Number of co-authors:20
Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:Sara J. Czaja:8Colin G. Drury:6Donna L. Cuomo:3
Joseph Sharit's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:Peter Pirolli:45Colin G. Drury:32Sara J. Czaja:30
Knowledge is commonly socially constructed, through collaborative efforts towards shared objectives or by dialogues and challenges brought about by different persons' perspectives.
-- G. Salomon (in "Distributed Cognitions: Psychological and Educational Considerations")
Read the fascinating history of Wearable Computing, told by its father, Steve Mann
Read Steve's chapter !
Has also published under the name of:
Publications by Joseph Sharit (bibliography)
Sharit, Joseph, Czaja, Sara J., Hernández, Mario A., Lee, Chin Chin and Lang, Samantha (2012): Assessing the Usefulness of Software Tools for Aiding Meaningful Access of Internet Health Information by Older Users. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 2012 Annual Meeting 2012. pp. 130-134.
Consumers are increasingly using the Internet as a source of health information. Older users in particular, who generally have more health-related issues to contend with, can stand to benefit greatly from the vast resources of health information that the Internet can provide. However, finding, integrating, and making sense of such information in support of health management can be challenging for these users, especially in the face of age-related declines in cognitive abilities that are critical for Internet health information seeking. In this study, data from three focus groups comprised of 23 Internet users 65 years of age or older were collected to investigate the potential usefulness of four software tools that, in principle, offer the capability for aiding such users in their Internet health information search and decision-making activities. The data revealed both positive features and concerns with these tools. Overall, these data provided valuable guidance for an initial phase of design interventions directed at making these tools more usable and effective for supporting Internet health-information seeking for older users, and in the process for other users as well.
© All rights reserved Sharit et al. and/or Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Czaja, Sara J., Sharit, Joseph, Nair, Sankaran N. and Lee, Chin Chin (2009): Older Adults and Internet Health Information Seeking. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 53rd Annual Meeting 2009. pp. 126-130.
The Internet is increasingly being used by consumers as a source of health information. This study examined factors that influence trust of Internet health information and how trust varies as a function of demographic characteristics, Internet experience, and computer attitudes. Data is also reported on the perceptions of the value and use of Internet-based health information. One hundred and twelve adults (50-85 years) were asked to perform Internet-based health information-seeking tasks and rate factors that influence their trust in Internet health information, the value of this information, and general trust of Internet information vs. trust of information from a doctor. The results indicated that trust is influenced by website identifiers (e.g., government agencies) and design features (e.g., ease of use). Most participants indicated that they would use the Internet health information and that access to this information would have some influence on their health behaviors. These findings underscore the importance of considering design and content issues when designing health websites.
© All rights reserved Czaja et al. and/or their publisher
Sharit, Joseph, Hernández, Mario A., Czaja, Sara J. and Pirolli, Peter (2008): Investigating the Roles of Knowledge and Cognitive Abilities in Older Adult Information Seeking on the Web. In ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 15 (1) p. 3.
This study investigated the influences of knowledge, particularly Internet, Web browser, and search engine knowledge, as well as cognitive abilities on older adult information seeking on the Internet. The emphasis on aspects of cognition was informed by a modeling framework of search engine information-seeking behavior. Participants from two older age groups were recruited: twenty people in a younger-old group (ages 60-70) and twenty people in an older-old group (ages 71-85). Ten younger adults (ages 18-39) served as a comparison group. All participants had at least some Internet search experience. The experimental task consisted of six realistic search problems, all involving information related to health and well-being and which varied in degree of complexity. The results indicated that though necessary, Internet-related knowledge was not sufficient in explaining information-seeking performance, and suggested that a combination of both knowledge and key cognitive abilities is important for successful information seeking. In addition, the cognitive abilities that were found to be critical for task performance depended on the search problem's complexity. Also, significant differences in task performance between the younger and the two older age groups were found on complex, but not on simple problems. Overall, the results from this study have implications for instructing older adults on Internet information seeking and for the design of Web sites.
© All rights reserved Sharit et al. and/or ACM Press
Sharit, Joseph, Czaja, Sara J., Augenstein, Jeffrey S., Balasubramanian, Govind and Schell, Vaunn (2006): Assessing the information environment in intensive care units. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 25 (3) pp. 207-220.
This paper describes the development and application of a methodology for evaluating how physicians and nurses view the usefulness of various sources of patient information available within a hospital intensive care unit (ICU). The methodology encompasses semi-structured interviews, task analysis, a simulated case study of a critically ill patient, verbal protocol analysis, questionnaire responses based on both past experiences in the ICU and performance on the simulated task, and a post-task interview. Eleven nurses and six physicians participated in the study. Analysis of the questionnaires revealed significant differences in the rankings of the information sources by both the nurses and the physicians on each of seven evaluation criteria. Significant differences were also found among both the physicians and the nurses in rankings of the relative importance of the individual information sources for meeting task requirements. A framework for describing information gathering applicable to critical care environments was proposed as a means for better understanding how information sources are used. Overall, the methodology was found to be useful in terms of providing valuable data regarding the utility and usability of information sources. The importance of using a systematic approach for assessing the usefulness of information sources, particularly from the perspectives of performing design interventions and predicting the effectiveness of new information technologies, as well as the limitations in adopting this type of approach, are also discussed.
© All rights reserved Sharit et al. and/or Taylor and Francis
Czaja, Sara J., Sharit, Joseph, Nair, Sankaran N. and Rubert, Mark (1998): Understanding Sources of User Variability in Computer-Based Data Entry Performance. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 17 (5) pp. 282-293.
The pervasive use of computers in work settings implies that an increased number of workers, with varying levels of skills and abilities, will be performing computer-based tasks. This study investigated the impact of age, cognitive abilities, and computer experience on the performance of a real world data entry task. One hundred and ten subjects, ranging in age from 20-75 years, performed the task for nine hours following task training. The results indicated that abilities such as visuo-spatial skills, motor skills and processing speed had a significant impact on performance as did age and prior computer experience. With respect to age, the older participants completed less work than the younger and middle-aged subjects. Age differences in psychomotor skills and processing speed appeared to be important factors underlying age effects. In fact, the data indicated that after controlling for differences in these abilities age was no longer a significant predictor of work output. Further, after controlling for differences in work output the older people made fewer errors than the younger people. Overall the data suggest that older people will be at a disadvantage in the performance of computer-based data entry work to the extent to which speed of responding is emphasized. However, if speed of responding is not a critical element of performance they will be able to achieve comparable levels of performance to that of younger people.
© All rights reserved Czaja et al. and/or Taylor and Francis
Czaja, Sara J., Sharit, Joseph and Nair, Sankaran N. (1995): Age Differences in Perception of Workload for a Computer Task. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 39th Annual Meeting 1995. pp. 129-133.
Research concerned with age and work activities is an important area of investigation since the workforce is aging and there are concerns regarding economic dependency as well as labor shortages for certain occupations. Previous work by the research team indicated age differences in the performance and perceptions of task difficulty and fatigue for three simulated real-world computer tasks. This study is an extension of that research and is investigating the extent to which age differences in performance and perceptions of workload are moderated by experience and task practice. One hundred and twenty subjects aged 25 yrs. to 75 yrs. performed a real-world data entry task. Data will be presented regarding age differences in the perception of workload, stress, discomfort, and attitudes towards computers. The implications of these results for design interventions will be discussed.
© All rights reserved Czaja et al. and/or Human Factors Society
Goonetilleke, Ravindra S., Drury, Colin G. and Sharit, Joseph (1995): What Does an Operator Need to Learn?. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 39th Annual Meeting 1995. pp. 1284-1288.
Using a simulated geosynchronous satellite relocation task, three types of training schemes, namely, in-the-loop, out-of-the-loop, and a composite of these two methods were evaluated. Verbal protocols in addition to performance and strategy measures were used to understand learning in this complex task. The results point toward an amplitude hypothesis of learning where two distinct phases are evident. In the first, large amplitude fluctuations exist due to the lack of a good mental model of the system dynamics. In the second, the amplitude fluctuations are low, and the performance improvements are dramatic suggesting the end of the mental model development phase and a gradual improvement in the system optimization parameters leading to the traditional power law learning curve. Based on the results, it may be concluded that to learn a system or process well, the operator needs to: 1. Develop a good mental model of the system dynamics to minimize the large fluctuations in performance, and 2. Understand the optimization criteria to improve performance with low amplitude variations.
© All rights reserved Goonetilleke et al. and/or Human Factors Society
Goonetilleke, Ravindra S., Drury, Colin G. and Sharit, Joseph (1995): Evaluation of Control Strategies in a Complex Space-Vehicle Control Task: Effects of Training Type. In: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction July 9-14, 1995, Tokyo, Japan. pp. 311-316.
The fundamental differences in operator control strategies in a complex task were evaluated in two training scenarios: in-the-loop training and out-of-the-loop training. Verbal protocols and performance measures revealed four types of complex control mechanisms dependent upon these two training approaches. The four types were display based control, open loop input control, closed loop input control, and an input-display control mix. Performance differences favored in-the-loop training, and led to the development of an open loop input control strategy. The overall results indicate that performance improvements may be achieved with operator training on the system dynamics and optimization aspects rather than operator training directed only at the optimization aspects. A "sitting by Nellie" approach such as watching an expert or watching an algorithm perform a task may be disastrous if the system dynamics are poorly understood. This study also suggests how operator strategies can be effectively used to design user-friendly aids which improve operator performance in complex control tasks.
© All rights reserved Goonetilleke et al. and/or Elsevier Science
Reynolds, J. L., Drury, Colin G., Sharit, Joseph and Cerny, F. (1994): The Effects of Different Forms of Space Restriction on Inspection Performance. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 38th Annual Meeting 1994. pp. 631-635.
Work in restrictive spaces is characteristic of many tasks, particularly in maintenance and inspection operations. The nature of the spatial restriction as well as its magnitude is likely to affect the worker's response to the space. This research measured the effects of three different spatial restrictions (vertical (V), sagittal (S) and combined (VS)) on an inspection task. The effects of the three restrictions on postural adaptation, physiological response, psychophysical reports and task performance were qualitatively different. Generally, the VS and V restrictions caused increases in operator stress and workload, with these effects being most severe under the VS restriction. Conversely, the S restriction caused no increases in operator stress and tended to improve performance. Thus, while restrictions are generally detrimental, certain mild restrictions may actually facilitate jobs.
© All rights reserved Reynolds et al. and/or Human Factors Society
Bisantz, Ann M. and Sharit, Joseph (1993): The Effects of Feedback on Performance and Retention of Skill for a Natural Language Interface. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 12 (1) pp. 32-47.
This study investigated the effectiveness of different types of on-line feedback following user errors for informing users of the information and functions available in a system with a natural language interface. Twenty-four individuals performed a task based on an industry cost savings program, in which they were given general goals to pursue with regard to the task. Three feedback levels which differed according to the type and amount of feedback provided, along with two levels of system complexity, were examined. In addition, subjects performed the task again after one week to determine the effects of feedback on retention. Results indicated that the subjects in the second level of feedback generally performed better with respect to accessing system functions and information than those in the first level. Although there was some performance improvement from the second to third level, it was not significant. However, the third level of feedback did significantly improve the efficiency with which subjects used information to complete the task during the return condition. Overall, feedback did not affect the errors made, though at certain more limited stages of the tasks this effect was observed.
© All rights reserved Bisantz and Sharit and/or Taylor and Francis
Czaja, Sara J. and Sharit, Joseph (1993): Stress Reactions to Computer-Interactive Tasks as a Function of Task Structure and Individual Differences. In International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 5 (1) pp. 1-22.
The resurgence of interest in occupational stress has resulted in an emphasis on identifying work conditions that are potentially causal in generating stress reactions and psychological disorders among workers. Although a considerable knowledge base related to this topic has evolved, relatively little is known regarding the impact of computer technology on incidence of job stress. This issue is especially important for older workers, given the increased use of computers in most occupations, the aging of the workforce, and the changes in cognitive and physiological capacities that occur with increased age. The study reported in this article was concerned with developing a methodology to evaluate stress for computer-interactive tasks as a function of the mental workload of the task and the age of the individual. Sixty-five women ranging in age from 25 to 70 years performed three computer-interactive tasks that varied as a function of information processing complexity and pacing requirements. The methodology encompassed physiological, subjective, and performance measures. Results indicated differences in sensitivity among the measures as a function of task and age. The data also indicated age differences in stress reactions and performance. The findings are discussed in terms of the suitability of computer tasks for older people.
© All rights reserved Czaja and Sharit and/or Lawrence Erlbaum Associates
Gramopadhye, Anand K., Drury, Colin G. and Sharit, Joseph (1993): Training for Decision Making in Aircraft Inspection. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 37th Annual Meeting 1993. pp. 1267-1271.
Research on civil aircraft inspection and maintenance has shown the potential for employing human factor interventions in improving performance. A series of training experiments was developed to understand the effects of different training interventions in the visual inspection domain. This paper reports on preliminary results obtained in applying a combined active and progressive part training scheme in improving the decision making performance for a visual inspection task. The task was a computer simulated airframe visual inspection task.
© All rights reserved Gramopadhye et al. and/or Human Factors Society
Sharit, Joseph and Chen, S. (1993): The Use of Expert Systems for Training Humans in Rule-Based Reasoning. In: Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1993. pp. 819-824.
This paper summarizes a study concerning the prospect of employing expert systems (ESs) for training individuals in the emergency management of risk. This idea is based on the assumption that for many emergency situations it would be unrealistic for humans to access or otherwise engage in a dialogue with an ES. At the same time, in the process of reasoning with rules, ESs possess certain qualities that could prove worthwhile for humans to adopt. Accompanying this overview is a somewhat circuitous discussion of various perspectives to rule-based performance that are believed capable of benefiting from this paradigm as well as from each other's views.
© All rights reserved Sharit and Chen and/or Elsevier Science
Wang, Mao-Jiun J., Sharit, Joseph and Drury, Colin G. (1991): Fuzzy Set Evaluation of Inspection Performance. In International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 35 (4) pp. 587-596.
Large individual differences in inspection performance is one of the most consistent findings in inspection studies. This is a major factor that has contributed both to undermining the development of valid inspector selection tests and to complicating the training process for inspectors. This study evaluated cognitive factors that could account for a large part of these differences. A fuzzy set approach formulated as a multi-criteria decision making problem was used to determine whether they can correctly judge the importances as defined by objectively examining inspection activity. Results indicated a close correspondence between subjective and objective approaches, suggesting the possibility for integrating the individual's subjective appraisal of relative importance of cognitive factors into the design, selection and training process for inspection tasks.
© All rights reserved Wang et al. and/or Academic Press
Cuomo, Donna L. and Sharit, Joseph (1989): A Study of Human Performance in Computer-Aided Architectural Design. In International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 1 (1) pp. 69-107.
This paper describes the development and application of a cognitively-based performance methodology for assessing human performance on computer-aided architectural design (CAAD) tasks. Two CAAD tasks were employed that were hypothesized to be different in terms of the underlying cognitive processes required for these tasks to be performed. Methods of manipulating task complexity within each of these tasks were then developed. Six architectural graduate students were trained on a commercially available CAAD system. Each student performed the two experimental design tasks at one of three levels of complexity. The data collected included protocols, video recordings of the computer screen, and an interactive script (time-stamped record of every command input and the computers textual response). Performance measures and methods of analysis were developed which reflected the cognitive processes used by the human during design (including problem-solving techniques, planning times, heuristics employed, etc.) and the role of the computer as a design aid. The analysis techniques used included graphical techniques, Markov process analysis, protocol analysis, and error classification and analysis. The results of the study indicated that some measures more directly reflected human design activity while others more directly reflected the efficiency of interaction between the computer and the the human. The discussion of the results focuses primarily on the usefulness of the tasks employed including methods for manipulating task complexity, and the effectiveness of this system as well as CAAD systems in general for aiding human design processes.
© All rights reserved Cuomo and Sharit and/or Lawrence Erlbaum Associates
Kleiner, Brian M., Drury, Colin G., Sharit, Joseph and Czaja, Sara J. (1989): Evaluating the Effects of Automation on the Human Operator. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 33rd Annual Meeting 1989. pp. 733-736.
This study was designed to evaluate the symbiosis of human-machine systems with varying levels of automation. This paper focuses on the protocol methodology employed in the study. The approach required the use of both qualitative and quantitative techniques to derive a comprehensive evaluation of the human-machine system. Protocol Analysis supported by ethnographic software was used to evaluate the verbal transcripts. A qualitative process of code mapping and analysis was developed. The Modified Cooper-Harper scale was used to evaluate mental workload and objective measures of performance provided quantitative data of the system. The results confirmed the usefulness of a proposed classification scheme for human-machine systems. Using the methodology, human capabilities could be assessed against system demands for various configurations of a human-machine system. The importance of understanding the human's role in increasingly automated systems was again demonstrated.
© All rights reserved Kleiner et al. and/or Human Factors Society
Cuomo, Donna L. and Sharit, Joseph (1989): Human Performance in Computer-Aided Architectural Design. In: Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1989. pp. 241-249.
The tremendous growth in the area of human-computer interaction has, in some cases, resulted in the implementation of technologies at a pace well ahead of the development for assessing human performance on tasks employing these technologies. An example of such a technology is computer-aided design. The cognitive processes underlying human design behavior require that performance measures be developed that adequately reflect these processes. Ultimately, the development and implementation of such a performance methodology could help us establish the degree to which the computer technology supports or constrains human design activities. In this paper we discuss an approach that was taken toward meeting these objectives. In particular, the application area of architectural design will be examined.
© All rights reserved Cuomo and Sharit and/or Lawrence Erlbaum Associates
Sharit, Joseph and Cuomo, Donna L. (1988): A Cognitively Based Methodology for Evaluating Human Performance in the Computer-Aided Design Task Domain. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 7 (4) pp. 373-397.
This article describes a methodology for evaluating human performance in the computer aided design (CAD) task environment. The methodology is based primarily on cognitive theoretic frameworks that are consistent with processes presumed to underlie human design activities. The motivation for its development stems from rapid software and hardware advances in CAD systems and our relative lack of understanding of how these enhancements affect human design performance for (1) fundamentally different types of tasks and (2) different levels of complexity for a particular task. This methodology is currently being applied to computer aided architectural design, an area where artificial intelligence (AI), enhanced geometric modelling and other system features are being debated in terms of their usefulness in aiding the human's design activities.
© All rights reserved Sharit and Cuomo and/or Taylor and Francis
Show this list on your homepage
Join the technology elite and advance:
Changes to this page (author)10 Nov 2012: Added03 Nov 2010: Added
20 Feb 2010: Modified
08 Apr 2009: Added
29 Jun 2007: Added
29 Jun 2007: Added
28 Jun 2007: Added
27 Jun 2007: Added
26 Jun 2007: Added
26 Jun 2007: Added
26 Jun 2007: Added
26 Jun 2007: Added
22 Jun 2007: Added
28 Apr 2003: Added
Page maintainer: The Editorial Team