Number of co-authors:7
Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:John M. Flach:2Daniel S. Hall:1Lawrence G. Shattuck:1
Kevin B. Bennett's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:David D. Woods:35Emilie M. Roth:21John M. Flach:14
Design can be art. Design can be aesthetics. Design is so simple, that's why it is so complicated.
-- Paul Rand, 1997
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Kevin B. Bennett
Publications by Kevin B. Bennett (bibliography)
Bennett, Kevin B. and Flach, John M. (2012): Visual momentum redux. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 70 (6) pp. 399-414.
Over 25 years ago Woods (1984) introduced the concept of visual momentum: the extent to which an interface supports a practitioner in transitioning between various information-seeking activities that are required for understanding and exploring work domains. Increasing visual momentum requires the consideration of a range of "cognitive couplings' that span all levels of the interface: between multiple screens, within individual screens, and within a display on a screen. Although the concept has been well received, we believe that its potential to improve the quality of human computer interaction may be under-appreciated. Our purpose in this review is to provide a better understanding of visual momentum: to provide concrete and diverse examples of its successful application, to review empirical findings, to refine and expand the original design techniques that were proposed, and to integrate diverse terms that appear across different research communities.
© All rights reserved Bennett and Flach and/or Academic Press
Hall, Daniel S., Shattuck, Lawrence G. and Bennett, Kevin B. (2010): Evaluation of an Ecological Interface Designed for Military Command and Control. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 54th Annual Meeting 2010. pp. 423-427.
Since the inception of the Force XXI Digitization program, the U.S. Army has fielded numerous systems attempting to use computational technologies to improve command and control of tactical operations. In reality, designers have inadequately considered both the role of the human and the constraints of this complicated work domain in the implementation of these systems. A prototype interface (RAPTOR) was developed to leverage powerful perception-action skills, thereby providing improved decision making and problem solving support. A laboratory experiment was conducted using a synthetic task environment. Sixteen US Army Officers participated in a mixed design experiment that involved two interfaces (RAPTOR and Baseline) and two scenarios (attack and counter insurgency). Dependent measures included situation awareness, decision making, and workload. The results indicate that the RAPTOR interface produced significantly better performance; they provide a strong validation of the theoretical framework (Cognitive Systems Engineering and Ecological Interface Design) and design principles (direct perception and direct manipulation), that guided its development. Applications of this study include specific interface design strategies for military command and control work domains.
© All rights reserved Hall et al. and/or HFES
Bennett, Kevin B. and Madigan, Ed (1994): Contours and Borders in Animated Mimic Displays. In International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 6 (1) pp. 47-64.
Previous research has indicated that ambiguities in apparent motion (e.g., direction, rate) can result when color table techniques are used to produce animation in mimic displays. Two experiments were conducted to investigate alternative display designs in which contours (angled vs. straight) and borders (explicit vs. implicit) were varied. In Experiment 1, contours, borders, and temporal frequency interacted. At 5 Hz angled contours improved accuracy significantly. At 10 Hz explicit borders improved accuracy significantly with angled contours but degraded accuracy significantly with straight contours. In Experiment 2, the design of the angled contours was changed to convey less information and an additional border condition was added. Once again, borders and contours interacted: The widest explicit border degraded accuracy with straight contours. Angled contours also improved latency performance. The results suggest that angled contours can reduce ambiguity and improve the effectiveness of animated mimic displays by providing a redundant encoding of rate information. However, this benefit must be weighed against the associated computational costs. A secondary finding was that when contours are straight the borders should be implicit, not explicit. Alternative design solutions for animated mimic displays are also discussed.
© All rights reserved Bennett and Madigan and/or Lawrence Erlbaum Associates
Bennett, Kevin B. (1994): Animated Mimic Displays. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 38th Annual Meeting 1994. p. 1341.
Animated mimic displays represent the physical structure of a system, including: 1) the important components, systems, or subsystems, 2) the physical/causal connections between components, and 3) the flow of information or resources through these connections. This type of display has the potential to improve both the effectiveness of real-time performance and the efficiency of training. A research program has been initiated to determine critical factors in the design of animated mimic displays. The initial display designs were based on examples of animated mimic displays found in the literature. Four sets of psychophysical experiments investigated 1) chromatic/luminance contrast, 2) spatial/temporal frequency, 3) contours/borders, and 4) stairstep/sinusoidal waveforms. The first two sets of experiments revealed that existing designs were not effective. A theoretical explanation was developed and is discussed briefly. The second two sets of experiments investigated alternative display designs based, in part, upon these theoretical insights. The results indicate that the alternative designs will improve the effectiveness of animated mimic displays. A set of design guidelines are provided.
© All rights reserved Bennett and/or Human Factors Society
Flach, John M. and Bennett, Kevin B. (1992): Graphical Interfaces to Complex Systems: Separating the Wheat from the Chaff. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 36th Annual Meeting 1992. pp. 470-474.
There seems to be a clear consensus that graphical interfaces provide an opportunity to integrate data from complex process in a way that can greatly enhance the problem solving ability of human operators in the future. However, this consensus is masked by a proliferation of terms to express this position in the basic and applied research literatures (e.g., "integrality," "configurality," "proximity-compatibility," "visual momentum," "direct manipulation," and "ecological interface"). While the subtle nuances that distinguish among these terms are of academic interest, designers have greater concern for the general principles that might be gleaned from across the subtle distinctions. Base on a thorough review of the basic and applied literature (Bennett&Flach, In press), we argue that there is one basic characteristic of graphical representations that is critical for supporting problem solving. A good graphical display is one whose geometric (space/time) constraints reflect the functional constraints in the process being represented. In this presentation, we will demonstrate what we mean by a "functional constraint" in a process and a "geometric constraint" in a display. We will demonstrate alternative mappings from "functional constraints" to "geometric constraints." We will also discuss the implications of these mappings for the type of processing (cognitive versus perceptual) required of the human operator.
© All rights reserved Flach and Bennett and/or Human Factors Society
Bennett, Kevin B. and Toms, Mona L. (1991): Improving the Effectiveness of Configural Displays Through Mapped Emergent Features and Color-Coded Graphical Elements. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 35th Annual Meeting 1991. pp. 1584-1588.
When completing tasks in complex, dynamic domains individuals must consider both high-level issues (e.g., relationships among several variables) and low-level data (e.g., the values of individual variables). An important issue in display design is to determine those graphic forms that allow the efficient extraction of information at both levels. One display that has the potential to achieve these dual design goals is the configural (object) display. Research on configural displays has indicated that this type of display will facilitate the extraction of information about high-level issues if the emergent features directly correspond to the critical data relationships that exist in a domain. On the other hand, designing configural display to offset the cost that is usually associated with the extraction of low-level data has proven to be more difficult. One potential design strategy to accomplish this is to increase the perceptual salience of the lower-level display elements and color coding is one technique to achieve this. Performance for color-coded configural and separate displays was compared in two empirical investigations. For the extraction of information regarding high-level issues the configural display significantly increased accuracy with no cost in latency. For the extraction of low-level data there were no differences between the configural and separate display for accuracy, but there was a significant decrement in latency associated with the configural display. However, the results indicate that this decrement in performance dissipates with experience, and under certain conditions was not significant.
© All rights reserved Bennett and Toms and/or Human Factors Society
Roth, Emilie M., Bennett, Kevin B. and Woods, David D. (1987): Human Interaction with an "Intelligent" Machine. In International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 27 (5) pp. 479-525.
In this paper we report the results of a study of technicians diagnosing faults in electro-mechanical equipment with the aid of an expert system. Technicians varying in level of experience and interactive style (active or passive) diagnosed faults varying in level of difficulty. The results indicate that the standard approach to expert system design, in which the user is assigned the role of data gatherer for the machine, is inadequate. Problem solving was marked by novel situations outside the machine's competence, special conditions, underspecified instructions, and error recovery, all of which required substantial knowledge and active participation on the part of technicians. We argue that the design of intelligent systems should be based on the notion of a joint cognitive system architecture: computational technology should be used to aid the user in the process of solving his problem. The human's role is to achieve total system performance as a manager of knowledge resources that can vary in kind and amount of "intelligence" or power.
© All rights reserved Roth et al. and/or Academic Press
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