Number of co-authors:15
Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:Shannon Halgren:2Drew Link:1Scott McIntyre:1
Leo Gugerty's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:Gary M. Olson:45Marianne Rudisill:11Kristin Moore:3
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Publications by Leo Gugerty (bibliography)
McIntyre, Scott, Gugerty, Leo, Link, Drew, Zimmerman, Karl, Tolani, Devendra, Huang, Peter and Pokorny, Robert (2012): Lane Specific Dilemma Zone Warnings at Signalized Intersections. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 2012 Annual Meeting 2012. pp. 2221-2225.
This simulator experiment compares driver behavior in the Dilemma Zone (DZ) on a 4-lane divided highway using three types of warnings of impending traffic signal end of green to no advance warning (control). The DZ occurs when onset of a yellow signal occurs at a temporal interval before an intersection such that stopping or proceeding through the intersection has roughly equal perceived risk. Two of the systems allowed lane specific warnings and one did not. Sixty-nine participants drove a total of 45 minutes in the right lane of on a multilane highway with 36 intersections. On approach to 10 of the intersections, participants were placed in the DZ. For 6 other intersections drivers (still in the right lane) were exposed to a warning not intended for them but for a driver behind them in the left lane. Participants in all warning conditions received warnings 1.5 s or 3.0 s in advance of the end of green. Drivers in all of the advanced warning conditions stopped at the DZ intersections significantly more often than control condition drivers. When stopping at intersections, drivers given an advanced warning decelerated more gradually than those that had no warning. One exception was when drivers misinterpreted the left lane warning as intended for them and therefore decelerated rapidly to stop at the intersection.
© All rights reserved McIntyre et al. and/or Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Moore, Kristin and Gugerty, Leo (2010): Development of a novel measure of situation awareness: The case for eye movement analysis. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 54th Annual Meeting 2010. pp. 1650-1654.
Situation awareness (SA) is a measure of an individual's knowledge and understanding of the current and expected future states of a situation. While there are numerous options for SA measurement, none are currently suitable in dynamic, uncontrolled environments. The current research explored the relationship between direct measures of SA and eye tracking measures as a first step in the development of an unobtrusive measure to be used in environments not suited for existing SA measurement methods. Results showed that the more individuals fixated on an important aircraft in an air traffic control task, the higher their SA for that aircraft. The study also provided evidence that the way operators allocate attention (i.e., distributed widely or narrowly) affects their SA, as well as their task performance. The results indicate that eye tracking may be a viable option for measuring SA in environments not conducive to current direct SA measurement techniques.
© All rights reserved Moore and Gugerty and/or HFES
Rodes, Will, Gugerty, Leo, Brooks, Johnell and Cantalupo, Claudio (2009): The effects of electronic map displays and spatial ability on performance of navigational tasks. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 53rd Annual Meeting 2009. pp. 369-373.
One aspect of electronic map displays that has been under examination since their invention is the effect of map configuration, i.e., rotating, track-up vs. fixed, north-up maps, on different navigational tasks. Research has shown that people perform some navigation tasks better with track-up maps, and other navigation tasks better with north-up maps. In the current experiment (N = 16), we investigated how the performance of three common navigation tasks performed as part of an aerial reconnaissance simulation (i.e., cardinal direction judgments, route following and map memory) were affected by an interface factor, map configuration (track-up vs. north-up), and by an individual differences factor, differences in spatial ability. The cardinal direction judgment and route following tasks showed improved accuracy with the track-up map configuration; whereas the map reconstruction task was better facilitated by the north-up map configuration. Spatial abilities were also associated with differences in performance on the three navigation tasks. Spatial abilities and the map-configuration manipulation showed similar strength of association with navigation performance (similar effect size).
© All rights reserved Rodes et al. and/or their publisher
Gugerty, Leo (1993): The Use of Analytical Models in Human-Computer-Interface Design. In International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 38 (4) pp. 625-660.
Researchers in the human-computer interaction field have advocated that interface designers use analytical models of the user (e.g. the GOMS model) to help them consider user needs during the design process. This paper surveys the literature on analytical models for interface designers, focusing initially on empirical studies of the validity of these models. This survey shows that analytical models can by used by interface designers in two ways: (1) as task analytic tools that help in generating preliminary design ideas, and (2) as tools for evaluating preliminary designs by predicting user performance and satisfaction. Empirical studies have demonstrated that analytical models can be used in the task analysis phase of design; in these studies, models were successfully used to generate new designs for existing interfaces, with the new designs leading to improved user performance. Regarding the use of analytical models to evaluate interface designs, a number of empirical studies have shown that these models can help explain the factors affecting user performance in a precise, quantitative fashion. However, these explanations have only been given for existing interfaces. Advocates of analytical models have not yet demonstrated convincingly that models can generate accurate a priori predictions of user performance for a new interface. This kind of prediction is necessary before analytical models can be used effectively by interface designers. The final section of the paper focuses on the practical constraints affecting the use of analytical models in interface design organizations, such as organizational schedules, budgets and training requirements. In this section, suggestions are made concerning research needed before analytical models can be used in real-world design projects.
© All rights reserved Gugerty and/or Academic Press
Gugerty, Leo, Halgren, Shannon, Gosbee, John and Rudisill, Marianne (1991): Using GOMS Model and Hypertext to Create Representations of Medical Procedures for Online Display. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 35th Annual Meeting 1991. pp. 713-717.
This study investigated two methods to improve organization and presentation of computer-based medical procedures. A literature review suggested that the GOMS (goals, operators, methods, and selection rules) model can assist in rigorous task analysis, which can then help generate initial design ideas for the human-computer interface. GOMS models are hierarchical in nature, so this study also investigated the effect of hierarchical, hypertext interfaces. We used a 2x2 between subjects design, including the following independent variables: procedure organization -- GOMS model based vs. medical-textbook based; navigation type -- hierarchical vs. linear (booklike). After naive subjects studied the online procedures, measures were taken of their memory for the content and the organization of the procedures. This design was repeated for two medical procedures. For one procedure, subjects who studied GOMS-based and hierarchical procedures remembered more about the procedures than other subjects. The results for the other procedure were less clear. However, data for both procedures showed a "GOMSification effect". That is, when asked to do a free recall of a procedure, subjects who had studied a textbook procedure often recalled key information in a location inconsistent with the procedure they actually studied, but consistent with the GOMS-based procedure.
© All rights reserved Gugerty et al. and/or Human Factors Society
Gosbee, John W., Halgren, Shannon and Gugerty, Leo (1991): Using GOMS Models and Hypertext to Create Computer-Based Medical Procedures: A Demonstration. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 35th Annual Meeting 1991. p. 1174.
Gugerty, Leo and Olson, Gary M. (1986): Comprehension Differences in Debugging by Skilled and Novice Programmers. In: Soloway, Elliot and Iyengar, Sitharama (eds.) Empirical Studies of Programmers June 5-6 1986, 1986, Washington, DC. pp. 13-27.
Two experiments investigated expert-novice differences in debugging computer programs. Subjects used a microcomputer to debug programs provided to them. The programs were in LOGO in Experiment 1 and Pascal in Experiment 2. We found that experts debugged more quickly and successfully than novices, largely because they generated high quality hypotheses on the basis of less study of the code. Further, novices frequently added bugs to the program while trying to find the original one. We also described some of the debugging strategies the subjects used. At least in these simple programs, experts' superior debugging performance seemed to be due primarily to their superior ability to comprehend the program.
© All rights reserved Gugerty and Olson and/or Ablex Publishing
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