Publication statistics

Pub. period:2005-2012
Pub. count:37
Number of co-authors:44



Co-authors

Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Kellogg S. Booth:
Evgeny Maksakov:
San-Tsai Sun:

 

 

Productive colleagues

Kirstie Hawkey's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Carl Gutwin:116
Mary Czerwinski:80
Kori Inkpen:70
 
 
 

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Kirstie Hawkey

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Publications by Kirstie Hawkey (bibliography)

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2012
 
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MacKenzie, Russell, Hawkey, Kirstie, Booth, Kellogg S., Liu, Zhangbo, Perswain, Presley and Dhillon, Sukhveer S. (2012): LACOME: a multi-user collaboration system for shared large displays. In: Companion Proceedings of ACM CSCW12 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2012. pp. 267-268. Available online

In this paper we describe LACOME, which is a collaboration system that allows multiple users to simultaneously publish their computer desktops to a shared large screen display, and also allows other users to interact with the displayed information on a variety of semantic levels. LACOME features our LSO (Large Screen Optimized) window manipulation technique that utilizes the entire window for manipulations instead of only the title-bar and borders and includes 'snapping regions' that automatically move the cursor to the window's boundary, allowing quick, accurate manipulations at the edges and corners of the screen.

© All rights reserved MacKenzie et al. and/or ACM Press

2011
 
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Sun, San-Tsai, Pospisil, Eric, Muslukhov, Ildar, Dindar, Nuray, Hawkey, Kirstie and Beznosov, Konstantin (2011): OpenID-enabled browser: towards usable and secure web single sign-on. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 1291-1296. Available online

OpenID is an open and promising Web single sign-on solution; however, the interaction flows provided by OpenID are inconsistent, counter-intuitive, and vulnerable to phishing attacks. In this work, we investigated the challenges web users face when using OpenID for authentication, and designed a phishing-resistant, privacy-preserving browser add-on to provide a consistent and intuitive single sign-on user experience for the average web users.

© All rights reserved Sun et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Raja, Fahimeh, Hawkey, Kirstie, Hsu, Steven, Wang, Kai-Le and Beznosov, Konstantin (2011): Promoting a physical security mental model for personal firewall warnings. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 1585-1590. Available online

We used an iterative process to design personal firewall warnings in which the functionality of a firewall is visualized based on a physical security mental model. We performed a study to determine the degree to which our proposed warnings are understandable for our participants, and the degree to which they convey the risks and encourage safe behavior as compared to warnings based on those from a popular personal firewall. Initial results show that our warnings facilitate the comprehension of warning information, better communicate risk, and increase the likelihood of safe behavior. Moreover, they provided participants with a better understanding of both the functionality of a personal firewall and the consequences of their actions.

© All rights reserved Raja et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Jaferian, Pooya, Hawkey, Kirstie, Sotirakopoulos, Andreas and Beznosov, Konstantin (2011): Heuristics for evaluating IT security management tools. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 1633-1638. Available online

The usability of IT security management (ITSM) tools is hard to evaluate by regular methods, making heuristic evaluation attractive. However, ITSM occurs within a complex and collaborative context that involves diverse stakeholders; this makes standard usability heuristics difficult to apply. We propose a set of ITSM usability heuristics that are based on activity theory and supported by prior research. We performed a study to compare the use of the ITSM heuristics to Nielsen's heuristics for the evaluation of a commercial identity management system. Our preliminary results show that our new ITSM heuristics performed well in finding usability problems. However, we need to perform the study with more participants and perform more detailed analysis to precisely show the differences in applying the ITSM heuristics as compared to Nielsen's heuristics.

© All rights reserved Jaferian et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Raja, Fahimeh, Hawkey, Kirstie, Hsu, Steven, Wang, Kai-Le Clement and Beznosov, Konstantin (2011): A brick wall, a locked door, and a bandit: a physical security metaphor for firewall warnings. In: Proceedings of the 2011 Symposium on Usable Privacy and Security 2011. p. 1. Available online

We used an iterative process to design firewall warnings in which the functionality of a personal firewall is visualized based on a physical security metaphor. We performed a study to determine the degree to which our proposed warnings are understandable for users, and the degree to which they convey the risks and encourage safe behavior as compared to text warnings based on those from a popular personal firewall. The evaluation results show that our warnings facilitate the comprehension of warning information, better communicate the risk, and increase the likelihood of safe behavior. Moreover, they provide participants with a better understanding of both the functionality of a personal firewall and the consequences of their actions.

© All rights reserved Raja et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Sotirakopoulos, Andreas, Hawkey, Kirstie and Beznosov, Konstantin (2011): On the challenges in usable security lab studies: lessons learned from replicating a study on SSL warnings. In: Proceedings of the 2011 Symposium on Usable Privacy and Security 2011. p. 3. Available online

We replicated and extended a 2008 study conducted at CMU that investigated the effectiveness of SSL warnings. We adjusted the experimental design to mitigate some of the limitations of that prior study; adjustments include allowing participants to use their web browser of choice and recruiting a more representative user sample. However, during our study we observed a strong disparity between our participants actions during the laboratory tasks and their self-reported "would be" actions during similar tasks in everyday computer practices. Our participants attributed this disparity to the laboratory environment and the security it offered. In this paper we discuss our results and how the introduced changes to the initial study design may have affected them. Also, we discuss the challenges of observing natural behavior in a study environment, as well as the challenges of replicating previous studies given the rapid changes in web technology. We also propose alternatives to traditional laboratory study methodologies that can be considered by the usable security research community when investigating research questions involving sensitive data where trust may influence behavior.

© All rights reserved Sotirakopoulos et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Sun, San-Tsai, Pospisil, Eric, Muslukhov, Ildar, Dindar, Nuray, Hawkey, Kirstie and Beznosov, Konstantin (2011): What makes users refuse web single sign-on?: an empirical investigation of OpenID. In: Proceedings of the 2011 Symposium on Usable Privacy and Security 2011. p. 4. Available online

OpenID is an open and promising Web single sign-on (SSO) solution. This work investigates the challenges and concerns web users face when using OpenID for authentication, and identifies what changes in the login flow could improve the users' experience and adoption incentives. We found our participants had several behaviors, concerns, and misconceptions that hinder the OpenID adoption process: (1) their existing password management strategies reduce the perceived

© All rights reserved Sun et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Jaferian, Pooya, Hawkey, Kirstie, Sotirakopoulos, Andreas, Velez-Rojas, Maria and Beznosov, Konstantin (2011): Heuristics for evaluating IT security management tools. In: Proceedings of the 2011 Symposium on Usable Privacy and Security 2011. p. 7. Available online

The usability of IT security management (ITSM) tools is hard to evaluate by regular methods, making heuristic evaluation attractive. However, standard usability heuristics are hard to apply as IT security management occurs within a complex and collaborative context that involves diverse stakeholders. We propose a set of ITSM usability heuristics that are based on activity theory, are supported by prior research, and consider the complex and cooperative nature of security management. In a between-subjects study, we compared the employment of the ITSM and Nielsen's heuristics for evaluation of a commercial identity management system. Participants who used the ITSM set found more problems categorized as severe than those who used Nielsen's. As evaluators identified different types of problems with the two sets of heuristics, we recommend employing both the ITSM and Nielsen's heuristics during evaluation of ITSM tools.

© All rights reserved Jaferian et al. and/or ACM Press

2010
 
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Motiee, Sara, Hawkey, Kirstie and Beznosov, Konstantin (2010): Do windows users follow the principle of least privilege?: investigating user account control practices. In: Proceedings of the 2010 Symposium on Usable Privacy and Security 2010. p. 1. Available online

The principle of least privilege requires that users and their programs be granted the most restrictive set of privileges possible to perform required tasks in order to limit the damages caused by security incidents. Low-privileged user accounts (LUA) and user account control (UAC) in Windows Vista and Windows 7 are two practical implementations of this principle. To be successful, however, users must apply due diligence, use appropriate accounts, and respond correctly to UAC prompts. With a user study and contextual interviews, we investigated the motives, understanding, behaviour, and challenges users face when working with user accounts and the UAC. Our results show that 69% of participants did not apply the UAC approach correctly. All 45 participants used an administrator user account, and 91% were not aware of the benefits of low-privilege user accounts or the risks of high-privilege ones. Their knowledge and experience were limited to the restricted rights of low-privilege accounts. Based on our findings, we offer recommendations to improve the UAC and LUA approaches.

© All rights reserved Motiee et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Raja, Fahimeh, Hawkey, Kirstie, Beznosov, Konstantin and Booth, Kellogg S. (2010): Investigating an appropriate design for personal firewalls. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2010. pp. 4123-4128. Available online

Personal firewalls are an important aspect of security for home computer users, but little attention has been given to their usability. We conducted semi-structured interviews to understand participants' knowledge, requirements, expectations, and misconceptions for personal firewalls. Analysis of 10 interviews shows that different design decisions (i.e., level of automation, multiple profile settings) are appropriate for users with different levels of security knowledge and experience.

© All rights reserved Raja et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Motiee, Sara, Hawkey, Kirstie and Beznosov, Konstantin (2010): Investigating user account control practices. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2010. pp. 4129-4134. Available online

Non-administrator user accounts and the user account control (UAC) approach of Windows Vista are two practical solutions to limit the damage of malware infection. UAC in Windows Vista supports usage of lower privilege accounts; a UAC prompt allows users to raise their privileges when required. We conducted a user study and contextual interviews to understand the motives and challenges participants face when using different user accounts and the UAC approach. Most participants were not aware of or motivated to employ low-privileged accounts. Moreover, most did not understand or carefully consider the prompts.

© All rights reserved Motiee et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Maksakov, Evgeny, Booth, Kellogg S. and Hawkey, Kirstie (2010): Whale Tank Virtual Reality. In: Proceedings of the 2010 Conference on Graphics Interface 2010. pp. 185-192. Available online

Whale Tank Virtual Reality (VR) is a novel head-coupled VR technique for collocated collaboration. It allows multiple users to observe a 3D scene from the correct perspective through their own personal viewport into the virtual scene and to interact with the scene on a large touch screen display. There are two primary benefits to Whale Tank VR: 1) Head coupling allows a user to experience the sense of a third dimension and to observe difficult-to-see objects without requiring navigation beyond natural head movement. 2) Multiple viewports enable collocated collaboration by seamlessly adjusting the head-coupled perspectives in each viewport according to the proximity of collaborators to ensure a consistent display at all times. One potential disadvantage that we had to consider was that head-coupling might reduce awareness of a collocated coworker's actions in the 3D scene. We therefore conducted an experiment to study the influence of head coupling on users' awareness-and-recall of actions in a simulated collaborative situation for several levels of task difficulty. Results revealed no statistically significant difference in awareness-and-recall performance with or without the presence of head coupling. This suggests that in situations where head coupling is employed, there is no degradation in users' awareness of collocated activity.

© All rights reserved Maksakov et al. and/or their publisher

2009
 
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Raja, Fahimeh, Hawkey, Kirstie and Beznosov, Konstantin (2009): Towards improving mental models of personal firewall users. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2009. pp. 4633-4638. Available online

Windows Vista's personal firewall provides its diverse users with a basic interface that hides many operational details. However, our study of this interface revealed that concealing the impact of network context on the security state of the firewall results in mental models that are unclear about the protection provided by the firewall resulting in an inaccurate understanding of the firewall configuration. We developed a prototype to support more contextually complete mental models through inclusion of network context information. Results from our initial evaluation of the prototype support our approach of improving user understanding of underlying system states by revealing hidden context, while considering the tension between complexity of the interface and security of the system.

© All rights reserved Raja et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Raja, Fahimeh, Hawkey, Kirstie and Beznosov, Konstantin (2009): Revealing hidden context: improving mental models of personal firewall users. In: Proceedings of the 2009 Symposium on Usable Privacy and Security 2009. p. 1. Available online

The Windows Vista personal firewall provides its diverse users with a basic interface that hides many operational details. However, concealing the impact of network context on the security state of the firewall may result in users developing an incorrect mental model of the protection provided by the firewall. We present a study of participants' mental models of Vista Firewall (VF). We investigated changes to those mental models and their understanding of the firewall's settings after working with both the VF basic interface and our prototype. Our prototype was designed to support development of a more contextually complete mental model through inclusion of network location and connection information. We found that participants produced richer mental models after using the prototype than when working with the VF basic interface; they were also significantly more accurate in their understanding of the configuration of the firewall. Based on our results, we discuss methods of improving user understanding of underlying system states by revealing hidden context, while considering the tension between complexity of the interface and security of the system.

© All rights reserved Raja et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Jaferian, Pooya, Botta, David, Hawkey, Kirstie and Beznosov, Konstantin (2009): A multi-method approach for user-centered design of identity management systems. In: Proceedings of the 2009 Symposium on Usable Privacy and Security 2009. p. 36. Available online

 
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Werlinger, Rodrigo, Hawkey, Kirstie, Botta, David and Beznosov, Konstantin (2009): Security practitioners in context: Their activities and interactions with other stakeholders within organizations. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 67 (7) pp. 584-606. Available online

This study investigates the context of interactions of information technology (IT) security practitioners, based on a qualitative analysis of 30 interviews and participatory observation. We identify nine different activities that require interactions between security practitioners and other stakeholders, and describe in detail two of these activities that may serve as useful references for security-tool usability scenarios. We propose a model of the factors contributing to the complexity of interactions between security practitioners and other stakeholders, and discuss how this complexity is a potential source of security issues that increase the risk level within organizations. Our analysis also reveals that the tools used by our participants to perform their security tasks provide insufficient support for the complex, collaborative interactions that their duties involve. We offer several recommendations for addressing this complexity and improving IT security tools.

© All rights reserved Werlinger et al. and/or Academic Press

 
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Jaferian, Pooya, Botta, David, Hawkey, Kirstie and Beznosov, Konstantin (2009): A case study of enterprise identity management system adoption in an insurance organization. In: Proceedings of the 2009 Symposium on Computer Human Interaction for the Management of Information Technology 2009. p. 7. Available online

This case study describes the adoption of an enterprise identity management (IdM) system in an insurance organization. We describe the state of the organization before deploying the IdM system, and point out the challenges in its IdM practices. We describe the organization's requirements for an IdM system, why a particular solution was chosen, issues in the deployment and configuration of the solution, the expected benefits, and the new challenges that arose from using the solution. Throughout, we identify practical problems that can be the focus of future research and development efforts. Our results confirm and elaborate upon the findings of previous research, contributing to an as-yet immature body of cases about IdM. Furthermore, our findings serve as a validation of our previously identified guidelines for IT security tools in general.

© All rights reserved Jaferian et al. and/or ACM Press

2008
 
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Hawkey, Kirstie, Botta, David, Werlinger, Rodrigo, Muldner, Kasia, Gagn, Andr and Beznosov, Konstantin (2008): Human, organizational, and technological factors of IT security. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2008 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 5-10, 2008. pp. 3639-3644. Available online

This paper describes the HOT Admin research project, which is investigating the human, organizational, and technological factors of IT security from the perspective of security practitioners. We use qualitative methods to examine their experiences along several themes including: unique characteristics of this population, the challenges they face within the organization, their activities, their collaborative interactions with other stakeholders, the sub-optimal situations they face as a result of distributed security management, and the impact of the security management model in place. We present preliminary results for each theme, as well as the implications of these results on the field of usable security and other research areas within HCI.

© All rights reserved Hawkey et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Werlinger, Rodrigo, Hawkey, Kirstie and Beznosov, Konstantin (2008): Security practitioners in context: their activities and interactions. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2008 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 5-10, 2008. pp. 3789-3794. Available online

This study develops the context of interactions of IT security practitioners. Preliminary qualitative analysis of 22 interviews (to date) and participatory observation has identified eight different types of activities that require interactions between security practitioners and different stakeholders. Our analysis shows that the tools used by our participants do not provide sufficient support for their complex security tasks, including the interactions with other stakeholders. We provide recommendations to improve tool support for security practitioners.

© All rights reserved Werlinger et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Werlinger, Rodrigo, Hawkey, Kirstie, Muldner, Kasia, Jaferian, Pooya and Beznosov, Konstantin (2008): The challenges of using an intrusion detection system: is it worth the effort?. In: Proceedings of the 2008 Symposium on Usable Privacy and Security 2008. pp. 107-118. Available online

An intrusion detection system (IDS) can be a key component of security incident response within organizations. Traditionally, intrusion detection research has focused on improving the accuracy of IDSs, but recent work has recognized the need to support the security practitioners who receive the IDS alarms and investigate suspected incidents. To examine the challenges associated with deploying and maintaining an IDS, we analyzed 9 interviews with IT security practitioners who have worked with IDSs and performed participatory observations in an organization deploying a network IDS. We had three main research questions: (1) What do security practitioners expect from an IDS?; (2) What difficulties do they encounter when installing and configuring an IDS?; and (3) How can the usability of an IDS be improved? Our analysis reveals both positive and negative perceptions that security practitioners have for IDSs, as well as several issues encountered during the initial stages of IDS deployment. In particular, practitioners found it difficult to decide where to place the IDS and how to best configure it for use within a distributed environment with multiple stakeholders. We provide recommendations for tool support to help mitigate these challenges and reduce the effort of introducing an IDS within an organization.

© All rights reserved Werlinger et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Tan, Desney S., Gergle, Darren, Mandryk, Regan L., Inkpen, Kori, Kellar, Melanie, Hawkey, Kirstie and Czerwinski, Mary (2008): Using job-shop scheduling tasks for evaluating collocated collaboration. In Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, 12 (3) pp. 255-267. Available online

 
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Hawkey, Kirstie, Muldner, Kasia and Beznosov, Konstantin (2008): Searching for the Right Fit: Balancing IT Security Management Model Trade-Offs. In IEEE Internet Computing, 12 (3) pp. 22-30. Available online

 
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Kellar, Melanie, Hawkey, Kirstie, Inkpen, Kori and Watters, Carolyn R. (2008): Challenges of Capturing Natural Web-Based User Behaviors. In International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 24 (4) pp. 385-409. Available online

It can be difficult to properly understand aspects of user behavior on the Web without examining the behaviors in a realistic setting, such as through field studies. In this article, an overview of the experiences in augmenting logged data with contextual information over the course of two separate research projects conducted in the field is presented. One project investigated the privacy sensitivity of normal Web browsing, and the other examined user behavior during Web-based information-seeking tasks. Throughout both projects, the contextual information was collected through participant annotations of their Web usage. Based on experiences in conducting this research, implications of methodological decisions are considered, unanswered questions are highlighted, and considerations for other researchers are provided. These shared experiences and perspectives will assist future researchers planning similar field studies, allowing them to build upon the lessons learned.

© All rights reserved Kellar et al. and/or Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

 
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Hawkey, Kirstie (2008): Exploring a human centered approach to managing visual privacy concerns during collaboration. In: Proceedings of the 2008 ACM International Workshop on Human-Centered Multimedia 2008. pp. 69-76. Available online

Human Centered Computing (HCC) systems should be socially aware and HCC applications should act according to the social context in which they are deployed. This paper examines a human centered approach to managing visual privacy during collaboration around a personal computer. We propose an intelligent system that takes into account the current social context of the user. Prior research has found that visual privacy can be a concern when traces of prior activities (i.e. web browsing history) that are inappropriate for the current social viewing context are displayed. Investigations of privacy management approaches have found that the burden of manually classifying traces of prior activity is high. The approach presented here is based on a conceptual model of incidental information privacy in web browsers developed previously. In this paper, we introduce a predictive model of privacy concerns, both for the general case and within the context of two specific viewer types. Our results suggest that an intelligent user interface approach is feasible and that adaptations may be combined with more explicit approaches to reduce users' burden of managing their visual privacy.

© All rights reserved Hawkey and/or ACM Press

 
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Jaferian, Pooya, Botta, David, Raja, Fahimeh, Hawkey, Kirstie and Beznosov, Konstantin (2008): Guidelines for designing IT security management tools. In: Frisch, AEleen, Kandogan, Eser, Lutters, Wayne G., Thornton, James D. and Mouloua, Mustapha (eds.) CHIMIT 2008 - Proceedings of the 2nd ACM Symposium on Computer Human Interaction for Management of Information Technology November 14-15, 2008, San Diego, California, USA. p. 7. Available online

 
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Jaferian, Pooya, Botta, David, Raja, Fahimeh, Hawkey, Kirstie and Beznosov, Konstantin (2008): Guidelines for designing IT security management tools. In: Proceedings of the 2008 Symposium on Computer Human Interaction for the Management of Information Technology 2008. p. 7. Available online

An important factor that impacts the effectiveness of security systems within an organization is the usability of security management tools. In this paper, we present a survey of design guidelines for such tools. We gathered guidelines and recommendations related to IT security management tools from the literature as well as from our own prior studies of IT security management. We categorized and combined these into a set of high level guidelines and identified the relationships between the guidelines and challenges in IT security management. We also illustrated the need for the guidelines, where possible, with quotes from additional interviews with five security practitioners. Our framework of guidelines can be used by those developing IT security tools, as well as by practitioners and managers evaluating tools.

© All rights reserved Jaferian et al. and/or ACM Press

2007
 
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Hawkey, Kirstie and Inkpen, Kori (2007): PrivateBits: managing visual privacy in web browsers. In: Proceedings of the 2007 Conference on Graphics Interface 2007. pp. 215-223. Available online

Privacy can be an issue during collaboration around a personal display when previous browsing activities become visible within web browser features (e.g., AutoComplete). Users currently lack methods to present only appropriate traces of prior activity in these features. In this paper we explore a semi-automatic approach to privacy management that allows users to classify traces of browsing activity and filter them appropriately when their screen is visible by others. We developed PrivateBits, a prototype web browser that instantiates previously proposed general design guidelines for privacy management systems as well as those specific to web browser visual privacy. A preliminary evaluation found this approach to be flexible enough to meet participants' varying privacy concerns, privacy management strategies, and viewing contexts. However, the results also emphasized the need for additional security features to increase trust in the system and raised questions about how to best manage the tradeoff between ease of use and system concealment.

© All rights reserved Hawkey and Inkpen and/or Canadian Information Processing Society

 
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Birnholtz, Jeremy P., Gutwin, Carl and Hawkey, Kirstie (2007): Privacy in the open: how attention mediates awareness and privacy in open-plan offices. In: GROUP07: International Conference on Supporting Group Work 2007. pp. 51-60. Available online

The tension between privacy and awareness has been a persistent difficulty in distributed environments that support opportunistic and informal interaction. For example, many awareness systems that display 'always-on' video links or PC screen contents have been perceived as too invasive, even though functional real-world analogues, like open-plan offices, may provide even less privacy than their online counterparts. In this paper we explore the notion of privacy in open-plan real-world environments, in order to learn more about how it might be supported in distributed systems. From interviews and observations in four open-plan offices, we found that attention plays an important role in the management of both confidentiality and solitude. The public nature of paying attention allows people to build understandings of what objects in a space are legitimate targets for attention and allows people to advertise their interest in interaction. Our results add to what is known about how privacy works in real-world spaces, and suggest valuable design ideas that can help improve support for natural privacy control and interaction in distributed awareness systems.

© All rights reserved Birnholtz et al. and/or ACM Press

2006
 
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Hawkey, Kirstie and Inkpen, Kori (2006): Keeping up appearances: understanding the dimensions of incidental information privacy. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2006 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2006. pp. 821-830. Available online

We conducted a survey of 155 participants to examine privacy concerns relating to the viewing of incidental information (i.e. traces of previous activity unrelated to the task at hand) in web browsers. We have identified several dimensions of privacy for this domain. Results revealed the scope of this problem and how location and device affect web browsing activity and contribute to the types of incidental information that may be visible. We found that there are different privacy comfort levels inherent to the participant and dependent on the context of subsequent viewing of incidental information, including the sensitivity of the content, their relationship to the viewer and the level of control retained over input devices.

© All rights reserved Hawkey and Inkpen and/or ACM Press

 
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Hawkey, Kirstie and Inkpen, Kori (2006): Examining the content and privacy of web browsing incidental information. In: Proceedings of the 2006 International Conference on the World Wide Web 2006. pp. 123-132. Available online

This research examines the privacy comfort levels of participants if others can view traces of their web browsing activity. During a week-long field study, participants used an electronic diary daily to annotate each web page visited with a privacy level. Content categories were used by participants to theoretically specify their privacy comfort for each category and by researchers to partition participants' actual browsing. The content categories were clustered into groups based on the dominant privacy levels applied to the pages. Inconsistencies between participants in their privacy ratings of categories suggest that a general privacy management scheme is inappropriate. Participants' consistency within categories suggests that a personalized scheme may be feasible; however a more fine-grained approach to classification is required to improve results for sites that tend to be general, of multiple task purposes, or dynamic in content.

© All rights reserved Hawkey and Inkpen and/or ACM Press

2005
 
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Hawkey, Kirstie, Kellar, Melanie, Reilly, Derek, Whalen, Tara and Inkpen, Kori (2005): The proximity factor: impact of distance on co-located collaboration. In: GROUP05: International Conference on Supporting Group Work November 6-9, 2005, Sanibel Island, Florida, USA. pp. 31-40. Available online

Groups collaborating around a large wall display can do so in a variety of arrangements, positioning themselves at different distances from the display and from each other. We examined the impact of proximity on the effectiveness and enjoyment of co-located collaboration. Our results revealed collaborative benefits when participants were positioned close together, and interaction with the display was felt to be more effective when participants were close to the display. However, clear tradeoffs were evident for these configurations. When at a distance to the display, the choice of direct versus indirect interaction revealed that interactions were easier when using direct input but the effectiveness of the collaboration was compromised.

© All rights reserved Hawkey et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Hawkey, Kirstie, Inkpen, Kori, Rockwood, Kenneth, McAllister, Michael and Slonim, Jacob (2005): Requirements gathering with alzheimer's patients and caregivers. In: Seventh Annual ACM Conference on Assistive Technologies 2005. pp. 142-149. Available online

Technology may be able to play a role in improving the quality of life for Alzheimer's patients and their caregivers. We are evaluating the feasibility of an information appliance with the goal of alleviating repetitive questioning behaviour, a contributing factor to caregiver stress. Interviews were conducted with persons with Alzheimer's disease and their caregivers to determine the nature of the repetitive questioning behaviour, the information needs of patients, and the interaction abilities of both the patients and the caregivers. We report results of these interviews and discuss the challenges of requirements gathering with persons with Alzheimer's disease and the feasibility of introducing an information appliance to this population.

© All rights reserved Hawkey et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Dearman, David, Hawkey, Kirstie and Inkpen, Kori (2005): Rendezvousing with location-aware devices: Enhancing social coordination. In Interacting with Computers, 17 (5) pp. 542-566. Available online

Emerging technologies such as location-awareness devices have the potential to significantly impact users' social coordination, particularly while rendezvousing. It is important that we explore how new technologies influence social behaviours and communication in order to realize their full potential. This paper presents a field study investigating the use of mobile location-aware devices for rendezvous activities. Participants took part in one of three mobile device conditions (a mobile phone, a location-aware handheld, or both a mobile phone and a location-aware handheld) and completed three rendezvousing scenarios. The results reveal key differences in communication patterns between the mediums, as well as the potential strengths and limitations of location-aware devices for social coordination. The paper concludes with a discussion of relevant design issues drawn from observations gathered during the field study.

© All rights reserved Dearman et al. and/or Elsevier Science

 
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Hawkey, Kirstie and Inkpen, Kori (2005): Privacy gradients: exploring ways to manage incidental information during co-located collaboration. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 1431-1434. Available online

This research introduces privacy issues related to the viewing of incidental information during co-located collaboration. Web browsers were the representative application used in this research as they have several convenience features that record and display traces of previous web page visits. A one-week field study examined how individuals perceive privacy needs relating to the later incidental viewing of traces of their browsing activity. Participants used a 4-tier privacy gradient to classify the privacy of their actual web browsing. The results revealed per window patterns of privacy during browsing with streaks at given privacy levels and relatively few transitions between levels. Management of incidental information is a complex problem due to multiple viewing contexts, individual differences, and the large volume of information. These privacy patterns suggest that a semi-automated approach to privacy management may be feasible.

© All rights reserved Hawkey and Inkpen and/or ACM Press

 
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Hawkey, Kirstie and Inkpen, Kori (2005): Web browsing today: the impact of changing contexts on user activity. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 1443-1446. Available online

Although web browsing behaviour was studied in detail in the mid-to-late 1990s, few recent results have been reported. The nature of web browsing has changed significantly since these early studies, both in the profile of the typical web user and in the context of their browsing (e.g. location, connection speed, web browser features). This paper reports on per-session and per-browser window usage, such as the number of pages visited and the speed of browsing. Some of our findings differ from previously published results that continue to motivate research in this area. Our research indicates that changes in user behaviour, such as the magnitude of web browsing activity, may place restrictions on web-browser related applications.

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Kellar, Melanie, Reilly, Derek, Hawkey, Kirstie, Rodgers, Malcolm, MacKay, Bonnie, Dearman, David, Ha, Vicki, MacInnes, W. Joseph, Nunes, Michael, Parker, Karen, Whalen, Tara and Inkpen, Kori (2005): It's a jungle out there: practical considerations for evaluation in the city. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 1533-1536. Available online

An essential aspect of mobile and ubiquitous computing research is evaluation within the expected usage context, including environment. When that environment is an urban center, it can be dynamic, expansive, and unpredictable. Methodologies that focus on genuine use in the environment can uncover valuable insights, although they may also limit measurement and control. In this paper, we present our experiences applying traditional experimental techniques for field research in two separate projects set in urban environments. We argue that although traditional methods may be difficult to apply in cities, the challenges are surmountable, and this kind of field research can be a crucial component of evaluation.

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Dearman, David, Hawkey, Kirstie and Inkpen, Kori (2005): Effect of location-awareness on rendezvous behaviour. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 1929-1932. Available online

This paper presents an exploratory field study investigating the behavioral effects of mobile location-aware computing on rendezvousing. Participants took part in one of three mobile device conditions (a mobile phone, a location-aware handheld or both a mobile phone and a location-aware handheld) and completed different rendezvousing scenarios. We present one of the scenarios in depth and discuss the effect of location-awareness on rendezvous behaviour.

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