Publication statistics

Pub. period:-2012
Pub. count:40
Number of co-authors:50



Co-authors

Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Jinjuan Feng:8
Harry Hochheiser:8
Jinjuan Heidi Feng:4

 

 

Productive colleagues

Jonathan Lazar's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Ben Shneiderman:225
Andrew Sears:90
Catherine Plaisant:78
 
 
 

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Jonathan Lazar

Has also published under the name of:
"J. Lazar"

Personal Homepage:
triton.towson.edu/~jlazar/index.html


 

Publications by Jonathan Lazar (bibliography)

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2012
 
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Ma, Yao, Feng, Jinjuan Heidi, Kumin, Libby, Lazar, Jonathan and Sreeramareddy, Lakshmidevi (2012): Investigating authentication methods used by individuals with down syndrome. In: Fourteenth Annual ACM SIGACCESS Conference on Assistive Technologies 2012. pp. 241-242. Available online

Although there have been numerous studies investigating password usage by neurotypical users, a paucity of research has been conducted to examine the use of authentication methods used by individuals with cognitive impairment. In this paper, we report a longitudinal study that investigates how individuals with Down syndrome interact with three user authentication mechanisms. It confirms that many individuals with DS are capable of using traditional alphanumeric passwords as well as learning other authentication methods. Contrary to previous belief, the result suggests that mnemonic passwords may not be easier to remember for individuals with DS during initial usage.

© All rights reserved Ma et al. and/or ACM Press

2011
 
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Lund, Arnie, Lazar, Jonathan and Wulf, Volker (2011): Standards and policy SIG. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 215-218. Available online

The Standards and Policy SIG will provide an opportunity for SIGCHI communities and others to share activity in the standards and policies relevant to HCI in their respective areas. There are two goals for the SIG. One is to collect a list of resources that may be useful for SIGCHI researchers and practitioners. The other is to identify new opportunities for SIGCHI to provide leadership in the standards and policy area; and to uncover areas where SIGCHI should be coordinating with other societies in areas that impact HCI standards and policies.

© All rights reserved Lund et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Lazar, Jonathan (2011): Using community-based service projects to enhance undergraduate HCI education: 10 years of experience. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 581-588. Available online

While community-based service projects are utilized in many different fields of study at universities, there is little documentation on how to implement community-based projects in undergraduate Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) courses. This case study provides information on the benefits and drawbacks of community-based service projects, provides a few different examples of community-based learning in undergraduate HCI classes, discusses successes and failures, and provides a set of 7 success factors, all based on 10 years of experience at a single university.

© All rights reserved Lazar and/or his/her publisher

 
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Goldstein, Dan, Hill, Eve, Lazar, Jonathan, Siempelkamp, Alice, Taylor, Anne and Lepofsky, David (2011): Increasing legal requirements for interface accessibility. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 745-748. Available online

There is increasing legal activity, requiring accessibility for people with disabilities, across a number of categories of digital content -- government information, corporate web sites, electronic hiring processes, and e-book readers. The purpose of this panel at CHI 2011 is to inform the interaction design community about these legal changes, and discuss strategies for successful implementation of accessibility regulations in design.

© All rights reserved Goldstein et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Lazar, Jonathan, Kumin, Libby and Feng, Jinjuan Heidi (2011): Understanding the computer skills of adult expert users with down syndrome: an exploratory study. In: Thirteenth Annual ACM SIGACCESS Conference on Assistive Technologies 2011. pp. 51-58. Available online

Recent survey research suggests that individuals with Down syndrome use computers for a variety of educational, communication, and entertainment activities. However, there has been no analysis of the actual computer knowledge and skills of employment-aged computer users with Down syndrome. We conducted an ethnographic observation that aims at examining the workplace-related computer skills of expert users with Down syndrome. The results show that expert users with Down syndrome have the ability to use computers for basic workplace tasks such as word processing, data entry, and communication.

© All rights reserved Lazar et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Wentz, Brian and Lazar, Jonathan (2011): Are separate interfaces inherently unequal?: an evaluation with blind users of the usability of two interfaces for a social networking platform. In: Proceedings of the 2011 iConference 2011. pp. 91-97. Available online

With the increasing use of web-based applications in the workplace, it is imperative that all users can equally access those applications. It has been previously reported that blind users have problems accessing Facebook, but little empirical data on the topic exists. It has also been suggested by Facebook and anecdotal user comments that the mobile interface (hereafter referred to as "Facebook Mobile") for the application is more usable than the standard, desktop interface (hereafter referred to as "Facebook Desktop") for individuals who use screen readers to access the Facebook interface from their computers. This paper presents empirical data from 15 blind users, who took part in the usability evaluation of Facebook Desktop as well as a second phase of usability testing with 15 blind users to evaluate Facebook Mobile (when accessed from a computer and web browser). This research concludes that Facebook Mobile is more usable than the Facebook Desktop interface; however, the mobile interface is missing some features and is not consistently aligned with the Facebook Desktop interface. The implications of this study raise the question of whether there is often a usability and functionality difference between different interfaces for an application when one interface is suggested to be the "accessible" version.

© All rights reserved Wentz and Lazar and/or ACM Press

2010
 
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Johnson, Jeff and Lazar, Jonathan (2010): E-government: services for everyone, everywhere, eventually. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2010. pp. 3139-3142. Available online

Online provision of government services has great potential for reducing costs, improving service, and increasing citizen participation in government, but it has not yet achieved this potential. A panel of E-government experts from the U.S. and U.K. will assess the status of e-government, discuss obstacles that keep it from being ubiquitous and accessible, offer solutions, and answer audience questions. Some of the panelists work in government, some work in consultancies that assist government agencies, and some are ICT public policy experts.

© All rights reserved Johnson and Lazar and/or their publisher

 
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Feng, Jinjuan, Lazar, Jonathan, Kumin, Libby and Ozok, Ant (2010): Computer Usage by Children with Down Syndrome: Challenges and Future Research. In ACM Transactions on Accessible Computing, 2 (3) p. 13. Available online

Children with Down syndrome, like neurotypical children, are growing up with extensive exposure to computer technology. Computers and computer-related devices have the potential to help these children in education, career development, and independent living. Our understanding of computer usage by this population is quite limited. Most of the software, games, and Web sites that children with Down syndrome interact with are designed without consideration of their special needs, making the applications less effective or completely inaccessible. We conducted a large-scale survey that collected computer usage information from the parents of approximately six hundred children with Down syndrome. This article reports the text responses collected in the survey and is intended as a step towards understanding the difficulties children with Down syndrome experience while using computers. The relationship between the age and the specific type of difficulties, as well as related design challenges are also reported. A number of potential research directions and hypotheses are identified for future studies. Due to limitations in survey methodology, the findings need to be further validated through hypothesis-driven, empirical studies.

© All rights reserved Feng et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Sauer, Graig, Lazar, Jonathan, Hochheiser, Harry and Feng, Jinjuan (2010): Towards A Universally Usable Human Interaction Proof: Evaluation of Task Completion Strategies. In ACM Transactions on Accessible Computing, 2 (4) p. 15. Available online

The need for security features to stop spam and bots has prompted research aimed at developing human interaction proofs (HIPs) that are both secure and easy to use. The primarily visual techniques used in these HIP tools present difficulties for users with visual impairments. This article reports on the development of Human-Interaction Proof, Universally Usable (HIPUU), a new approach to human-interaction proofs based on identification of a series of sound/image pairs. Simultaneous presentation of a single, unified task in two alternative modalities provides multiple paths to successful task completion. We present two alternative task completion strategies, based on differing input strategies (menu-based vs. free text entry). Empirical results from studies involving both blind and sighted users validate both the usability and accessibility of these differing strategies, with blind users achieving

© All rights reserved Sauer et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Lazar, Jonathan (2010): Interacting with public policy. In Interactions, 17 (1) pp. 40-43. Available online

 
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Hochheiser, Harry and Lazar, Jonathan (2010): Revisiting breadth vs. depth in menu structures for blind users of screen readers. In Interacting with Computers, 22 (5) pp. 389-398. Available online

Numerous studies have investigated task performance times for selection from hierarchical menus, with structures containing many choices at each of a few levels (broad, shallow structures) generally outperforming structures containing fewer choices at each of many levels (narrow, deep structures). To see if these results applied to blind users who rely on screen reader software for computer access, we replicated an earlier published study, using 19 blind screen-reader users. Consistent with earlier studies, broader, shallow hierarchies outperformed narrow, deep hierarchies. Task performance times and hypertext lostness measures were correlated. Although further work will be needed to understand specific determinants of task performance rates, these results support the use of broad, shallow menus for blind as well as sighted users.

© All rights reserved Hochheiser and Lazar and/or Elsevier Science

 
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Sauer, Graig, Holman, Jonathan, Lazar, Jonathan, Hochheiser, Harry and Feng, Jinjuan (2010): Accessible privacy and security: a universally usable human-interaction proof tool. In Universal Access in the Information Society, 9 (3) pp. 239-248. Available online

Despite growing interest in designing usable systems for managing privacy and security, recent efforts have generally failed to address the needs of users with disabilities. As security and privacy tools often rely upon subtle visual cues or other potentially inaccessible indicators, users with perceptual limitations might find such tools particularly challenging. To understand the needs of an important group of users with disabilities, a focus group was conducted with blind users to determine their perceptions of security-related challenges. Human-interaction proof (HIP) tools, commonly known as CAPTCHAs, are used by web pages to defeat robots and were identified in the focus group as a major concern. Therefore, a usability test was conducted to see how well blind users were able to use audio equivalents of these graphical tools. Finally, an accessible HIP tool was developed which combines audio and matching images, supporting both visual and audio output. Encouraging results from a small usability evaluation of the prototype with five sighted users and five blind users show that this new form of HIP is preferred by both blind and visual users to previous forms of text-based HIPs. Future directions for research are also discussed.

© All rights reserved Sauer et al. and/or Springer Verlag

 
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Lazar, Jonathan, Feng, Jinjuan Heidi and Hochheiser, Harry (2010): Research Methods in Human-Computer Interaction. Wiley

A comprehensive research guide for both quantitative and qualitative research methodsWritten by a team of authorities in human-computer interaction (HCI) and usability, this pedagogical guide walks you through the methods used in HCI and examines what are considered to be appropriate research practices in the field. Featuring a plethora of real-world examples throughout, you’ll discover how these methods have been used in HCI research so that you can gain a stronger understanding of the subject matter.Serves as an authoritative, comprehensive resource on all things related to research methods in human-computer interactionAddresses experimental research and design methods, statistical analysis, and time diariesShares authentic case studies, interviews, and focus group experiencesReviews analyzing qualitative data, working with human subjects, handling automated computer data collection methods, and moreIf you are looking for a detailed, no-nonsense resource that offers in-depth coverage of HCI methods, then this is the book for you.

© All rights reserved Lazar et al. and/or Wiley

 Cited in the following chapter:

Semi-structured qualitative studies: [/encyclopedia/semi-structured_qualitative_studies.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

Semi-structured qualitative studies: [/encyclopedia/semi-structured_qualitative_studies.html]


 
2009
 
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Zenebe, Azene, Tuner, Claude, Feng, Jinjuan, Lazar, Jonathan and O'Leary, Mike (2009): Integrating usability and accessibility in information assurance education. In: Proceedings of the 2009 Symposium on Usable Privacy and Security 2009. p. 24. Available online

 
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Lazar, Jonathan (2009): Designing senior-friendly living, or why doesn't my cable work?. In Interactions, 16 (1) pp. 32-34. Available online

2008
 
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Lazar, Jonathan, Hochheiser, Harry, Johnson, Jeff, Karat, Clare-Marie and Bederson, Benjamin B. (2008): CHI policy issues around the world. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2008 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 5-10, 2008. pp. 2277-2280. Available online

While public policy is a recognized important topic within human-computer interaction, not enough attention has been paid to public policy efforts outside of the USA. We propose a panel at CHI 2008 to focus on CHI policy issues around the world. Specifically, we plan to address at least three major topics: accessibility, privacy, and voting.

© All rights reserved Lazar et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Zhao, Haixia, Plaisant, Catherine, Shneiderman, Ben and Lazar, Jonathan (2008): Data Sonification for Users with Visual Impairment: A Case Study with Georeferenced Data. In ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 15 (1) p. 4. Available online

We describe the development and evaluation of a tool, iSonic, to assist users with visual impairment in exploring georeferenced data using coordinated maps and tables, augmented with nontextual sounds and speech output. Our in-depth case studies with 7 blind users during 42 hours of data collection, showed that iSonic enabled them to find facts and discover trends in georeferenced data, even in unfamiliar geographical contexts, without special devices. Our design was guided by an Action-by-Design-Component (ADC) framework, which was also applied to scatterplots to demonstrate its generalizability. Video and download is available at www.cs.umd.edu/hcil/iSonic/.

© All rights reserved Zhao et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Sears, Andrew, Lazar, Jonathan, Ozok, Ant and Meiselwitz, Gabriele (2008): Human-Centered Computing: Defining a Research Agenda. In International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 24 (1) pp. 2-16. Available online

Three National Science Foundation (NSF) programs -- Human-Computer Interaction, Universal Access, and Digital Society and Technologies -- were recently combined into one new cluster called "Human-Centered Computing" (HCC). Two workshops were held to share information about this new cluster with researchers, provide guidance to researchers who are early in their research careers and have yet to receive NSF funding, and provide feedback to NSF from the affected research communities regarding topics that are considered particularly important by this community. Continuing and emerging research opportunities identified included privacy and security issues in HCC context, intelligent user interfaces, universal access including research for different populations such as children and older adults, mobile and ubiquitous computing, and social computing, among others. Various issues concerning interdisciplinary research opportunities were also raised, including understanding the disciplines, promotion and tenure concerns, administrative overhead, and where to publish. Education discussions produced a list of curricular recommendations and a number of opportunities to enhance the education of future HCC practitioners and researchers.

© All rights reserved Sears et al. and/or Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

2007
 
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Lazar, Jonathan (ed.) (2007): Universal Usability: Designing Computer Interfaces for Diverse User Populations. John Wiley and Sons

 
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Holman, Jonathan, Lazar, Jonathan, Feng, Jinjuan Heidi and D'Arcy, John (2007): Developing usable CAPTCHAs for blind users. In: Ninth Annual ACM Conference on Assistive Technologies 2007. pp. 245-246. Available online

CAPTCHAs are widely used by websites for security and privacy purposes. However, traditional text-based CAPTCHAs are not suitable for individuals with visual impairments. We proposed and developed a new form of CAPTCHA that combines both visual and audio information to allow easy access by users with visual impairments. A preliminary evaluation suggests strong potential for the new form of CAPTCHA for both blind and visual users.

© All rights reserved Holman et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Lazar, Jonathan, Allen, Aaron, Kleinman, Jason and Malarkey, Chris (2007): What Frustrates Screen Reader Users on the Web: A Study of 100 Blind Users. In International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 22 (3) pp. 247-269. Available online

In previous research, the computer frustrations of student and workplace users have been documented. However, the challenges faced by blind users on the Web have not been previously examined. In this study, 100 blind users, using time diaries, recorded their frustrations using the Web. The top causes of frustration reported were (a) page layout causing confusing screen reader feedback; (b) conflict between screen reader and application; (c) poorly designed/unlabeled forms; (d) no alt text for pictures; and (e) 3-way tie between misleading links, inaccessible PDF, and a screen reader crash. Most of the causes of frustration, such as inappropriate form and graphic labels and confusing page layout, are relatively simple to solve if Webmasters and Web designers focus on this effort. In addition, the more technically challenging frustrations, such as screen reader crashes and conflicts, need to be addressed by the screen reader developers. Blind users in this study were likely to repeatedly attempt to solve a frustration, not give up, and not reboot the computer. In this study, the blind users reported losing, on average, 30.4% of time due to these frustrating situations. Implications for Web developers, screen reader developers, and screen reader users are discussed in this article.

© All rights reserved Lazar et al. and/or Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

 
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Hochheiser, Harry and Lazar, Jonathan (2007): HCI and Societal Issues: A Framework for Engagement. In International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 23 (3) pp. 339-374. Available online

Human-computer interaction (HCI) is much broader than the study of interface design and input devices. It includes considerations of the social, political, ethical, and societal implications of computer systems. Concerns such as privacy, accessibility, universal design, and voting usability have led to active HCI research. Our examination of HCI responses to these and other issues informs a model of social engagement based on societal influences that motivate various responses from the HCI community. This model provides suggestions for engagement with issues that are likely to grow in importance over the next several years. By focusing on these issues, HCI researchers may make still greater contributions toward addressing societal concerns.

© All rights reserved Hochheiser and Lazar and/or Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

 
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Lazar, Jonathan, Meiselwitz, Gabriele and Feng, Jinjuan (2007): Understanding Web Credibility: A Synthesis of the Research Literature. In Foundations and Trends in Human-Computer Interaction, 1 (2) pp. 139-202. Available online

As more of our communication, commerce, and personal data goes online, credibility becomes an increasingly important issue. How do we determine if our e-commerce sites, our healthcare sites, or our online communication partners are credible? This paper examines the research literature in the area of web credibility. This review starts by examining the cognitive foundations of credibility. Other sections of the paper examine not only the general credibility of web sites, but also online communication, such as e-mail, instant messaging, and online communities. Training and education, as well as future issues (such as CAPTCHAs and phishing), will be addressed. The implications for multiple populations (users, web developers, browser designers, and librarians) will be discussed.

© All rights reserved Lazar et al. and/or Now Publishers

2006
 
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Lazar, Jonathan, Feng, Jinjuan and Allen, Aaron (2006): Determining the impact of computer frustration on the mood of blind users browsing the web. In: Eighth Annual ACM Conference on Assistive Technologies 2006. pp. 149-156. Available online

While previous studies have investigated the impact of frustration on computer users' mood as well as the causes of frustration, no research has ever been conducted to examine the relationship between computer frustrations and mood change for users with visual impairment. In this paper, we report on a study that examined the frustrating experiences and mood change of 100 participants, all with visual impairments, when they were browsing the web. The result shows that frustration does cause the participants' mood to deteriorate. However, the amount of time lost due to frustrating situations does not have a significant impact on users' mood, which is very different from the previous research on users without visual impairment. The impact on work seems to have the greatest impact on user mood.

© All rights reserved Lazar et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Lazar, Jonathan, Jones, Adam and Shneiderman, Ben (2006): Workplace user frustration with computers: an exploratory investigation of the causes and severity. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 25 (3) pp. 239-251. Available online

When hard-to-use computers cause users to become frustrated, it can affect workplace productivity, user mood and interactions with other co-workers. Previous research has examined the frustration that students and their families face in using computers. To learn more about the causes and measure the severity of user frustration with computers in the workplace, we collected modified time diaries from 50 workplace users, who spent an average of 5.1 hours on the computer. In this exploratory research, users reported wasting on average, 42 -- 43% of their time on the computer due to frustrating experiences. The largest number of frustrating experiences occurred while using word processors, email and web browsers. The causes of the frustrating experiences, the time lost due to the frustrating experiences, and the effects of the frustrating experiences on the mood of the users are discussed in this paper. Implications for designers, managers, users, information technology staff and policymakers are discussed.

© All rights reserved Lazar et al. and/or Taylor and Francis

 
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Lazar, Jonathan, Jones, Adam, Hackley, Mary and Shneiderman, Ben (2006): Severity and impact of computer user frustration: A comparison of student and workplace users. In Interacting with Computers, 18 (2) pp. 187-207. Available online

User frustration with information and computing technology is a pervasive and persistent problem. When computers crash, network congestion causes delays, and poor user interfaces trigger confusion there are dramatic consequences for individuals, organizations, and society. These frustrations, not only cause personal dissatisfaction and loss of self-efficacy, but may disrupt workplaces, slow learning, and reduce participation in local and national communities. Our exploratory study of 107 student computer users and 50 workplace computer users shows high levels of frustration and loss of 1/3-1/2 of time spent. This paper reports on the incident and individual factors that cause of frustration, and how they raise frustration severity. It examines the frustration impacts on the daily interactions of the users. The time lost and time to fix problem, and importance of task, strongly correlate with frustration levels for both student and workplace users. Differences between students and workplace users are discussed in the paper, as are implications for researchers.

© All rights reserved Lazar et al. and/or Elsevier Science

 
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Lazar, Jonathan (2006): Web Usability: A User-Centered Design Approach. Pearson Addison Wesley

2005
 
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Lazar, Jonathan, Johnson, Jeff and Hochheiser, Harry (2005): Policy at the interface: HCI and public policy. In Interactions, 12 (6) pp. 13-14.

 
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Lazar, Jonathan, Bederson, Benjamin B., Hochheiser, Harry, Johnson, Jeff and Karat, Clare-Marie (2005): Making an impact in your community: HCI and US public policy. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 2041-2042. Available online

2004
 
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Feng, Jinjuan, Lazar, Jonathan and Preece, Jennifer J. (2004): Empathy and online interpersonal trust: A fragile relationship. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 23 (2) pp. 97-106. Available online

The rapid growth of personal email communication, instant messaging and online communities has brought attention to the important role of interpersonal trust in online communication. An empirical study was conducted focusing on the effect of empathy on online interpersonal trust in textual IM. To be more specific, the relationship between empathic accuracy, response type and online interpersonal trust was investigated. The result suggests both empathic accuracy and response type have significant influence on online interpersonal trust. The interaction between empathic accuracy and response type also significantly influences online trust. Interestingly, the results imply a relationship between daily trust attitude and online interpersonal trust. People who are more trusting in their daily life may experience more difficulty in developing trust online. There is also some evidence to suggest that different communication scenarios may have an influence on online trust.

© All rights reserved Feng et al. and/or Taylor and Francis

 
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Ceaparu, Irina, Lazar, Jonathan, Bessiere, Katie, Robinson, John and Shneiderman, Ben (2004): Determining Causes and Severity of End-User Frustration. In International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 17 (3) pp. 333-356. Available online

Although computers are beneficial to individuals and society, frequently users encounter frustrating experiences when using computers. This study represents an attempt to measure, in 111 participants, the frequency, the cause, and the level of severity of frustrating experiences. The data show that frustrating experiences happen on a frequent basis. The applications in which the frustrating experiences happened most frequently were Web browsing, e-mail, and word processing. The most-cited causes of frustrating experiences were error messages, dropped network connections, long download times, and hard-to-find features. The time lost due to frustrating experiences ranged from 47% to 53% of time spent on a computer, depending on the location and study method. After extreme cases were discarded, the time lost was still above 38%. These disturbing results should be a basis for future study.

© All rights reserved Ceaparu et al. and/or Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

 
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Lazar, Jonathan, Meiselwitz, Gabriele and Norcio, Anthony (2004): A taxonomy of novice user perception of error on the Web. In Universal Access in the Information Society, 3 (3) pp. 202-208. Available online

Novice users face many challenges when browsing the Web. The goal of this experiment was to learn about how users perceive error situations when using the World Wide Web. Specifically, the goal was to learn which circumstances cause users to believe that an error has occurred. An exploratory experiment took place with 78 subjects who were novice users. In the experiment the subjects were asked to identify when they perceived that an error had occurred. The subjects reported a total of 219 error situations. These error situations were then classified by the researchers into the following four categories: user error, system error, situational error, and poor Web design. Based on the collected data, suggestions are presented for improving the usability of Web browsers and Web sites.

© All rights reserved Lazar et al. and/or Springer Verlag

2003
 
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Lazar, Jonathan and Norcio, A. F. (2003): Training Novice Users in Developing Strategies for Responding to Errors When Browsing the Web. In International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 15 (3) pp. 361-377.

Novice users frequently make errors when learning a new computer task and spend a large portion of their time trying to recover from errors. Three methods for helping novice users respond to errors have been presented in the literature: error management training, exploratory training, and conceptual models. In error management training, errors are presented as opportunities for learning, and users are instructed in strategies for coping with errors. In exploration, users are given an overview of their environment and are taught how to navigate through their task environment. Conceptual models are graphical or mathematical representations of a system that correspond closely to the real-world system. This experiment tested the effectiveness of these different approaches on training novice users to use the Internet. In this experiment, users received 3 hr of training on the World Wide Web and then were asked to perform a set of information retrieval tasks. Performance was measured in two ways: task performance and performance time. Participants who received exploratory training had significantly higher task performance. Participants who received exploration and conceptual models, both individually and together, were able to complete the tasks in less time. Error management had no significant effect on the performance of participants. In the task application of Web browsing, exploration seems to be the most appropriate training method for novice users.

© All rights reserved Lazar and Norcio and/or Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

 
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Lazar, Jonathan, Schroeder-Thomas, C., Jones, A., Greenidge, K., Beere, P. and Clements, J. (2003): Detour Ahead: Current Roadblocks to Web Accessibility. In: Stephanidis, Constantine (ed.) Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction June 22-27, 2003, Crete, Greece. pp. 990-994.

 
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Meiselwitz, G., Lazar, Jonathan and Clements, J. (2003): Evaluating the Accessibility of Course Design Software and Online Learning Portals. In: Stephanidis, Constantine (ed.) Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction June 22-27, 2003, Crete, Greece. pp. 1000-1004.

 
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Lazar, Jonathan, Beere, Patricia, Greenidge, Kisha-Dawn and Nagappa, Yogesh (2003): Web accessibility in the Mid-Atlantic United States: a study of 50 homepages. In Universal Access in the Information Society, 2 (4) pp. 331-341. Available online

This paper reports on a study of 50 homepages in the Mid-Atlantic United States to determine what accessibility problems exist. The 50 homepages were evaluated using both the U.S. governments Section 508 guidelines as well as the Web Accessibility Initiatives (WAI) Priority Level 1 of the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG). According to both sets of guidelines, 49 out of 50 sites were found to have accessibility problems, although some of the accessibility problems were minor and easy to fix. There are two troubling findings from this study. The Web sites that had the most accessibility problems were organizations in the Web development and information technology field, which ideally should be the leaders in making the Web more accessible. The Web accessibility software testing tools, which are available to assist people in making their Web sites more accessible, are flawed and inconsistent and require large numbers of manual checks, which many developers may not be able to do. More people need to become aware of the topic of Web accessibility, and the testing tools need to be improved so that once people are aware, it is easier for them to move their sites toward full accessibility.

© All rights reserved Lazar et al. and/or Springer Verlag

2001
 
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Lazar, Jonathan (2001): User-Centered Web Development. Jones and Bartelett Publishers

Frequently, web sites are designed without considering the needs of the users. As a result, the web site often fails to fulfill its intended purpose. User-Centered Web Development guides readers through the process of designing web-based resources based on the needs of the user. This text will take the reader from the initial idea of developing a web site, through determining the mission of the web site, collecting the requirements, designing the pages, performing usability testing, and implementing and managing a web site. Further, large case studies will assist readers in comprehending how these user-centered design concepts can be applied to real-world settings.

© All rights reserved Lazar and/or Jones and Bartelett Publishers

 
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Lazar, Jonathan and Norcio, A. F. (2001): An Exploratory Study of Situational Error on the Web. In: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2001. pp. 111-114.

 
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Lazar, Jonathan, Kumin, Libby and Wolsey, Shawn (2001): Universal usability for web sites: current trends in the U.S. law. In: Stephanidis, Constantine (ed.) HCI International 2001 - Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction August 5-10, 2001, New Orleans, USA. pp. 1083-1087.

 
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Lazar, Jonathan, Meiselwitz, Gabriele and Feng, Jinjuan (): Understanding Web Credibility: A Synthesis of the Research Literature. In Foundations and Trends in Human-Computer Interaction, 1 (2) pp. 139-202. Available online

As more of our communication, commerce, and personal data goes online, credibility becomes an increasingly important issue. How do we determine if our e-commerce sites, our healthcare sites, or our online communication partners are credible? This paper examines the research literature in the area of web credibility. This review starts by examining the cognitive foundations of credibility. Other sections of the paper examine not only the general credibility of web sites, but also online communication, such as e-mail, instant messaging, and online communities. Training and education, as well as future issues (such as CAPTCHAs and phishing), will be addressed. The implications for multiple populations (users, web developers, browser designers, and librarians) will be discussed.

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