. 67-94. Available online

For many purposes, the Web page is too small a unit of interaction and analysis. Web sites are structured multimedia documents consisting of many pages, and users often are interested in obtaining and evaluating entire collections of topically related sites. Once such a collection is obtained, users face the challenge of exploring, comprehending, and organizing the items. We report four innovations that address these user needs: (1) we replaced the Web page with the Web site as the basic unit of interaction and analysis; (2) we defined a new information structure, the clan graph, that groups together sets of related sites; (3) we augment the representation of a site with a site profile, information about site structure and content that helps inform user evaluation of a site; and (4) we invented a new graph visualization, the auditorium visualization, that reveals important structural and content properties of sites within a clan graph. Detailed analysis and user studies document the utility of this approach. The clan graph construction algorithm tends to filter out irrelevant sites and discover additional relevant items. The auditorium visualization, augmented with drill-down capabilities to explore site profile data, helps users to find high-quality sites as well as sites that serve a particular function.

© All rights reserved Terveen et al. and/or ACM Press

1998
 
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Terveen, Loren and Hill, Will (1998): Finding and Visualizing Inter-Site Clan Graphs. In: Karat, Clare-Marie, Lund, Arnold, Coutaz, Jolle and Karat, John (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 98 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 18-23, 1998, Los Angeles, California. pp. 448-455. Available online

For many purposes, the Web page is too small a unit of interaction. Users often want to interact with larger-scale entities, particularly collections of topically related items. We report three innovations that address this user need. * We replaced the web page with the web site as the basic unit of interaction and analysis. * We defined a new information structure, the clan graph, that groups together sets of related sites. * We invented a new graph visualization, the auditorium visualization, that reveals important structural and content properties of sites within a clan graph. We have discovered interesting information that can be extracted from the structure of a clan graph. We can identify structurally important sites with many incoming or outgoing links. Links between sites serve important functions: they often identify "front door" pages of sites, sometimes identify especially significant pages within a site, and occasionally contain informative anchor text.

© All rights reserved Terveen and Hill and/or ACM Press

 
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Whittaker, Steve, Terveen, Loren, Hill, Will and Cherny, Lynn (1998): The Dynamics of Mass Interaction. In: Poltrock, Steven and Grudin, Jonathan (eds.) Proceedings of the 1998 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work November 14 - 18, 1998, Seattle, Washington, United States. pp. 257-264. Available online

Usenet may be regarded as the world's largest conversational application, with over 17,000 newsgroups and 3 million users. Despite its ubiquity and popularity, however, we know little about the nature of the interactions it supports. This empirical paper investigates mass interaction in Usenet. We analyse over 2.15 million messages from 659,450 posters, collected from 500 newsgroups over 6 months. We first characterise mass interaction, presenting basic data about demographics, conversational strategies and interactivity. Using predictions from the common ground model of interaction, we next conduct causal modelling to determine relations between demographics, conversational strategies and interactivity. We find evidence for moderate conversational threading, but large participation inequalities in Usenet, with a small minority of participants posting a large proportion of messages. Contrary to the common ground model and "Netiquette" guidelines, we also find that "cross-posting" to external newsgroups is highly frequent. Our predictions about the effects of demographics on conversational strategy were largely confirmed, but we found disconfirming evidence about the relations between conversational strategy and interactivity. Contrary to our expectations, both cross-posting and short messages promote interactivity. We conclude that in order to explain mass interaction, the common ground model must be modified to incorporate notions of weak ties and communication overload.

© All rights reserved Whittaker et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Terveen, Loren and Hill, Will (1998): Evaluating Emergent Collaboration on the Web. In: Poltrock, Steven and Grudin, Jonathan (eds.) Proceedings of the 1998 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work November 14 - 18, 1998, Seattle, Washington, United States. pp. 355-362. Available online

Links between web sites can be seen as evidence of a type of emergent collaboration among web site authors. We report here on an empirical investigation into emergent collaboration. We developed a webcrawling algorithm and tested its performance on topics volunteered by 30 subjects. Our findings include: * Some topics exhibit emergent collaboration, some do not. The presence of commercial sites reduces collaboration. * When sites are linked with other sites, they tend to group into one large, tightly connected component. * Connectivity can serve as the basis for collaborative filtering. Human experts rate connected sites as significantly more relevant and of higher quality.

© All rights reserved Terveen and Hill and/or ACM Press

1997
 
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Terveen, Loren and Johnson, Peter (1997): Conference Preview: IUI '98: 1998 International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces. In Interactions, 4 (6) p. 77. Available online

 
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Terveen, Loren, Hill, William C., Amento, Brian, McDonald, David W. and Creter, Josh (1997): Building Task-Specific Interfaces to High Volume Conversational Data. In: Pemberton, Steven (ed.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 97 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference March 22-27, 1997, Atlanta, Georgia. pp. 226-233. Available online

As people participate in the thousands of global conversations that comprise Usenet news, one thing they do is post their opinions of web resources. Phoaks is a collaborative filtering system that continuously parses, classifies, abstracts and tallies those opinions. About 3,500 users per day consult Phoaks web pages that reflect the results. Phoaks also features a general architecture for building similar collaborative filtering interfaces to conversational data. We report here on the Phoaks resource recommendation interface, the architecture, and the issues and experience that make up its rationale.

© All rights reserved Terveen et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Hill, William C. and Terveen, Loren (1997): Involving Remote Users in Continuous Design of Web Content. In: Proceedings of DIS97: Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, & Techniques 1997. pp. 137-145. Available online

PHOAKS is a system that automatically recognizes URLs recommended in Usenet messages and continuously updates a large web site that summarizes the recommendation data. We view the automatically generated pages as "rough drafts" that users help to refine. We report here on the mechanisms that allow users to do this, our rationale for these mechanisms, and the issues raised by involving thousands of remote anonymous users in the continuous design of web content.

© All rights reserved Hill and Terveen and/or ACM Press

 
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Terveen, Loren, Hill, William C., Amento, Brian, McDonald, David W. and Creter, Josh (1997): Phoaks: A System for Sharing Recommendations. In Communications of the ACM, 40 (3) pp. 59-62.

1996
 
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Terveen, Loren and Murray, La Tondra (1996): Helping Users Program Their Personal Agents. In: Tauber, Michael J., Bellotti, Victoria, Jeffries, Robin, Mackinlay, Jock D. and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 96 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 14-18, 1996, Vancouver, Canada. pp. 355-361. Available online

Software agents are computer programs that act on behalf of users to perform routine, tedious, and time-consuming tasks. To be useful to an individual user, an agent must be personalized to his or her goals, habits, and preferences. We have created an end-user programming system that makes it easy for users to state rules for their agents to follow. The main advance over previous approaches is that the system automatically determines conflicts between rules and guides users in resolving the conflicts. Thus, user and system collaborate in developing and managing a set of rules that embody the user's preferences for handling a wide variety of situations.

© All rights reserved Terveen and and/or ACM Press

 
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Hill, Will and Terveen, Loren (1996): Using Frequency-of-Mention in Public Conversations for Social Filtering. In: Olson, Gary M., Olson, Judith S. and Ackerman, Mark S. (eds.) Proceedings of the 1996 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work November 16 - 20, 1996, Boston, Massachusetts, United States. pp. 106-112. Available online

We report on an investigation of using Usenet newsgroups for social filtering of Web resources. Our main empirical results are: (1) for the period of May '96 to Jul '96, about 23% of Usenet news messages mention Web resources, (2) 19% of resource mentions are recommendations (as opposed, e.g., to home pages), (3) we can automatically recognize recommendations with at least 90% accuracy, and (4) in some newsgroups, certain resources are mentioned significantly more frequently than others and thus appear to play a central role for that community. We have created a Web site that summarizes the most frequently and recently mentioned Web resources for 1400 newsgroups.

© All rights reserved Hill and Terveen and/or ACM Press

1995
 
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Terveen, Loren, Selfridge, Peter G. and Long, M. David (1995): Living Design Memory: Framework, Implementation, Lessons Learned. In Human-Computer Interaction, 10 (1) pp. 1-37.

We identify an important type of software design knowledge that we call community-specific folklore and discuss problems with current approaches to managing it. We developed a general framework for a living design memory, built a design memory tool, and deployed the tool in a large software development organization. The tool effectively disseminates knowledge relevant to local software design practice. It is embedded in the organizational process to help ensure that its knowledge evolves as necessary. This work illustrates important lessons in building knowledge management systems, integrating novel technology into organizational practice, and carrying out research-development partnerships.

© All rights reserved Terveen et al. and/or Taylor and Francis

 
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Terveen, Loren, Stolze, Markus and Hill, Will (1995): From "Model World" to "Magic World". In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 27 (4) pp. 31-34.

1993
 
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Terveen, Loren, Selfridge, Peter G. and Long, M. David (1993): From "Folklore" to "Living Design Memory". In: Ashlund, Stacey, Mullet, Kevin, Henderson, Austin, Hollnagel, Erik and White, Ted (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 93 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 24-29, 1993, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. pp. 15-22. Available online

We identify an important type of software design knowledge that we call community specific folklore and show problems with current approaches to managing it. We built a tool that serves as a living design memory for a large software development organization. The tool delivers knowledge to developers effectively and is embedded in organizational practice to ensure that the knowledge it contains evolves as necessary. This work illustrates important lessons in building knowledge management systems, integrating novel technology into organizational practice, and managing research-development partnerships.

© All rights reserved Terveen et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Terveen, Loren (1993): Interface Support for Data Archaeology. In: Bhargava, Bharat K., Finin, Timothy W. and Yesha, Yelena (eds.) CIKM 93 - Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Information and Knowledge Management November 1-5, 1993, Washington, DC, USA. pp. 356-363. Available online

1990
 
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Miller, James R., Hill, William C., McKendree, Jean, McCandless, Timothy P. and Terveen, Loren (1990): IDEA: From Advising to Collaboration. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 21 (3) pp. 53-59.

1987
 
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Miller, James R., Hill, William C., McKendree, Jean, Masson, Michael E. J., Blumenthal, Brad, Terveen, Loren and Zaback, Jay (1987): The Role of the System Image in Intelligent User Assistance. In: Bullinger, Hans-Jorg and Shackel, Brian (eds.) INTERACT 87 - 2nd IFIP International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction September 1-4, 1987, Stuttgart, Germany. pp. 885-890.

Many researchers have demonstrated the ways in which well-designed graphical interfaces allow users to acquire conceptual models of the interfaces and the application programs behind these interfaces. It is also clear that the users' models are initially flawed and incomplete, and the problems that users have with these systems revolve around the misconceptions and alternate conceptualizations in these models. Our work indicates that graphical interfaces may be especially sensitive to misconceptions, and that advisory systems for these kinds of systems must anticipate and resolve such problems. In particular, they must be able to understand alternative conceptual models of the system, and may need to diagnose and remediate these misconceptions. We will describe our work on direct manipulation interfaces and intelligent advisory systems, focusing on the problems people encounter when using interfaces and the ways in which our advisor's design is being driven by the properties of graphical interfaces.

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